Overview of evolution


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Overview of evolution

  1. 1. Evolution Overview
  2. 2. <ul><li>Theory of Evolution – living things evolve in response to change in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonic Theory – movement of oceanic/continental crust shapes the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Superposition – layers of Earth determine age. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Evolution Overview <ul><li>We will start by stating that there are 3 types of evolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic – how the Earth has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Biologic – how life has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Technologic – how technology has changed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our Objectives today: <ul><li>5.01 Interpret ways in which rocks, fossils, and ice cores record Earth’s geologic history and the evolution of life including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geologic Time Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Index Fossils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Superposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of Climatic Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophic events </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Geologic Evolution <ul><li>Rocks, Fossils, and ice cores show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That life forms have changed over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth’s climate & surface have changed over time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geologic Evolution <ul><li>Thousands of layers of sedimentary rock confirm the long history of the changing surface and changing life forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils that can be used to help determine the relative age of rock layers are called index fossils. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geologic Evolution <ul><li>The Law of Superposition states that each undisturbed rock layer is older than the layer above it. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Geologic Dating – is the estimated age of a rock layer in relation to the layers above and below it. </li></ul><ul><li>Youngest layers are not always found on top, because of folding, breaking, and uplift of layers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Geologic Evolution <ul><li>Absolute geologic dating – uses the decay of certain elements to determine the exact age of a fossil or rock layer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Geologic Evolution <ul><li>By studying rocks & fossils, scientists have developed a geologic time scale which outlines the major divisions of Earth’s history. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Geologic Evolution - Climate <ul><li>Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans have a major effect on climate, because water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Geologic Evolution - Climate <ul><li>Many factors, natural & anthropogenic (human – made) determine Earth’s climate. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural factors can include, but are not limited to the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere - sun, orbit, tilt, clouds, wind, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geosphere – geography, surface, Earth’s core heat, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere – currents, ice, cycles, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere – living organisms, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Geologic Evolution - Climate <ul><li>Human factors also influence regional and global effects in climate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land uses – slash and field burning, deforestation, agriculture, cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource uses – burning of fossil fuels (oil, wood, and coal) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Biological Evolution <ul><li>Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaption, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Biological Evolution <ul><li>Throughout history species that could not adapt to Earth events died out. (a.k.a. extinction) </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asteroids hitting Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ice Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic Eruptions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Biological Evolution <ul><li>The earliest evidence of life is found in the oceans, such as deep ocean organisms that rely on chemical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The evolution of Earth’s living things is strongly linked to the movements of the lithospheric plates. Living things evolve in response to their environment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Biological Evolution <ul><li>Movements of plates cause change in climate, in geographic features such as mountains, and types of living things in particular places. </li></ul><ul><li>When land masses come together diversity decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>When land masses grow apart, diversity increases. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Biological Evolution <ul><li>On large land masses offer more variety to live in. </li></ul><ul><li>On small land masses animals must adapt to what they are given. (less options) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Connections <ul><li>Alfred Wegner used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosaurus fossils found in Africa & South America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain ranges in Eastern U.S. and Canada match ranges in Greenland & N.W. Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages & types of rock on one continent match the edges of other continents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds in Brazil & W. Africa mines are the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils of same plant spores found in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Connections <ul><li>With technological advances and utilization of tools scientists are able to study the interconnections of biological and geological changes overtime. </li></ul>