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BORN ERIC BLAIR IN INDIA IN 1903, George Orwell was educated as a scholarship student at prestigious boarding schools in England. Because of his background—he famously described his family as “lower-upper-middle class”—he never quite fit in, and felt oppressed and outraged by the dictatorial control that the schools he attended exercised over their students’ lives. After graduating from Eton, Orwell decided to forego college in order to work as a British Imperial Policeman in Burma. He hated his duties in Burma, where he was required to enforce the strict laws of a political regime he despised. His failing health, which troubled him throughout his life, caused him to return to England on convalescent leave. Once back in England, he quit the Imperial Police and dedicated himself to becoming a writer.
Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing Read the plot summary handout and , in pairs, answer the following:1. List the 3 main characters.2. Describe Big Brother.3. Identify the language that the Party is trying to enforce.4. Identify the 3 continents.5. Where does Winston work and what does he do there?6. Who is Emmanuel Goldstein?7. Describe Winston and Julia’s relationship. How did they meet? How do they conduct their relationship?8. What happens when Winston meets O’Brien?9. Describe what happens in Room 101.10. What did O’Brien want from Winston all along? Gathering11. Read the Context on page 3 in your booklet. information
Gathering information1984 is a challenging and stimulating novel that was written by Orwell as a warning against totalitarianism, however, since 1984 has passed, the warnings have become even more relevant than in Orwell’s time. Part one of the novel outlines the dismal life of Winston Smith and the depressing tone of the novel. There is perpetual war and surveillance is a “perfected art”. The protagonist starts to keep a diary and so sets himself on the path to being an “enemy of the party” that he serves.
Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and symbolsIn groups, consider the following: Managing self Participating and contributing1. What does the opening sentence of the novel suggest? (Consider the language used)2. Why do you think Orwell named the protagonist Winston Smith?(What is interesting about the name Smith? Which famous person was named Winston?)3. What is unusual about the party mottos? (pg.13) Processing4. What is the purpose of newspeak? (pg.2)5. Who is Big Brother and what is the significance of his name?(pg.16)6. How does the party control history? Do you think this is possible?(pg.14)
Create a storyboard for the film played during the 2 minutes Hate.Include: At least 8 squares Thinking The party slogan Using language, text and Pictures symbols Managing self Camera shots and angles Applying
1984 is one of Orwell’s best-crafted novels, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever issued against the dangers of a totalitarian society. In Spain, Germany, and the Soviet Union, Orwell had witnessed the danger of absolute political authority in an age of advanced technology. He illustrated that peril harshly in 1984. Like Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), 1984 is one of the most famous novels of the negative utopian, or dystopian, genre. Unlike a utopian novel, in which the writer aims to portray the perfect human society, a novel of negative utopia does the exact opposite: it shows the worst human society imaginable, in an effort to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead toward such societal degradation. In 1949, at the dawn of the nuclear age and before the television had become a fixture in the family home, Orwell’s vision of a post-atomic dictatorship in which every individual would be monitored ceaselessly by means of the telescreen seemed terrifyingly possible. That Orwell postulated such a society a mere thirty-five years into the future compounded this fear. Of course, the world that Orwell envisioned in 1984 did not materialize. Rather than being overwhelmed by totalitarianism, democracy ultimately won out in the Cold War, as seen in the fall of the Berlin Wall and the disintegration of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Yet 1984 remains an important novel, in part for the alarm it sounds against the abusive nature of authoritarian governments, but even more so for its penetrating analysis of the psychology of power and the ways that manipulations of language and history can be used as mechanisms of control. Gathering
Setting questions1. List the 3 main settings.2. Choose 1 and create a brainstorm of adjectives to describe it.3. Locate at least 3 quotes to support your descriptions.4. Draw a picture of what you think your setting would look like. Thinking Using language, text and symbols Processing Managing self Applying
1. Oceania - One of the three totalitarian superpowers that rule the world using censorship and pure terror. 2. Mr. Charrington’s rented room - Winston and Julia’s secret hideaway where they come to make love and hide from the telescreens and constant watch of the Party. 3. Ministry of Love - A rehabilitation center which uses torture and brainwashing technique in order to completely conform its prisoners into the thinking and beliefs of the party only to beGathering later killed, sent to forced labor camps, or even released back into society.
In pairs, define/explain the following terms: Newspeak – include an example and it’s interpretation The Party The Proles (proletariat) Thinking Relating to others Vaporisation Using language, text and Thoughtcrime symbols Managing self Floating Fortress Participating and contributing Telescreen Big Brother Ingsoc Gathering Orthodoxy ProcessingReport back to class.
Choose 5 of the terms and complete the chart:Term Similarity today Thinking Using language, text and Processing symbols Applying Managing self
Thinking Relating to othersUsing language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing In pairs, read through the notes and complete the following:1. Glue the picture of Winston into your book.2. Define totalitarianism – you will need a dictionary.3. List 6 characteristics that describe Winston.4. List 3 crimes that Winston commits.5. Explain a reason for Winston’s rebellion.6. Discuss Winston as a heroic figure. What qualities does he possess that could define him as one?7. Report back to class. Gathering Processing
When Winston first meets Julia he doesnt know her name and thinks she is a typical Party follower--a mindless, well-behaved robot. She works as a mechanic on a novel-writing machine. She has short, thick, dark hair, a freckled face and is twenty-six years old. Around her waist she wears a red sash, a symbol of the Junior Anti- Sex League. Later Winston discovers that Julia merely participates in the Anti-Sex League and other community activities as a cover and that she, too, hates the Party. She is intelligent and less likely to be fooled by Party propaganda than even Winston, but she is more interested in evading authority and having a good time than trying to overthrow the government. Julia is a highly sexual person. Gathering
In pairs, read through the notes and complete the following: 1. Write as many adjectives around the picture of Julia as you can to describe her. 2. In what ways is Julia a contradiction? 3. In what ways is Julia different from Winston? 4. From her first appearance as "the dark-haired girl," through to the end of the novel, Julia is a key figure in 1984. Trace the path of Julia in relation to Winstons life; in what ways does Thinking she influence him? Did you trust her, initially? Relating to others Using language, text and Overall, do you feel she had a positive or symbols negative impact upon him? Managing self GatheringParticipating and contributing Processing Applying
OBrien has a very important, mysterious job. He is a large, well-built man with a coarse, humorous, brutal face. He wears spectacles. Winston has always hoped that OBrien may be an ally and also against Big Brother. As it turns out, he has been toying with Winston and is in charge of his torture and re-integration in the Ministry of Love. The two of them do have a special kind of empathy, although OBrien can also be very cruel and is determined to force Winston to conform: Do you remember writing in your diary, he said, that it did not matter whether I was a friend or an enemy, since I was at least a person who understood you and could be talked to? You were right. I enjoy talking to you. Your mind appeals to me. It resembles my own mind except that you happen to be insane. (Part 3, Chapter 2, pg. 271) Gathering
Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing In pairs, read through the notes and complete the following:1. Explain how O’Brien tricks Winston.2. Why is O’Brien a mystery to the reader?3. Explain what the quote, “They got me long ago.” tells us about O’Brien.4. Describe the role that OBrien plays in Winstons life. Why do you think that initially, Winston is drawn to OBrien? Why does he implicitly trust him, despite the enormous dangers involved? Processing
Gathering Processing 1. In pairs, create a diagram to compare and contrast theDifferences Similarities Differences following characters: Winston and Julia Winston and O’Brien O’Brien and Julia Winston 2. Find 2 quotes to represent: Julia Winston Julia O’Brien 3. Explain who says each quote and why. Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing
Thinking Relating to othersUsing language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributingCharacter Conflict/problem How they coped Successful?Winston SmithJuliaO’Brien Gathering Processing Applying
Thinking Using language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing 3. Write a magazine article of 150 words for the Victory Vixen to describe and evaluate an important relationship in the novel. Include the following: Explain why it is important. Explain what Winston learnt from Julia/O’Brien in the novel. Describe how he changed. Explain and describe the effect this change had upon him. Evaluate the relationship by drawing at least 3 conclusions from the above information.Processing Applying
Applying Thinking Using language, text and symbols Managing selfChoose ONE of the following topics and write an essay of AT LEAST 450 words for your answer.Support your discussion with specific evidence from the text. Analyse how conflict made the change in ONE main character or individual realistic or believable. Analyse how an important setting helped you to understand a main character’s actions or views in the text you studied. Analyse how actions OR dialogue helped you to understand ONE main character / individual.
Thinking Relating to others Gathering Using language, text and symbols Processing Managing self Applying Participating and contributingIn pairs, choose one of the following topics to research: Totalitarianism Joseph Stalin George Orwell The World of 1984 1984Write your information in your own words and present your information as a PowerPoint. Include at least 7 slides.Complete the following questions in your journal:1. Explain in what ways your experience of the events from this novel differs from your experience of them during your research.2. Explain why the writer may have chosen to present the story in this way.3. Analyse how this relates to his choice of narrator.
Thinking Relating to othersUsing language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing Processing Applying Read through the notes and, in groups, choose a theme and discuss the following questions:a) Discuss the meaning of your theme. What is it exactly?b) Explain how this theme may be seen in today’s world.c) What does Orwell want us to understand about this theme?d) Identify any social issues that may be related to this theme. For example, health issues; power and violence related issues.e) Imagine that you live in a totalitarian society with these restrictions. How would you react or behave? Present your answers to the class. The class will record your ideas.
Thinking Using language, text and symbols Managing self Gathering Participating and Processing contributing ApplyingTheme Character who Example Significance represents themeThe Dangers ofTotalitarianismPsychologicalManipulationPhysical ControlControl of Informationand HistoryTechnologyLanguage as MindControl
Do you ever feel that your privacy is threatened by the government, corporations, the media, or other entities? Have you ever had any experiences in which you felt that your rights to privacy were violated? Has anyone ever been in a situation that is reminiscent of a situation that occurs in 1984? Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and Processing symbols Applying Managing selfParticipating and contributing
1984 Today Telescreens everywhere Closed circuit cameras everywhere Thinking Using language, text and symbols Gathering Managing self ProcessingParticipating and contributing Applying
Go to computer and, in pairs, complete Privacy research assignment. You have 2 periods. Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and symbols Managing self Participating and contributing Gathering Processing Applying
1. Divide the class into groups of approximately four students each. Ask each group to choose one of the privacy issues they’ve learned about or assign each group a specific issue. Try to divide the issues so that groups cover a variety of topics; you don’t want every group to cover drug testing or Internet privacy.2. Have groups prepare scenes to perform in front of the class. Scenes need to include a variety of viewpoints on the issues and must contain a reference to 1984. Group members should portray characters discussing and debating the group’s specific privacy-related issue. Each scene should be no more than five minutes long.Here’s a sample scenario:An employee has been fired. The reason for the firing is that she allegedly arrived at work late too many times, but she’srecently discovered that her boss read several of her supposedly private e-mails, in which she spoke of the boss in anunflattering manner. The characters could include the fired employee, the employee’s lawyer, the boss, and the managerwho wrote the company’s e-mail policy. Either the employee or her lawyer would, in the course of their conversations withthe other characters, make a statement comparing the scenario to something that might have happened in 1984. As analternative, the boss or manager could make a statement explaining how the company’s policy differs from the thosedescribed in 1984.1. Have students perform their scenes in front of the class. After each performance, have the class briefly summarize the issues raised in the scene. Thinking Relating to others Using language, text and Processing symbols Applying Managing self Participating and contributing
Read the following topics and write at least 200 words to answer all 3. Aim to link your discussion to at least 1 theme.1. Discuss the idea of doublethink. How important is doublethink to the Party’s control of Oceania? How important is it to Winston’s brainwashing?2. How does technology affect the Party’s ability to control its citizens? In what ways does the Party employ technology throughout the book?3. Discuss the idea of Room 101, the place where everyone meets his or her worst fear. Keeping in mind that for most of Winston’s time at the Ministry of Love, he does not know what he will find in Room 101, what role does that uncertainty play in making Room 101 frightening? Does the cage of rats break Winston’s spirit, or does it merely play a symbolic role? Thinking Using language, text and Processing symbols Applying Managing self
ThinkingUsing language, text and symbols Applying Managing selfChoose ONE of the following topics and write an essay of AT LEAST 450 words for your answer.Support your discussion with specific evidence from the text. Analyse how the author’s choice and presentation of setting helped develop a main theme. Analyse how the ending of the text helped you understand the purpose of the text more clearly. Analyse how the presentation of conflict helped develop your understanding of an important issue.Note: “Conflict” could include internal conflict as well as conflict between characters, groups or ideas.
Complete the work sheet. Gathering Thinking Processing Using language, text and Applying symbols Managing self
1. Read through the handout. 2. In pairs, create a poster to represent Thinking one symbol or Relating to others motif. Include:Using language, text and symbols A visual Managing self representation Participating and contributing A quote An explanation of its significance or meaning in the Processing novel Applying Colour and creativity!
Features of the text
Features are also referred to as techniques and include: The style of language used (poetic techniques) The viewpoint of the text Symbols and motifs Allusions
George Orwell wrote 1984 not necessarily as a “futuristic” novel butas a criticism of life in the 20th century. Of course, other purposescan be identified as well. However, Orwell’s narrative techniques dosupport his purpose which is to write a satire .Identify and evaluate (say how well it worked or what effect it had)at least TWO techniques which George Orwell uses to shapehis work.You could mention:•direct, “spare”, journalistic style of writing• use of satiric techniques (irony, humour, exaggeration)• point of view• use of symbolism
Read through the handout & complete the following chart:Motif Theme Significance
Read the handout and complete the following chart: Symbol Character Significance
Read through the handout and complete the chart:Imagery Example/ Quote Characters involved Significance
Explain how imagery added to your understanding of the text. Include examples to support your discussion. Write at least 150 words. List at least 3 reasons why the author included imagery to 1984. How did this add to the narrative? Explain how the themes in the novel are linked to specific imagery.
A simile is a direct comparison that always contains the words as or like. A simile adds vivid, descriptive details. A metaphor is a comparison which does not use like or as. A metaphor is a comparison which says one thing is another. Metaphors are used to highlight certain qualities of the thing being described. Personification is where a non-living object is given living qualities, writing of it as if it were a living person. Appearances, actions, thoughts, and feelings can all be given human attributes. Personification is used to enliven the writing and/or creating humour.
Read through the chapter beginning on page 182 and record an example of a simile; a metaphor; and personification. Explain the purpose of each in the context of this chapter. Explain how each relates to one or more of the themes in the text.
Alliteration is the repetition on consonant sounds at the beginning of words placed closely together to create a sound echo. Alliteration is used to: add humour or power create a mood or feeling help the flow or movement of language. emphasise important points.Onomatopoeia uses words that imitate and reproduce real-life sounds and actions. Onomatopoeia helps to increase reality in the text by adding another dimension by suggesting the sound as well as.Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds. The trick is not to think of it as the same letter, but the same sound. Like alliteration assonance allows the poem to flow more quickly or it can slow the poem down as each word is emphasised to reflect the meaning of that part of the poem.
Read through the chapter beginning on page 144 and record an example of alliteration; assonance; and onomatopoeia. Explain the purpose of each in the context of this chapter. Explain how each relates to one or more of the themes in the text.
•Identify the name of the language featureused in this sentence and explain it’s effect.•Explain why you think that the narratorchooses this particular phrase to describethe state of the island at that time.•Record another such comparison in thischapter and explain its purpose. Be sure toconsider the tone, meaning and significanceof your chosen sentence.
How would you describe the authors tone in 1984? Does it add to or detract from the characters discourse?
Use the information we have covered to answer one of the following questions. Analyse how ONE OR MORE symbols were used to present an important idea or ideas. Analyse how features made the text particularly effective and refer to ONE or TWO key parts in the text to support your ideas. Analyse how techniques were used to show changes in a main character or individual in a text you have studied AND why these changes were important to the text as a whole.