4. Today we will learn how to writean essay, step by step!
5. What is an Essay?An essay is a written collection of prose, organized and divided neatly into paragraphsAlways remember that an essay is a written form of communication and therefore, must be clear, organized and easily understandable to those reading
6. What is the Purpose of an Essay?An essay is used to state and support an opinion with proof and explanationEssays can be used to persuade others to agree with your opinion
7. Why do we write five paragraphessays?The first paragraph is an introductory paragraphThe middle three paragraph are the body paragraphsThe last paragraph is the concluding paragraph
8. Body ParagraphsEach body paragraph states and explains a different point to help you prove your opinionAnopinion is always stronger when it has more supporting facts (proof)
9. Fact Opinion Factis a true  An opinion is one statement individual’s personal belief on a subject Facts can be  Everyone is welcome to supported, upheld have an opinion, but not and proven by every opinion is based on evidence fact  Opinions can be based on what a person has heard from others, and is therefore subject to bias
10. Fact is Stronger than OpinionFor this reason, make sure that you phrase and word your essays as if they are FACT, not simply OPINION
11. How will learning how to write anessay help me in the future?Each Academic/University level English course contains a unit on essay writingYou need to write an essay on the OSSLT (Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test), and you need to pass the literacy test to graduate high school
16. Therefore, for these reasons disguises and costumes are key elementsin the play Twelfth Night.
17. Paragraph Format Disguises and costumes are a fun wayto explore new identities and take on a newpersona. Twelfth Night by WilliamShakespeare explores the use of disguisesand costumes throughout the play.Disguises and costumes drive the mainconflicts in the plot, create humour andallow characters to explore different classand gender identities. Therefore, for thesereasons disguises and costumes are keyelements in the play Twelfth Night.
18. Body ParagraphsEach of the three body paragraphs deals with one of the three reasons/proofsAlways remember to present them in the same order: A,B,CReason/ProofA should always be your weakest argumentReason/Proof C should always be your strongest argument
19. Paragraph FormatPoint: Firstly, disguises and costumes drive the main conflicts in the plot of Twelfth Night.Proof: In Act 3 scene 4 Antonio mistakes Cesario for his friend Sebastian. Since Viola is disguised as a man and looks like her twin Sebastian, Antonio easily mistakes the two characters. Antonio sees who he believes to be Sebastian in the midst of a duel and offers to fight on his friend’s behalf. Viola does not recognize Antonio and is confused as to why this stranger is fighting for her. Although Viola is grateful, she is confused when Antonio asks Cesario to return his purse he left Sebastian.Quotation: Antonio feels hurt and betrayed and asks his friend “Will you deny me now?/Is’t possible that my deserts to you/Can lack persuasion?” (3.4.334-336).Explanation: Antonio has done a lot for Sebastian since arriving in Illyria. He rescues Sebastian from the shipwreck, stays with him in Illyria despite the dangers and gives Sebastian money. When Cesario does not recognize Antonio it creates conflict between Cesario and Antonio. Antonio feels hurt and betrayed while Viola is confused as she does not understand what is going on. If Viola was not in disguise, Antonio would not mistake her for his friend Sebastian. Mistaken identity causes confusion between Antonio and Viola. Viola’s disguise as a man is the driving force of conflict within this scene.Concluding sentence: Therefore, disguises and costumes are key elements in the play Twelfth Night as they cause confusion between characters and create conflict in the plot.
21. Transition words betweenparagraphs Firstly, disguises and costumes drive the main conflicts in the plot of Twelfth Night. Secondly, disguises and costumes create humour throughout the play. Lastly, disguises and costumes allow characters to explore different class and gender identities.
22. Concluding Paragraph Restate thesis Restate your three points Finish with a broad concluding sentence about the topic
23. Paragraph Format Therefore, disguises and costumes areused throughout William Shakespearesplay Twelfth Night and are crucialcomponents in the play. Disguises andcostumes cause mistaken identity withinthe play causing confusion betweencharacters and creating conflict in the plot.Also, disguises and costumes add humourin the play in particular through dramaticirony. Finally, through disguises andcostumes characters in the play arepermitted to explore gender and classcategories which they would otherwise notbe permitted to do. Disguises andcostumes are used throughout the playTwelfth Night and are crucial to theentertainment of the play.
24. Tips for Writing Formal EssaysDo not use personal pronouns (I, we, you) These suggest your essay is an opinion instead of factualWrite in Present tenseDo not use rhetorical devises or creative writing skillsDo not use contractions (Can’t, won’t, couldn’t)Do not use slang or informal language
25. Tips for Writing Formal Essays Avoid using vague language (be specific) In an essay do not simply summarize your novel/play (assume that whoever is reading knows the novel/play well) In your body paragraph, be as detailed and specific as possible when explaining and supporting your evidence and quotations Usetransition words to move smoothly from one idea to the next (in addition, lastly, for example, therefore) NEVER bring up new information in your closing paragraph
26. How do you feel about essays?
27. Lets write one as a Team!
28. Introductory ParagraphIntroductory Paragraph and Thesis Statement The first sentence [or two] in your introductory paragraph should always be a hook sentence to get your audience interested in reading your essay. The next sentence should list your three reasons/proofs. These should be ordered from weakest to strongest (or at least important to most important) to make sure the audience want s to keep reading your essay. The thesis statement is the most important part of your essay. It is a specific statement that expresses your opinion about a topic without using the words “I believe” or “I think” Your thesis statement should only be one sentence long Your thesis statement is always the last sentence of your introductory paragraph
29. Introductory ParagraphSample Introductory ParagraphTopic: Mandatory Civil Service for all Canadians in their eighteenth year.Reasons/Proofs: Already exists in many other countries around the world In this economy, it is a good way to get some job experience A good way for Canadians to do something worthwhile for their countryIntroductory Paragraph: The topic of civil service is not one that enters the mind of many teenagers as they approach the time at which they are required to make those life altering decisions that affect everyone. However, there are many benefits to considering this issue. Mandatory civil service at the age of eighteen is an admirable idea because [A] it already exists in many countries around the world, [B] it would allow teenagers to gain valuable job experience and [C] it is an excellent way for individuals to do something worthwhile for their country. For these reasons, [Thesis statement] civil service should be mandatory for all Canadians in their eighteenth year.
30. Essay Question One of the social elements William Shakespeare explores in Twelfth Night is the issue of just and fair treatment of others. Consider Sir Toby and his treatment of other characters in the play. Using three specific examples from the play, argue whether or not Sir Toby treats other characters fairly or if he takes advantage of the relationships and interactions he has with others.
31. Brainstorm:Broad Statement:Introduce Topic*use the essay question to guideyou*:Reasons/ProofsA)B)C)Thesis:
32. Introductory Paragraph
33. The Body ParagraphsThe Body Paragraphs The body of an essay contains three paragraphs. Each paragraph deals with one of the three reasons/proofs from your introductory paragraph. Remember, you must always keep your reasons/proofs in the same order. Therefore, write about them in the same order as you did in the introductory paragraph. At the beginning of each body paragraph, use a transition word to remind the reader which paragraph they’re reading. At the beginning if the first paragraph, use the word “First” or “Firstly” At the beginning of the second paragraph, use the word “Second” or “Secondly” At the beginning of the third paragraph, use the word “Third”, “Thirdly”, or “Finally”.
34. Body ParagraphsEach body paragraph should follow the structure bellow:Sentence #1 Topic sentence stating the Reason/Proof dealt with in the paragraphSentence #2 Offer a piece of evidence to support your reason/proofMiddle Sentences In your own words, explain how your evidence supports or proves the reason/proofLast sentence Concluding sentences summarizing the paragraph’s reason/proof and connecting it back to the thesis statement.
36. Body ParagraphsTopic Sentence #3Concluding Sentence #3
37. Concluding ParagraphFirst SentenceThe first sentence in your concluding paragraph should restate the thesis statement. DO NOT repeat the thesis exactly the same way you stated it in the introductory paragraph.Never begin your concluding paragraph with, “In this essay, I have proven that…”Middle SentencesRephrase (but DO NOT copy) the three reasons/proofs. If the reasons/proofs are short and brief, this can be accomplished in one sentence. Otherwise, restate each in its own sentence, each beginning with an appropriate transition word/statements.
38. Concluding ParagraphLast sentenceFinish your essay with a profound general statement that leaves your audience thinking about the point of your essay. This may take more than one sentence.Never, never, never, even in your wildest dreams, in spite of peer pressure, introduce new information in the concluding paragraph
39. Concluding Paragraph There are several different reasons why compulsory civil service for all eighteen-year-old Canadians is a beneficial idea. First, many other successful countries in the world already do it, so Canada can look to their examples. Secondly, young Canadians would have the opportunity to gain valuable job experience for themselves, often doing things that they would never be able to do in their hometowns. Lastly, it would give Canadians the chance to contribute to the development of their country. Given our freedoms and lifestyle opportunities, it only makes sense to give something back to the country that makes it all possible. It is an easy concept to understand, and on that can make a world of a difference.