War Of 1812


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Causes and results of War of 1812

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War Of 1812

  1. 1. The War of 1812 A Forgotten Yet Important War
  2. 4. Why the War of 1812 <ul><li>My questions about the War </li></ul><ul><li>Schools of thought on the War of 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Pratt Expansionists of 1813 (1925) refuted most other reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Historians still debate his analysis </li></ul><ul><li>History texts </li></ul>
  3. 5. http://www.history.army.mil/BOOKS/amh/AMH-06.htm
  4. 6. http://www.history.army.mil/BOOKS/amh/AMH-06.htm
  5. 7. Forgotten War or Second Independence <ul><li>Warren H. Goodman argued Southern expansionism was cause of War. 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Donald R. Hickey War of 1812 A Forgotten Conflict (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>David Curtis Skaggs review (William and Mary Quarterly) 1989 race for military history </li></ul><ul><li>Hickey updates in 2001 Journal of Military History with historiography </li></ul>
  6. 8. More Sources <ul><li>War of 1812 by Carl Benn 2002 argues political crisis, annexation of Canada and served to deny help to Indians and open land </li></ul>
  7. 9. South Carolina <ul><li>Margaret Kinard Latimer South Carolina. A Protaganist in the War of 1812 American Historical Review ( 1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Argued political shift in congress led by Southern politicians, John C. Calhoun, William Lowndes, Langdon Cheves </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to overturning Republican Foreign and Economic policies </li></ul>
  8. 10. Causes <ul><li>Britain impeding trade </li></ul><ul><li>Impressments </li></ul><ul><li>British military support for Indians in area </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue National Honor </li></ul><ul><li>expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Regional contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Land </li></ul>
  9. 11. Taking of the Chesapeake
  10. 13. Election of 1812
  11. 14. Accepted Reasons <ul><li>Napoleonic Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Orders in Council </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of American ships, insults and injury to American Seaman by British </li></ul><ul><li>Outrages at Sea took two forms </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure and forced sale of ships entering blockades areas </li></ul><ul><li>France declared counter blockade and seized American ships </li></ul><ul><li>Second impressments of American soldiers-pretext-looking for deserters who worked on American ships </li></ul>
  12. 16. Atlantic Napoleonic Wars <ul><li>To Britain the war was a burdensome adjunct to war with France </li></ul><ul><li>To Canada it was a naked American attempt at aggression and expansion </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. entered war with confused objective and without settling any issues </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Madison's use of economic pressure to force England to repeal its blockade almost worked </li></ul><ul><li>Poor grain harvest in England </li></ul><ul><li>need of American provisions to supply the British troops fighting the French in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>June 16, 1812, the British Foreign Minister announced that the blockade would be relaxed on American shipping </li></ul>
  14. 19. Political Shifts <ul><li>Power had shifted to west and south </li></ul><ul><li>Grievances about European interventions had gained momentum </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffersonian responses-conciliation, restrictive measures, minimum armaments and “peace at all price.” </li></ul>
  15. 20. 12th Congress <ul><li>Prior to this legislation was merely jockeying of party strength </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders voted for Navy and arming but to antagonize the administration </li></ul><ul><li>Hartford Convention </li></ul>
  16. 21. War fever <ul><li>More in Ohio Valley and Northwest </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced moving British out of Canada solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Western War hawks and southern war hawks </li></ul>
  17. 22. Not everyone for the war <ul><li>Quakers protest treatment on moral reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned due to protests </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Rotch abolitionist and helped with underground railway </li></ul><ul><li>Served on committee of Indian Concerns </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Before Election 1/3 in Congress pro </li></ul><ul><li>June 4 79-49 in house </li></ul>
  19. 26. President Jefferson <ul><li>Embargo on American trade with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime interests ruined </li></ul><ul><li>Seaports enter depression some never recover </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern interests hate Jefferson rest of country hate Britain </li></ul>
  20. 27. Country at Large <ul><li>Outraged over impressments and lack of concern by larger interests </li></ul><ul><li>British vessel 1807 attacks the Chesapeake and impresses seaman </li></ul><ul><li>General public wave of indignation and maritime interests join this time </li></ul><ul><li>Insult to American flag and Jefferson chooses not to go to war with Britain </li></ul>
  21. 28. Reactions <ul><li>Impressments and seizure of cargo net different results </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime interests on Eastern seaboard protest but not want to risk trade with England-so loose occasional ship </li></ul><ul><li>Impressments no financial hardship-so treatment of sailors not important </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime interests minimized it </li></ul>
  22. 32. Tecumseh <ul><li>Village at Tippecanoe (Ind) </li></ul><ul><li>700 people and threat </li></ul><ul><li>William Henry Harrison </li></ul><ul><li>British Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 </li></ul><ul><li>Successful until Battle of Thames 1813. </li></ul><ul><li>Western Theatre Secured </li></ul>
  23. 33. September 1814 minor battle but F. Scott Key wrote Star Spangled Banner Battle of Ft. McHenry in Baltimore
  24. 35. 1814 Taking of Washington
  25. 36. .
  26. 37. Cartoon depicts President James Madison and King George III boxing. The artist gloats over naval loss suffered by the British and the defeat of the warship Boxer to the Enterprise during the War of 1812.
  27. 38. King George III makes a batch of ships and puts them into a bread oven: This cartoon is a satire on British efforts to recover after major naval losses on the Great Lakes in 1813 and 1814.
  28. 40. Battle of New Orleans January 18 1815
  29. 41. Treaty of Ghent <ul><li>Dec 24, 1814-marks end of War </li></ul>
  30. 42. “ all the rights and privileges they enjoyed before the war.” <ul><li>Madison had looked for diplomatic resolution </li></ul><ul><li>August 20 Dearborn Prevost Armistice lacked Impressments Issue </li></ul><ul><li>Russian mediation failed </li></ul><ul><li>England not need Sailors </li></ul><ul><li>Only thing settled was boundaries U.S. Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Return to pre war conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Real losers First Nations - </li></ul>
  31. 43. Results <ul><li>Historians mixed. General view was that nothing was settled </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Canadian Wesley Turner argued both sides won. U.S. won by eliminating Indians and British, Canada won because fended off invasion and vindicated existence of nation </li></ul>
  32. 44. However <ul><li>Southern Campaign successful regarding expansionfor Western War hawks and southern war hawks </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia Tennessee and Mississippi Valley Territory had designs on Florida-Spanish possession </li></ul><ul><li>1812 election year </li></ul>
  33. 45. Early attempts on Spanish Florida <ul><li>1740 Gov. Oglethorpe GA </li></ul><ul><li>1763 - Britain gained control of Florida in 1763 in exchange for Havana, Cuba, which the British had captured from Spain during the Seven Years' War (1756-63). Spain evacuated Florida after the exchange, leaving the province virtually empty. At that time, St. Augustine was still a garrison community with fewer than five hundred houses, and Pensacola also was a small military town. </li></ul><ul><li>1783 - During the Revolutionary War, Spanish troops entered Florida and repossessed the land. Settlers attempted revolution several times against Spain.   </li></ul>
  34. 47. <ul><li>During War of 1812 Spain allowed Britain to use Pensacola as a garrison </li></ul><ul><li>1814 - American troops captured the base in Pensacola. </li></ul><ul><li>1818 - On one of those military operations, in 1818, General Andrew Jackson made a foray into Florida. Jackson's battles with Florida's Indian people later would be called the First Seminole War </li></ul>
  35. 49. Creek Indians <ul><li>Alliance First Nations Mississippi Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Creeks in east (Georgia) </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Creek West </li></ul><ul><li>White Encroachment leads to division </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Creeks take on more white characteristics, farming, land </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Creeks and Choctaws neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 1812 Lowers attack whites </li></ul><ul><li>Group of 4000 or so Red Sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul>
  36. 50. Creek National Council <ul><li>Stop the Red Sticks- </li></ul><ul><li>Red Stick Chief Little Warrior </li></ul><ul><li>American War heightens the division </li></ul><ul><li>British and Spanish try to ally </li></ul><ul><li>Red Sticks try to stay neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1813-Tuckabatche </li></ul><ul><li>leads to 9 month war. </li></ul>
  37. 51. Horseshoe Bend <ul><li>1811 Tecumseh </li></ul><ul><li>Red Eagle Attacks garrison kills 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson recovering from wound in Nashville </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Tennessee Militia and 1000 Creek </li></ul><ul><li>Looses many and executes some </li></ul><ul><li>March 27, 1814 </li></ul><ul><li>550-49 </li></ul><ul><li>Women and children allowed to escape </li></ul>
  38. 52. Results <ul><li>Power of Upper Creek Broken </li></ul><ul><li>Moved west eventually to Oklahoma </li></ul><ul><li>Land immediately opened to settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton helps flagging slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson-Major General </li></ul><ul><li>Without authorization goes over International Boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of New Orleans </li></ul>
  39. 53. Conditions in South Ripe <ul><li>Escaped Slaves, Defiant Red Sticks, </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Outposts in Florida and the West </li></ul><ul><li>British in the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>French Speaking Louisiana Territory and the Pirates </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable situation </li></ul><ul><li>New Orleans the only strong American Outpost in the South-cut off geographically </li></ul><ul><li>British not strong enough until 1814. </li></ul>
  40. 54. My Findings <ul><li>Clearly there is a controversy over the causes and possibly the results of the War. </li></ul><ul><li>Territory and slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Maps and Timelines </li></ul><ul><li>International Context must include Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Ghent Marks end however, the Southern Spanish held area was not. </li></ul><ul><li>23 million acres </li></ul>
  41. 55. Conclusions <ul><li>End of Federalist control </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Ghent is the one thing that differentiates the causes and results </li></ul><ul><li>War to Secure the West </li></ul>
  42. 57. Questions <ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><li>How to analyze? </li></ul><ul><li>Where would you start? </li></ul><ul><li>visuals </li></ul>
  43. 58. <ul><li>Quiz One due in class Tuesday </li></ul><ul><li>Read “Rise of Northern Capitalism” </li></ul>