Coeliac Disease - Cause• Gluten is a protein found mainly in wheat and wheat products.• People with coeliac condition are unable to digest this protein.• If gluten is eaten it damages the intestine.
People with coeliac condition must eat a gluten-free diet.All foods containing gluten must be excluded from the diet i.e. wheat products – bread, cakes, pasta, biscuits and some breakfast cereals.Also exclude any foods containing flour or breadcrumbs,e.g. fish fingers,packet soups, sauces and hamburgers.
• Special gluten-free bread and flour can be used.• Cereals such as maize (corn) and rice and their products e.g. cornflour, can be used.• Gluten – free symbol
Medical TreatmentCoeliac condition can usually becontrolled by diet and no medical treatment is necessary
Diabetes Mellitus• Diabetes Mellitus is characterised by raised glucose levels in the blood due to insulin deficiency or inability of insulin to function.• Insulin is a hormone in the pancreas, which controls the amount of glucose in the blood.
• If insulin is deficient or ineffective large amounts of glucose remain in the blood stream instead of being converted into energy.• The results of these reactions, toxins are produced which cause kidney damage and blindness. They may also cause heart failure.
Diabetes: Type 1 – Insulin – Dependent diabetes –• It is a condition where the pancreas does not make enough of the hormone insulin.• Insulin is necessary to control the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
• Glucose is excreted by the kidneys, leaving little in the body for energy production.• If the blood sugar level rises or if it falls the patient may become weak and may lapse into a coma.
Type 2 – non insulin dependent• This type occurs in older people who are likely to be overweight.• The pancreas makes insulin but the insulin does not work.• This form of diabetes may be helped by losing weight and/or following a diabetic diet.
SymptomsExcessive thirstIncrease in the amount of urine excretedWeight lossTiredness
Treatment Follow low-sugar diet Eat high-fibre/starchy foods Eat regularly – never go long without food Artificial sweeteners may be used to replace sugar Special diabetic foods,e.g. jam,chocolate,can be included in the diet Lose weight if necessary.
Medical Treatment• In mild cases, diabetes can be treated by diet alone. However, many diabetics need daily injections of insulin.
Coronary Heart Disease• It occurs when the main arteries of the heart become hard and blocked with a fat- like substance called cholesterol – this narrows the diameter of the vessels and prevents blood from flowing freely so that blood pressure rises.• Eventually an artery may become totally blocked,causing a heart attack. In a similar way, blockage of an artery in the brain causes a stroke.
Factors that increase risk of heart disease• Heredity• Overweight/diet high in saturated fat• Smoking• Stress• Lack of exercise• Abuse of alcohol
To reduce risk• Have a low fat / low calorie diet• Avoid becoming overweight• Avoid smoking• Avoid stress• Take lots of exercise• Drink alcohol only in moderation
Guidelines for reducing fat• Avoid fried food – boil,grill,bake or microwave instead• Choose low – fat proteins such as white fish,chicken, turkey and pulse vegetables• Trim visible fat from meat, cut down on red meat• Use fat sparingly – spread thinly on bread, add less in cooking
Guidelines• Choose low fat products – low fat milk,yogurt,cheese, mayonnaise• Switch to unsaturated margarine and oil e.g. olive oil• Avoid fatty snack foods such as crisps,biscuits, pastries and chocolate• Cut down on high cholesterol foods
High – Fibre diet• Dietary fibre is found only in plant foods.• It consists mainly of cellulose, which forms the structural framework of the plant.• It is most plentiful in the outer skin of vegetables and fruit and the husk of cereals.• Fibre is not digested but helps to move the food along by creating bulk in the intestine.
Benefits of a high fibre diet• Fibre prevents constipation• Prevents poisonous chemicals from building up in the body• Fibre does not contain calories but it gives a feeling of fullness. Therefore it is useful in weight-reducing diets.
Health problems with low-fibre diet• Constipation• Bowel disease• Piles
Foods with a high-fibre content• Wholegrain flour• Whole wheat pasta• Wholegrain cereals• Vegetables, fruit with skins on• Nuts and seeds
Refined food• In the past, because fibre was considered to be rough on the intestines, manufacturers began to refine or process the food. Processing removes the outer layers from cereals etc. so that there is little fibre left. Processing also removes valuable minerals and vitamins, particularly vitamin B. For these reasons unprocessed foods are now recommended
Guidelines to increase fibre intake• Choose whole cereals• Eat high fibre breakfast cereals e.g.all-bran• Leave skin on fruit and vegetables• Eat whole fruit instead of fruit juices• Include pulse vegetables in the diet• Drink plenty of water
Vegetarian• Types1. Lactovegetarian – they do not eat meat,fish or poultry. They eat animal products such as eggs,milk and cheese.2. Vegans – They do not eat meat,fish, poultry,eggs,milk or dairy products.They live on fruit,vegetables,cereals and nuts.
Reasons for choosing Vegetarianism• Cultural- may be the traditional diet of a particular area or country.• Religious- Hindus, Muslims and Jews place restrictions on consumption of meat and animal products e.g. pork for Jews.• Health- vegan and vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular among the health conscious i.e. high in fibre and low in cholestrol.
• Moral: People may dislike the thought of killing animals for food. Some people disapprove the practices involved in rearing animals.• Financial- vegetarian dishes are cheaper to produce, ingredients tend to be less expensive and cooking time is shorter.• Tradition: may be the traditional diet of the family.
Guidelines for a healthy lactovegetarian diet• Eat a wide variety of foods to get enough protein. Include pulses, nuts and meat substitutes for example Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP).• Choose whole cereals to get enough iron and vitamin B group.• Lactovegetarians should include milk and dairy products to provide calcium. Vegans can get calcium from fortified soya milk and leafy green vegetables.
Vegetarian dishesSavoury main courses may include:• Veggie burgers• Vegetarian curry• Vegetable risotto• Vegetarian pasta dishes for e.g. vegetarian lasagne• Quiche• Pizza
Obesity• Obesity means being 20% or more over the recommended weight for height.Causes:1. Too many calories2. Lack of exercise3. Hereditary
Health problems associated with obesity Obese people are at risk of developing the following:• Diabetes• Heart disease• Varicose veins• Heart disease• High Blood pressure• Stroke• Gall stones• Poor self image
Guidelines to reduce the risk of obesity1. Reduce calorie intake by:• Grilling, steaming or boiling food instead of frying.• Avoid sugar sweetened drinks. Do not add sugar to tea or to coffee.• Remove visible fat from meat.• Choose low fat dairy products.• Not eating between meals.
Guidelines to reduce the risk of obesity continued…2. Increase high fibre foods by choosing fresh fruit, vegetables and whole cereals instead of high sugar and high fat foods.2. Avoid crash or fad diets. Gradual weigh loss is healthier and more likely to last.2. Take more exercise to use up extra energy from food.
Osteoporosis• Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bone, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones.• Osteoporosis literally leads to abnormally porous bone that is compressible, like a sponge. This disorder of the skeleton weakens the bone and results in frequent fractures (breaks) in the bones