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EARTH SCIENCE “ Overview of the Solar System”
Overview of the Solar system <ul><li>All the planets as well as most of their moons are called satellites, orbit the Sun i...
Early Ideas <ul><li>Ancient astronomers could recognize the difference between stars and planets by the planets slowly cha...
Early Ideas <ul><li>Retrograde motion - a planet moves in the opposite direction across the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal ...
Kepler’s First Law <ul><li>Each planet orbits the Sun in a shape called an ellipse, rather than a circle. </li></ul>
Kepler’s First Law <ul><li>An ellipse is an oval shape that is centered on two points instead of a single point, as in a c...
Astronomical Unit <ul><li>The average distances between the Sun and each planet are measured in astronomical units, and th...
Eccentricity <ul><li>A planet in an elliptical orbit is not at a constant distance from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>When a ...
Eccentricity <ul><li>The shape of a planet’s elliptical orbit is defined by eccentricity, which is the ration of the dista...
Kepler’s Second Law <ul><li>An imaginary line between the Sun and a planet sweeps out equal amounts of area in equal amoun...
Kepler’s Third Law <ul><li>The square of the orbital period ( P ) equals the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbital el...
Galileo Discoveries <ul><li>First person to use a telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the idea that the Earth orbited th...
Gravity and Orbits <ul><li>Newton developed an understanding of gravity by observing the Moon’s motion, the orbits of the ...
Law of Universal Gravitation <ul><li>Every pair of bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is proporti...
Center of Mass <ul><li>Newton determined that each planet orbits a point between it and the Sun called the center of mass....
Earth Science “ The Terrestrial Planets”
The Terrestrial Planets <ul><li>Planets are grouped into two main categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial planets - ...
Mercury <ul><li>Closest planet to the sun and has no moons </li></ul><ul><li>One-third the size of Earth </li></ul><ul><li...
Mercury <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially no atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily oxygen and...
Mercury <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on radio observations and pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar ...
Mercury <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-density suggests that the core is nickel-iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Venus <ul><li>Has no moons </li></ul><ul><li>Brightest planet in Earth’s nighttime sky </li></ul><ul><li>Highest albedo @ ...
Venus <ul><li>Atmosphere  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastly different than Earth’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temp.  46...
Venus <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothed by volcanic lava flows only a few impact craters </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Venus <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and density similar to Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No seismic data ...
Earth <ul><li>Third planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Unique properties </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from the Sun and ne...
Earth <ul><li>Precession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis it tilted so it creates our seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wob...
Mars <ul><li>Fourth planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Outermost terrestrial planet </li></ul><ul><li>Know as the red p...
Mars <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Venus, but the density and pressure is much lower </li></ul></ul>...
Mars <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The southern hemisphere is a heavily cratered, highland region, like the moon <...
Mars <ul><ul><li>Dried river beds, lake beds, and runoff channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest that liquid water on...
Mars <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsure about the internal structure of Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothe...
Earth Science “  The Gas Giant Planets”
The Gas Giant Planets <ul><li>Interiors are composed of fluids, either or gaseous or liquid, and small solid cores </li></...
Jupiter <ul><li>Largest and 5th from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter is 11 times larger than Earth’s </li></ul><ul><li...
Jupiter <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and helium make up the majority of atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul...
Jupiter <ul><ul><li>Rotation extremely rapid, less than 10 hours, warps the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belts - are ...
Jupiter <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 largest moons - Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto - Galilean sate...
Saturn <ul><li>6th planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>2nd largest planet </li></ul>
Saturn <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average density lower than water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates quickl...
Saturn <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader and brighter rings than the other planets </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Saturn <ul><ul><li>This is why gas giant moons are found further away from their planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoth...
Uranus <ul><li>Seventh planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered accidentally in 1781 </li></ul>
Uranus <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 times as large and 15 times as massive as Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Uranus <ul><ul><li>Strong magnetic field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotational axis is tipped over so far that the north p...
Uranus <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon count is always changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known moons ...
Neptune <ul><li>8th planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Existence was predicted before it was discovered due to small de...
Neptune <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly smaller and denser than Uranus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 time...
Neptune <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has many moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest is Triton has a re...
Pluto <ul><li>Now classified as a dwarf planet </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Solid surface </li><...
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Astronomy2

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  • Mrs.Jac
  • Mrs. Jacobs Earth/Enviromental Science
  • Ali Hubbard 2nd Period 9/24/07 Earth/Enviromental Science Mrs. Jacobs Class
  • Transcript of "Astronomy2"

    1. 1. EARTH SCIENCE “ Overview of the Solar System”
    2. 2. Overview of the Solar system <ul><li>All the planets as well as most of their moons are called satellites, orbit the Sun in the same direction. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Early Ideas <ul><li>Ancient astronomers could recognize the difference between stars and planets by the planets slowly change positions each night. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the geocentric model, meaning that all orbited the Earth. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Early Ideas <ul><li>Retrograde motion - a planet moves in the opposite direction across the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal direction for all planets, as observed from Earth, is toward the East. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Kepler’s First Law <ul><li>Each planet orbits the Sun in a shape called an ellipse, rather than a circle. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Kepler’s First Law <ul><li>An ellipse is an oval shape that is centered on two points instead of a single point, as in a circle. </li></ul><ul><li>The two points are called foci </li></ul><ul><li>The major axis is the line that runs through both foci; it is the maximum diameter of the ellipse </li></ul>
    7. 7. Astronomical Unit <ul><li>The average distances between the Sun and each planet are measured in astronomical units, and therefore, these distances are relative to Earth’s average distance from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>1.496 x 10^8 km = 1 astronomical unit </li></ul>
    8. 8. Eccentricity <ul><li>A planet in an elliptical orbit is not at a constant distance from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>When a planet is closest to the Sun in its orbit , it is at perihelion. </li></ul><ul><li>When farthest from the Sun, it is aphelion. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Eccentricity <ul><li>The shape of a planet’s elliptical orbit is defined by eccentricity, which is the ration of the distance between the foci to the length of the major axis. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of time it takes a planet or body to travel a complete orbit is an orbital period. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Kepler’s Second Law <ul><li>An imaginary line between the Sun and a planet sweeps out equal amounts of area in equal amounts of time. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Kepler’s Third Law <ul><li>The square of the orbital period ( P ) equals the cube of the semi-major axis of the orbital ellipse ( a ). </li></ul><ul><li>( P) is earth years </li></ul><ul><li>(a) is in astronomical units </li></ul>
    12. 12. Galileo Discoveries <ul><li>First person to use a telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the idea that the Earth orbited the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Jupiter has 4 moons </li></ul>
    13. 13. Gravity and Orbits <ul><li>Newton developed an understanding of gravity by observing the Moon’s motion, the orbits of the planets, and the acceleration of falling objects on Earth. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Law of Universal Gravitation <ul><li>Every pair of bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them or </li></ul>
    15. 15. Center of Mass <ul><li>Newton determined that each planet orbits a point between it and the Sun called the center of mass. </li></ul><ul><li>The center of mass is the balance point between two orbiting bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>if two bodies orbiting each other and one is larger, the center of mass is closer to the more massive body. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Earth Science “ The Terrestrial Planets”
    17. 17. The Terrestrial Planets <ul><li>Planets are grouped into two main categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial planets - inner 4 planets, close to the size of Earth, and have solid rocky surfaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas giant planets - outer 4 planets, much larger, more gaseous, and lack solid surfaces. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Mercury <ul><li>Closest planet to the sun and has no moons </li></ul><ul><li>One-third the size of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury has 3 days for every 2 years </li></ul>
    19. 19. Mercury <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially no atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily oxygen and sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Day time temp. 427 degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Night -173 degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest day-night temp difference of all the planets </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Mercury <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on radio observations and pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the moons surface (why?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface gravity much greater than the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planet wide cliffs called scarps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scarps - develop as Mercury’s crust shrank and fractured early in it’s geological history. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Mercury <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-density suggests that the core is nickel-iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The core fills 42% of the planet’s volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is believed that Mercury was much larger and then lost most of its crust and mantle to collisions with another celestial body </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Venus <ul><li>Has no moons </li></ul><ul><li>Brightest planet in Earth’s nighttime sky </li></ul><ul><li>Highest albedo @ 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Spins backwards (clockwise)(called?) </li></ul><ul><li>Believe this was caused by collision </li></ul><ul><li>1 day = 243 Earth days </li></ul>
    23. 23. Venus <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastly different than Earth’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average temp. 464 degrees C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High atmospheric pressure, you would feel like you were 915 meters down in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly carbon dioxide and nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds made of sulfuric acid and 35km thick. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Venus <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoothed by volcanic lava flows only a few impact craters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little evidence of tectonic activity and no well-defined system of crustal plates. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Venus <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and density similar to Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No seismic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theorized that Venus has a liquid metal core that extends halfway to the surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No measurable magnetic field despite this liquid core. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Earth <ul><li>Third planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Unique properties </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from the Sun and nearly circular orbit allows water to exist in all three states: solid, liquid, and gas. </li></ul><ul><li>78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen </li></ul>
    27. 27. Earth <ul><li>Precession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis it tilted so it creates our seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wobbling of the Earth on its axis is called precession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sideways pull of the precession comes from the Moon’s gravitational force on Earth, as well as the Sun’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun plays a lesser part in this. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Mars <ul><li>Fourth planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Outermost terrestrial planet </li></ul><ul><li>Know as the red planet, caused by high iron content </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller and less dense than Earth </li></ul><ul><li>2 irregularly shaped moons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phobos and Demos </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Mars <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to Venus, but the density and pressure is much lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin atmosphere, turbulent, constant wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust storms that last weeks at a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Mars <ul><li>Surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The southern hemisphere is a heavily cratered, highland region, like the moon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The northern hemisphere is dominated by plains that are sparsely cratered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 gigantic shield volcanoes, the largest called Olympus Mons (largest mountain in the solar system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Base would cover all of Colorado </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Mars <ul><ul><li>Dried river beds, lake beds, and runoff channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small ice caps in the northern and southern poles, mostly “dry ice”, but some water ice underneath. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Mars <ul><li>Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsure about the internal structure of Mars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesize that there is a core of iron and nickel and possible sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No magnetic field, so core is probable solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence of current tectonic activity or tectonic plates on the surface of the crust. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Earth Science “ The Gas Giant Planets”
    34. 34. The Gas Giant Planets <ul><li>Interiors are composed of fluids, either or gaseous or liquid, and small solid cores </li></ul><ul><li>Composed primarily of lightweight elements such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Many satellites and ring systems </li></ul><ul><li>Very large, 15 to 300 times the mass of Earth, 4 to 10 times in diameter. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Jupiter <ul><li>Largest and 5th from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Diameter is 11 times larger than Earth’s </li></ul><ul><li>Albedo is 34% </li></ul><ul><li>Banded appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Has 4 moons and many smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Detected volcanic activity in largest moon Io. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Jupiter <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and helium make up the majority of atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These elements remain in a gas or liquid form. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a layer of liquid metallic hydrogen, a form of hydrogen that has properties of both a liquid and a metal, which can exist only under conditions of very high pressure </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Jupiter <ul><ul><li>Rotation extremely rapid, less than 10 hours, warps the planet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belts - are low, warm, dark-colored clouds that sink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones - are high, cool, light-colored clouds that rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Red Spot - storm that has been rotating Jupiter for 300 years </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Jupiter <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 largest moons - Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto - Galilean satellites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of ice and rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring of Jupiter 6400km wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now known that all gas giant planets have rings </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Saturn <ul><li>6th planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>2nd largest planet </li></ul>
    40. 40. Saturn <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average density lower than water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotates quickly and has flowing belts and zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by hydrogen and helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior is mostly fluid with a small solid core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic field 1000 times that of Earth’s </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Saturn <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader and brighter rings than the other planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rings composed of rock and ice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are seven major rings but they are made up of narrower rings called ringlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring particles of have not combined to form a large satellite because Saturn’s gravity prevents particles from sticking together. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Saturn <ul><ul><li>This is why gas giant moons are found further away from their planets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesized that the ring particles are debris left over when a moon was destroyed by a collision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One giant moon-Titan; seven average sized moons, and a number of smaller moons </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Uranus <ul><li>Seventh planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered accidentally in 1781 </li></ul>
    44. 44. Uranus <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 times as large and 15 times as massive as Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue velvety appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No distinct belts or zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely fluid interior with small solid core </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Uranus <ul><ul><li>Strong magnetic field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotational axis is tipped over so far that the north pole is in the middle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knocked sideways by collision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each pole spends 42 earth days in sunlight and 42 days in complete darkness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere keeps temperature at -215 degrees C </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Uranus <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon count is always changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known moons and rings orbit in the planet’s equatorial plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rings are dark, almost black </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Neptune <ul><li>8th planet from the Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Existence was predicted before it was discovered due to small deviations in Uranus movement </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered 1846 </li></ul>
    48. 48. Neptune <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly smaller and denser than Uranus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 times larger than Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like Uranus- color due to methane, temperatures, magnetic fields, interior, and particle belts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has clouds and zones like Jupiter and Saturn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had the Great Dark Spot, vanished in 1994 </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Neptune <ul><li>Moons and Rings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has many moons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest is Triton has a retrograde orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen geysers- caused by nitrogen gas below the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Six rings - composed of microscopic-sized dust particles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Pluto <ul><li>Now classified as a dwarf planet </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1930 </li></ul><ul><li>Solid surface </li></ul><ul><li>Low density and small in size </li></ul><ul><li>Half ice and half rock </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than our moon </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere is methane and nitrogen </li></ul>
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