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Chapter 8 reporting by group 6 (autosaved) (autosaved)

  5. 5. INTRODUCING ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT By: Christine W. Azucena Alternative assessment uses activities that reveal what students can do to emphasize their strengths instead of their weaknesses. Alternative assessment instruments, aside from not being designed and structured from traditional tests, are also graded or scored differently. Because alternative assessment is performance based, it helps instructors emphasize that the point of learning is communication and action for meaningful purposes. Alternative assessment methods work well in learner-centered classrooms because of the idea that students can evaluate their own learning and learn from the evaluation process. These methods give learners opportunities to reflect on their development and the learning processes (what helps them learn and what might help them learn better). Alternative assessment thus gives instructors a way to connect assessment with review of learning strategies. Features of alternative assessment: Assessment is based on authentic tasks that demonstrate learners' ability to accomplish communication goals Instructor and learners focus on communication, not on right and wrong answers Learners help to set the criteria for successful completion of communication tasks Learners have opportunities to assess themselves and their peers In the education industry, alternative assessment usually identified as “portfolio assessment which is in direct contrast to traditional assessment, standardized or summative assessment and performance evaluation. Also known under various other terms including: Authentic assessment Integrative assessment Holistic assessment Assessment FOR learning Formative assessment AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT, in contrast to more traditional assessment, encourages the integration of teaching, learning and assessing. In the "traditional assessment" model, teaching and learning are often separated from assessment, i.e., a test is administered after knowledge or skills have (hopefully) been acquired. In the authentic assessment model, the same authentic task used to measure the students' ability to apply the knowledge or skills is a vehicle for student learning. For example, when presented with a real-world problem to solve, students are learning in the process of developing a solution, teachers are facilitating the process, and the students' solutions to the problem become an assessment of how well the students can meaningfully apply the concepts.
  6. 6. So authentic assessment has to do with students demonstrating that they know a body of knowledge, have developed a set of skills, and can apply them in a „real life‟ situation and can solve real life problems. Authentic assessment is performance-based and requires students to exhibit the extent of their learning through a demonstration of mastery. INTEGRATED ASSESSMENTSprovide an engaging and creative learning platform that closely links to the realities graduates will experience in the work force: a process that combines and blends the learning outcomes from multiple topics into a series of streamlined, realistic, employment focused activities. These assessments are with numerous formative and summative components and conducted over time. They demonstrate effective ways to synthesize topics into a coherent and contextualized framework using complementary skill and knowledge sets. Assessments no longer take on the feared final exams but instead naturally occur throughout the program, allowing learners to operate their new knowledge and skill. This assessment model tips the traditional model of “topic– teach–assess–graduate” on its head. The normal emphasis on the assessment of declarative knowledge and “synthetic” skills is now by measures of declarative and procedural knowledge blended into seamless assessment components that occur naturally. This creates experienced graduates ready for the workplace. More specifically, the two defining characteristics of an integrated assessment are 1) that it seeks to provide information of use to decision makers rather than merely advancing understanding for its own sake; and 2) that it brings together a broader set of areas, methods, styles of study, or degrees of certainty, than would typically characterize a study of the same issue within the bounds of a single research discipline. Integrated assessment system would improve the quality of summative exams, purposefully align formative assessments to these exams, and provide teachers with the requisite training to use assessments in ways that maximize not just measure student learning. Used in these ways, assessment can increase student achievement, particularly for low achievers. An integrated assessment system would improve on the current state of affairs and confer the following benefits: Enhanced classroom practice. When a broad range of rigorous assessment techniques is put to use, educators can use data to make instructional adjustments and extend student learning. Data-driven school improvement. Assessment can yield meaningful data that provide teachers and administrators with the information they need to drive school improvement efforts. For example, assessment results can serve as the foundation for conversations in professional learning communities.
  7. 7. Student empowerment. Not only does quality assessment provide teachers with valuable information about their students' progress so they can adjust their classroom instruction, but if used appropriately, it can also empower students to take ownership over their own learning process. HOLISTIC ASSESSMENT refers to the ongoing gathering of information on different facets of a child from various sources, with the aim of providing quantitative and qualitative feedback to support and guide the child's development. Four key aspects of holistic assessment: o Focusing on the development of the whole child o Striking a balance between AoL and AfL practices o Guiding teachers in the design and delivery of their practices o Using appropriate methods and modes of assessment Holistic assessment strike a balance between Assessment of Learning (AoL) • to measure pupil achievement and report evidence of learning • for accountability purposes – grading, ranking and certification. • tends to be summative in nature • carried out at the end of a unit, semester or year. Assessment for learning (afl) • to support classroom learning and teaching and improve pupil learning. • to redirect learning in ways that help pupils master learning goals. • formativein nature, • takes place all the time in the classroom, a process that is embedded in instruction. Five key messages on holistic assessment 1. Assessment is an integral part of learning and teaching. 2. We need to educate teachers, parents and students on thepurpose of assessment and ensure balanced use of summativeand formative assessment to provide information on mastery and attainment as well as information to improve learning and teaching. 3. Holistic assessment is not about removing exams but it is aboutusing a range of assessment methods and modes for differentpurposes. 4. Holistic assessment extends beyond the lower primary schoolyears into the upper primary school years. 5. It is consistent to have both holistic assessment and PSLE, theformer does not negate the need for the latter.
  8. 8. Assessment FOR Learning is identifying student‟s learning path and involving them on every aspects of assessment in order to develop their confidence and optimize their potentials and achievements. Through this purpose of assessment, students became data-driven and instructional decision makers wherein students are not only receiving assessment but directly participate on which assessment suitable for their need, in short, they are stakeholders of assessment. Assessment FOR & ASlearning, thereforeconsidered as effective method in assessing learning needs and learning outcome. Assessment FOR learning provides detailed information on prior knowledge and skills through a day-to-day assessment into teaching and learning process that enhances student learning instead of merely continuous monitoring. It provides both students and teachers with understandable information in a form they can use immediately to improve performance. In relation to Assessment AS learning, students become both confident and competent self-assessor and consumer of assessment information. As they experience and understand their own improvement over time, learners begin to sense that success is within reach if they keep trying. Furthermore, Assessment FOR & AS Learning promotes an environment that safe for every student to take chances on where support is readily available. The dilemma on its application in most educational institution is the failure to integrate these purposes of assessment into curriculum and lack of competence among teachers to execute the principles behind Assessment FOR & AS learning within the context of classroom management and assessment due to lack of training and shortage of experts on these purpose of assessment. On the other hand, Assessment OF learning is a traditional strategy of determining learning outcome of the student. This primarily comprises of summative assessment techniques that evaluate learning at the end of module or course program. Used as basis for student promotion and placement however, it does not directly measures true learning outcome such as better comprehension and competency. Moreover, it does not explicit learning goal and processes to monitor student progress, thus student involvement and participation in assessment process is difficult to achieve, since it promotes passive learning and one way of learning assessment. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT or diagnostic testing is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment. It typically involves qualitative feedback (rather than scores) for both student and teacher that focuses on the details of content and performance. It is commonly contrasted with summative assessment, which seeks to monitor educational outcomes, often for purposes of external accountability. Formative assessment aids learning by generating feedback information that is of benefit to students and to teachers. Feedback on performance, in class or on assignments, enables students to restructure their understanding/skills and build more powerful ideas and capabilities.
  9. 9. Formative assessment contrasted typically with summative assessment. The former supports teachers and students in decision-making during educational and learning processes, while the latter occurs at the end of a learning unit and determines if the content taught retained. Formative assessment is not distinguished by the format of assessment but by the information used. The same test may act as either formative or summative. However, some methods of assessment are better suited to one or the other purpose. Practice in a classroom is formative to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have taken in the absence of the evidence that was elicited. Rationale and practice There are several purposes to formative assessment: to provide feedback for teachers to modify subsequent learning activities and experiences; to identify and remediate group or individual deficiencies; to move focus away from achieving grades and onto learning processes, in order to increase self efficacy and reduce the negative impact of extrinsic motivation to improve students' metacognitive awareness of how they learn "frequent, ongoing assessment allows both for fine-tuning of instruction and student focus on progress." Feedback is the central function of formative assessment. It typically involves a focus on the detailed content of what is being learnt, rather than simply a test score or other measurement of how far a student is falling short of the expected standard. Seven principles of good feedback practice: 1. It clarifies what good performance is (goals, criteria, expected standards); 2. It facilitates the development of self-assessment in learning; 3. It provides high quality information to students about their learning; 4. It encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning; 5. It encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem; 6. It provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance; 7. It provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape teaching. With alternative assessment, we expect active participation from students in evaluating themselves and one another. Learners who are used to traditional teacher-centered classrooms are not to take responsibility for assessment before, and may need time to adjust to this new role. They also may be skeptical that peers can provide them with feedback that will enhance their learning.
  10. 10. Instructors need to prepare students for the use of alternative assessments and allow time to teach them how to use them, so that alternative assessment will make an effective contribution to the learning process. Introduce alternative assessment gradually while continuing with the necessary traditional forms of assessment. Begin by using checklists and rubrics, then move to self and peer evaluation later. Create a supportive classroom environment in which students feel comfortable with one another (see Teaching Goals and Methods). Explain the rationale for alternative assessment. Engage students in a discussion of assessment. Elicit their thoughts on the values and limitations of traditional forms of assessment and help them see ways that alternative assessment can enhance evaluation of what learners can do with what they know. Give students guidance on how to reflect on and evaluate their own performance and that of others (see specific examples on peer and self-evaluation). As students find the benefit from evaluating themselves and their peers, the instructor can expand the amount of alternative assessment used in the classroom. Keep in mind that “Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted, counts” (Albert Einstein). Try to view assessment as a celebration of learning. Through self-assessment, the student identifies his or her strengths and weaknesses, together with the teacher, sets new goals to improve learning and performance. To discover where mistakes made, and ways to fix them is as much a celebration as it is an acknowledgment of strengths for use in further growth. Give students choice in their assessment, tasks where appropriate, (e.g., writing a letter to a friend, family, or a fantasy person). When students have choices, they engage more deeply in the assessment activity, and their results are more likely to provide valid inferences. Give students the opportunity to make mistakes in their assessment. Mistakes provide feedback that they can use to adjust on what they are doing. However, if only others identified students' mistakes and limit feedback to marks or letters, students are less likely to know what to do differently the next time. View assessment as a way to give descriptive feedbackto improve learning, and to have students think critically about what they know and can do.
  11. 11. 8.1 AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT By: Princess When testing an isolated skill or a retained fact from the students, we are not really measuring the students‟ capabilities. In order to evaluate exactly what an individual has learned, it is necessary to develop an assessment method that examines collective abilities. Such an assessment procedure is an authentic assessment method. In general, AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT gives students situations that occur in the real world which require them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge. Authentic assessment has become increasingly popular, as a perception has grown that there is a need for more holistic approaches to evaluating students. Authentic assessment moves beyond learning by rote and memorization of traditional methods and allows students to construct responses. Authentic assessment captures aspects of students‟ knowledge, deep understanding, problem-solving skills, social skills, and attitudes used in a real world, or simulation of a real-world situation. Authentic assessments set meaningful and engaging tasks, in a rich context, where the learner applies knowledge and skills, and performs the task in a new situation. Authentic tasks help students rehearse for the complex ambiguities of adult and professional life. Main characteristics of authentic assessment, which set it apart from traditional assessment: Requires students to develop responses rather than select from predetermined options. Elicits higher order of thinking in addition to basic skills Directly evaluates holistic projects. Synthesizes with classroom instruction Uses sample of student work (portfolios) collected over an extended time period. Stems from clear criteria made known to students Allows for the possibility of multiple human judgments Relates more closely to classroom learning Teaches students to evaluate their own work In the traditional assessment method, tests are standardized and uniform rather than impersonal and absolute. Precisely because of these characteristics, traditional assessment methods cannot be “fair”. Even if the test are inappropriate in the context of the students, they are forced to accept the assessment method used. A test is “fair” when it is appropriate, that is, when it is personalized, natural and flexible; when modified, it pinpoint specific abilities and function at the relevant level of difficulty; and when it promotes a rapport between examiner and student.
  12. 12. Traditional Authentic Selecting a Response Performing a Task Contrived Real-life Recall/Recognition Construction/Application Teacher-structured Student-structured Indirect Evidence Direct Evidence Clarifying the attributes by elaborating on each in the context of traditional and authentic assessments: Selecting a Response to Performing a Task: On traditional assessments, students are typically given several choices (e.g., a,b,c or d; true or false; which of these match with those) and asked to select the right answer. In contrast, authentic assessments ask students to demonstrate understanding by performing a more complex task usually representing a more meaningful application. Contrived to Real-life: It is not very often in life outside of school, which we asked to select from four alternatives to indicate our proficiency at something. Tests offer these contrived means of assessment to increase the number of times you will be ask to demonstrate proficiency in a short period. More commonly in life, as in authentic assessments, we demonstrate proficiency by doing something. Recall/Recognition of Knowledge to Construction/Application of Knowledge: Well-designed traditional assessments (i.e., tests and quizzes) can effectively determine whether students have acquired a body of knowledge or not. Thus, as mentioned above, tests can serve as a nice complement to authentic assessments in a teacher's assessment portfolio. Furthermore, we ask to recall or recognize facts, ideas, and propositions in life, so tests are somewhat authentic in that sense. However, the demonstration of recall and recognition on tests is typically much less revealing about what we really know and can do than when we construct a product or performance out of facts, ideas and propositions. Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze then synthesize and apply what they have learned in a substantial manner, and students create new meaning in the process as well.
  13. 13. Teacher-structured to Student-structured: When completing a traditional assessment, what a student can and will demonstrate has been carefully structured by the person(s) who developed the test. A student's attention understandably focused on and limited to what is on the test. In contrast, authentic assessments allow more student choice and construction in determining the evidence of proficiency. Even when students cannot choose their own topics or formats, there are usually multiple acceptable routes towards constructing a product or performance. Obviously, assessments more carefully controlled by the teachers offer advantages and disadvantages. Similarly, more student-structured tasks have strengths and weaknesses to consider when choosing and designing an assessment. Indirect Evidence to Direct Evidence: Even a multiple-choice question asks a student to analyze or apply facts to a new situation rather than just recall the facts, and the student selects the correct answer, what do you now know about that student? Did that student get lucky and pick the right answer? What thinking led the student to pick that answer? We really do not know. At best, we can make some inferences about what that student might know and might be able to do with that knowledge. The evidence is very indirect, particularly for claims of meaningful application in complex, real- world situations. Authentic assessments, on the other hand, offer direct evidence of application and construction of knowledge. As in golf for example, putting a golf student on the golf course to play, provides much more direct evidence of proficiency than giving the student a written test. Can a student effectively comment on the arguments someone else has presented (an important skill often required in the real world)? Asking a student to write a comment or reaction should provide more direct evidence of that skill than asking the student a series of multiple-choice or analytical questions about a passage, although both assessments may be useful. Generally, authentic assessment is criterion-referenced rather than norm-referenced. Such evaluation identifies strengths and weaknesses, but does not compare or rank students. An authentic assessment procedure does not determine in advance the number of students who will pass or fail a given course, as in the case of norm-referenced system. Authentic assessment is base on performance. Students will demonstrate their knowledge, skills, or competencies in whatever way they find appropriate. There are several challenges in using authentic assessment methods. They include managing its time-intensive nature, ensuring curricular validity, and minimizing evaluator bias.
  14. 14. Types of Authentic and Alternative Assessments: Teacher Observations Peer Observations Self-Assessment Exit Slips Video/Digital Pictures Student Routines Student Journals Homework Portfolios Student Displays and Presentations Student Drawings
  15. 15. TYPES OF AUTHENTIC TASKS Tests usually consist of selected-response items (see below) and, occasionally, some constructed-response items. In contrast to the traditional assessment, authentic assessments include tasks such as performances, products and constructed-response items that typically require direct application of knowledge and skills. Described below are these types of task, along with common examples of each. Selected-responseIn response to a prompt, students select an answer from among those given, from memory or from allowable study aids. Typically, no new knowledge is constructed; students simply recall or recognize information required to select the appropriate response. Examples include Multiple-choice tests True-false Matching Fill-in-the-blank Label a diagram Constructed Response In response to a prompt, students construct an answer out of old and new knowledge. Since there is no one exact answer to these prompts, students are constructing new knowledge that likely differs slightly or significantly from that constructed by other students. Typically, constructed response prompts conceived narrowly, delivered at or near time where response is expected and are limited in length. However, the fact that students must construct new knowledge means revealing some of their thinking. As opposed to selected response items, the teacher gets to look inside the head a little with constructed response answers. Examples include (product-like): Short-answer essay questions "Show your work" Ordering decimals Limericks and rubric Concept maps; another example / rubric Writing a topic sentence Identifying a theme Making predictions Brief summaries; another example Peer editing Figural representation (e.g., Venn diagram; web / rubric) Journal response; literary journal reflections Homework reflections; article reflections / rubric Evaluating work of others; another example; another example Self-assessment; another example / rubric Self and group evaluation Goal setting; another example / reflection Question generation; another example Explain your solution (performance-like): Typing test Complete a step of science lab Measure objects Conducting bank transactions Utilizing library services Computer catalog search On demand, construct a short musical, dance or dramatic response On demand, exhibit an athletic skill Reading fluently Conferences Participation (and self-assessment)
  16. 16. Product In response to a prompt (assignment) or series of prompts, students construct a substantial, tangible product that reveals their understanding of certain concepts and skills and/or their ability to apply, analyze, synthesize or evaluate those concepts and skills. It is similar to a constructed-response item in that students are required to construct new knowledge and not just select a response. However, product assessments typically are more substantial in depth and length, more broadly conceived, and allow more time between the presentation of the prompt and the student response than constructed-response items. Examples include Essays, stories, or poems Ballads Obituaries Satirical pieces Metaphors School rules Research reports; another example Annotated bibliographies Works cited pages Reading strategies and rubric Projects / rubric; another example / rubric; another example Literary analysis; another example; another example Character analysis; another example Diction analysis Advertisement analysis Biography/Autobiography analysis Argument analysis / rubric Analyzing primary sources Analysis of painting Film analysis Geometric analysis Article reviews Book reviews / rubric Case study / rubric Speech critiques Extended journal responses Identification of goals Reading guides Feudal contracts / rubric Art exhibit or portfolio Models; another example Constructing objects Floor plans Musical compositions Photo compositions Design an advertisement Design an experiment Lab reports; another example Surveys Data recordings Graphing of data Data analysis; another example; another example Anaysis of statistical use in media / rubric Real-world problem solutions; another example / rubric Logical sequences Error analysis Planning for a task Preparing for a discussion Proposals and criteria Road trip directions Map construction / rubric Road trip budget Scavenger hunt Newspapers Newscasts; another example Editorials; another example Peer editing / rubric Posters; another example; another example / rubric Collages Pamplets; another example Brochures; another example / rubric Magazine covers Bulletin boards Videos / rubric Podcasts Games; another example; another example Comic strips Books; Booklets Timelines; another example / rubric Issue awareness campaigns Letter writing; persuasive letter writing;complaint letter Advice letter; letter to Congress; letter to Emperor
  17. 17. Performance In response to a prompt (assignment) or series of prompts, students construct a performance that reveals their understanding of certain concepts and skills and/or their ability to apply, analyze, synthesize or evaluate those concepts and skills. It is similar to a constructed-response item in that students are required to construct new knowledge and not just select a response. However, performances typically are more substantial in depth and length, more broadly conceived, and allow more time between the presentation of the prompt and the student response than constructed-response items. Examples include Conducting an experiment Musical auditions; group auditions Conducting an ensemble / rubric Conduct band rehearsal / rubric Create musical arrangement / rubric Dance or dramatic performances Dramatic readings Skits Role-plays / handout Talk show performances; another example Book talks Debates; another example / rubric Panel discussions Fishbowl discussions Coffee shop conversation Athletic competitions Oral presentations; another example; another example Teaching/explaining Speeches Interviews Self-introduction Cooperative group behavior; another example
  18. 18. 8.2 CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES By: Arwin Classroom assessment techniques include the class of assessment procedures called action research. Such authentic assessment procedure determines the quality of teaching and learning that occur in the classroom. In this technique, the teacher uses a variety of tools and practices that allow them to access accurate and relevant information about the quality of student learning and the quality of his teaching as well. The main goal of CAT is not to grade the student nor evaluate a teacher but rather the information gathered be used for facilitating interaction and dialogue between students and the teacher on the quality of learning process and thus, find ways and means to improve the process. CATs provide both teachers and students with “in process” information on how well students are learning what the curriculum intends. The three basic questions CATs ask are: What are the essential skills and knowledge I am trying to teach? How can I find out whether students are learning them? How can I help students learn better? The classroom assessment process assumes that students need to receive feedback early and often, that they need to evaluate the quality of their own learning, and that they can help the teacher improve the strength of instruction. The basic steps in the classroom assessment process are: Choose a learning goal to assess Choose an assessment technique Apply the technique Analyze the data and share the results with students Respond to the data CATs provide teachers with a “menu” of evaluation tools that: Check for student background knowledge Identify areas of confusion Enable students to self-assess their learning level Determine students learning styles Target and build specific skills
  19. 19. CAT, when used in a classroom setting, the teacher often finds sharing the result of his investigation with other teachers who are similarly situated. It therefore becomes necessary to publish his findings and thus contribute to the field of knowledge and to the list of best practices in teaching. In general, CATs are formative evaluation methods that serve two purposes. They can help you to assess the degree to which your students understand the course content and they can provide you with information about the effectiveness of your teaching methods. Mostly designed to be quick and easy to use, each CAT provides different kinds of information. For students, CATs can: help develop self-assessment and learning management skills; reduce feelings of isolation and impotence, especially in large classes; increase understanding and ability to think critically about the course content; foster an attitude that values understanding and long-term retention; show your interest and caring about their success in your classroom. What kinds of evaluations are CATs designed to perform? Course-related knowledge and skills (including prior knowledge, recall and understanding; analysis and critical thinking skills; synthesis and creative thinking skills; problem solving skills; and application and performance skills) Student attitudes, values, and self-awareness (including students' awareness of their own values and attitudes; students' awareness of their own learning processes; and course- related learning and study skills awareness) Reactions to instruction methods (including student and peer reactions to teachers and teaching, class activities, assignments, and materials) Following is a partial chart of CAT exercises, indicating the kind of evaluation for which each is intended, what each is called, how each is conducted, what to do with the information you collect, and an approximation of the relative amount of time each requires. Kind of Evaluation Name How It's Done How to Use Time Needs Course Knowledge Skills One-Minute Paper* During last few minutes of class period, ask students to use a half-sheet of paper and write "Most important thing I learned today and what I understood least." Review before next class meeting and use to clarify, correct, or elaborate. Low Muddiest Point* Similar to One-Minute Paper but only ask students to describe what they didn't understand and what they think might help. Same as One-Minute Paper. If many had the same problem, try another approach. Low
  20. 20. Chain Notes* Pass around a large envelope with a question about the class content. Each student writes a short answer, puts it in the envelope, and passes it on. Sort answers by type of answer. At next class meeting, use to discuss ways of understanding. Low Application Article During last 15 minutes of class, ask students to write a short news article about how a major point applies to a real-world situation. An alternative is to have students write a short article about how the point applies to their major. Sort articles and pick several to read at next class, illustrating range of applications, depth of understanding, and creativity. Medium Student- generated test questions* Divide the class into groups and assign each group a topic on which they are each to write a question and answer for the next test. Each student should be assured of getting at least one question right on the test. Use as many of the questions as possible, combining those that are similar. Medium Attitudes, Values, and Self- Awareness Journals Ask students to keep journals that detail their thoughts about the class. May ask them to be specific, recording only attitudes, values, or self-awareness. Have students turn in the journals several times during the semester so you can chart changes and development. Medium Reactions to Instruction Methods Exam Evaluations* Select a test that you use regularly and add a few questions at the end which ask students to evaluate how well the test measures their knowledge or skills.rnals Make changes to the test that are reasonable. Track student responses over time.rnals Medium Student Rep Group Ask students to volunteer to meet as a small group with you on a regular basis to discuss how the course is progressing, what they are learning, and suggestions for improving the course. Some issues will be for your information, some to be addressed in class. High Suggestion Box Put a box near the classroom door and ask students to leave notes about any class issue. Review and respond at the next class session. Low to Medium Peer Review Work with a willing colleague, pick a representative class session to be observed, and ask the colleague to take notes about his/her impression of the class, your interactions with students, and your teaching methods. Decide method with the colleague. Discussion is best, but a written report may be more useful in the long term. High CTE Classroom Observation CTE staff will observe a class session you choose and/or video tape a class session. CTE staff will meet with you to review observations and suggest ways of improving your teaching effectiveness. Medium to High Small Group Instructional Diagnosis (SGID) Trained facilitators, such as CTE staff, spend a class session eliciting responses from your students about what is effective and what is not so effective in helping them learn. You are not present during the session. Facilitators meet with you to explain the data they have collected and give you a written report. High
  21. 21. CAT's Techniques for Assessing Course-Related Knowledge and Skills Assessing Skills in Analysis and Critical Thinking 1. CATEGORIZING GRID - students are presented with a grid containing 2-3 important categories from what they have been studying, along with a scrambled list of terms/images/equations, etc. that belong in one or more categories. Give students limited time to complete (individual or group), can use as brainstorming technique or for grade. 2. DEFINING FEATURES MATRIX - requires students to categorize information/concepts according to the presence (+) or absence (-) of important defining features, helps them identify and make explicit distinctions between concepts. 3. PRO AND CON GRID - quick analysis of by class of the pros/cons, costs/benefits, advantages/disadvantages of a concept/issue. Forces students to go beyond their first reaction and search for two sides to an issue. Can be used in class or as homework, individual or group. 4. CONTENT, FORM, AND FUNCTION OUTLINES - student analyzes the "what" (content), "how" (form), and "why"(function) of a particular message. Could be journal article, poem, critical essay, advertisement, etc. Students writes brief notes in the form of an outline that can be read quickly. 5. ANALYTIC MEMO - students to write a 1-2 page analysis of a specific problem or issue, generally for a specific audience (employer, client, etc.) that needs the students' analysis to inform decision making. Assessing Skills in Application and Performance 1. DIRECTED PARAPHRASING - students are directed to paraphrase part of a lesson for a specific audience and purpose, using their own words. Can be used as a refresher technique or as a graded assignment. 2. APPLICATION CARDS - after students have heard/read about an imp principle, generalization, theory, or procedure, the instructor hands out an index card and asks them to write down at least one possible, real-world application for what they have just learned.
  22. 22. 3. STUDENT-GENERATED TEST QUESTIONS - focus on an exam that is 2-3 weeks away, have students generate 3 or 4 test questions and answers. Decide before you assign the questions what type of format, and perhaps certain subjects that you would like to cover. 4. HUMAN TABLEAU OR CLASS MODELING - have groups of students create "living" scenes or model processes to show what they know (ex) students pose as figures in a painting, reenact a Druid ritual, model operation of a fuel system in a car engine, model how the human visual system works. 5. PAPER OR PROJECT PROSPECTUS - brief, structured first-draft plan for a term paper or project, can include topic, purpose, intended audience, major questions to be answered, basic organization, and the time and resources required, etc
  23. 23. 8.3 PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT By: Mae History Keeping a portfolio is a very old idea. Going back centuries, artisans of any culture whokept pieces of their work to show, in effect, had the beginnings of a portfolio. Today,you would not hire an architect, a graphic designer, or a film crew without looking atsome of their work to determine whether their talent, knowledge, style, product andprofessionalism are in keeping with your requirements. At our company, we don‟t askfor test scores when we hire people, but we do want to see their past work because itprovides tangible evidence of their abilities and accomplishments. In 1991, when the original GradyProfile TM electronic portfolio waspublished, we struggled to explainportfolios to a teacher communitythat had not yet metthe concept in the context ofeducation. That a computeris an ideal place to keep onemeant nothing to people who thought of a “leather case” orof “stocks and bonds” when theyheard portfolio.In the intervening years, includinga wealth of web pages andaction research reports, alongwith books and journal articles.Published notions about portfolios vary widely on every aspect: • the container (from pillow cases to 3-ring binders to web sites) • the content (from writing to all domains and disciplines) • the format (from paper to multi-media) • the applicability (from elementary only to secondary and now collegiate and career portfolios) • purpose (showcase_, learning, employment) Though opinions differ, and budgets dictate some of these decisions, portfolio is nolonger new vocabulary for educators. Indeed, there are now varied and contradictorydogmas on portfolios: the reasons one must keep a portfolio, the artifacts that must bein one, the formats it must take. The gurus attach many adjectives to portfolios to prescribepurpose: formative, summative, showcase, presentational, celebratory, working,growth, learning, developmental, proficiency, mastery, assessment, reflective, connected,standards-based, staff-development, horizontal, vertical, longitudinal, archival, subjectarea, skill area, checklist, cross-disciplinary, college admission, employment, credential,multi-media resume, and community-service. Most, if not all of these, fit into twogeneral portfolio purposes suggested by some educators_, exhibit expertise and learning. The E-Portfolio is our “take” on portfolios; this paper with our reflection.Both have the benefit of a decade of considering portfolios from many angles. For us,it comes down to three key ideas:
  24. 24. 1. A portfolio tells one person‟s story. 2. A portfolio is as much a process as a product. 3. A portfolio always includes reflection. A portfolio tells one person’s story This is why a portfolio is important and this is what keeps it current.Your portfolio is your tangible record of accomplishment, a collection of your products,which tells who you are, and over time, becomes a record of how you came to be there.It strongly communicates what is important to you. Your story, your portfolio, is not a fad and it cannot go out of fashion because it is always evolving with you, at your pace, in your style. In this sense, a portfolio is like skin; it always fits you and is not interchangeable with anyoneelse. A portfolio is as much a process as a product One could say, theprocess involves thecourage to try andfail, the patience to reflect and thematurity to try again. In our experience, this is the process of a sentient being‟s ongoing, adapting involvement with the world, a lifelong learning process. Teachers call it the learning cycle; writingteachers call it the writing process; planners call it the planning cycle; marketers call itthe product cycle; programmers call it the development cycle. Every discipline seems tohave its own variation and vocabulary. It always involves performance (trying, doing),reflection (What worked well? What flopped? How will I improve next time?), andadjustment (making changes and trying again). The adjustment will range from a fewtweaks, to serious revision, to starting over, all with the goal of moving closer to gettingit right. In a classroom, the portfolio process starts when the teacher and the students setlearning goals and expectations. The teacher (or perhaps a student) models a newconcept or procedure. Then students take a try at it. If the classroom has a portfolioculture_, not getting it right away and considering Why, is a strong signal that learning is happening. Students and teacher pause to reflect on performance. They think aboutthese questions: What worked? What could be improved? How? What makes senseto try next? After considering the student critique and the teacher feedback, theremight be several tries and several revisions. Eventually, new connections are madethat lead to solid understandings, new skills are mastered, and bit by bit, studentsare able to move on to master new segments of the knowledge continuum. Then, newexpectations and goals are set and the cycle repeats. The following diagram highlightsthe reflection/adjust/try/repeating portion of the cycle because that is so central to theprocess.
  25. 25. Reflection and Feedback. The single most important interaction between teachers andstudents at any level is what academics call formative assessment_; what we prefer tocall useful feedback. More than a cheery Good job!, this is a feedback that offers commentsabout particular aspects of work, gives concrete advice or suggestions for improvement,or guides students into their own evaluation of their work. This kind of feedback happensone on one, frequently, and informally. Black andWilliam point out that self-assessment,(i.e., reflection) is “an essential component of formative assessment.†” Students who getuseful feedback from teachers learn how to reflect and they improve their understandingof lessons. Culling. Over time, reflection will naturally result in culling. Don‟t make the mistake ofkeeping every piece of work produced in the portfolio. An important part of the processis a periodic review of the contents to determine which pieces to remove because newerwork better shows one‟s abilities, skills and growth. The portfolio process starts with a collection of work and continues asthe pieces are compared and considered against goals, previous work, colleagues‟ workand professional standards. Over time, the collection is culled and new pieces are added.You can look back and see your professional growth, the evolution in your thinking, therefinement of process, the mastery of your profession. Our point, which the literature tends to omit, is that this do-it-reflect-on-it, revise-and- try-again cycle extends well beyond the classroom and is a practicalprocess for everyday life, as evinced by how it is incorporated into so manydisciplines. Like any serious creative activity, portfolio making evolves overthe life of the portfolio and perhaps beyond, in very much the way Picassodescribed painting: A painting is not thought out and settled in advance. While it is being done, it changesas one’s thoughts change. And when it’s finished, it goes on changing, according tothe state of mind of whoever is looking at it. – Pablo Picasso
  26. 26. A portfolio always has reflective pieces In fact, if reflection is missing, it is not a portfolio; it‟s something else, a collection, a scrapbook, a box of stuff; and it may be terrific stuff, but it‟s not a portfolio.Reflection on performance is as important as the performance itself_ because that iswhen understanding sharpens and deepens and becomes a part of what you know, whichis another way of saying it becomes a part of who you are. Ideally, a portfolio will havereflections on individual artifacts and experiences, as well as an over-arching reflectionon the portfolio as a whole.Reflecting is usually the most vexing part of the portfolio process because many peoplehave no idea what‟s expected in a reflection, nor how to go about doing it. Reflectingcan be threatening: should you toot your own horn? should you point out errors? Howyou approach reflection may depend on whether it‟s strictly for your own use, or whetheryou will be sending the portfolio out for review. For the latter, view reflection as yourchance to frame the discussion and guide reviewers toward the same understanding orpoint of view that you have. What‟s obvious to you may not be to a reviewer. Use thereflection to state why the work is important, why you are proud of it. Give them thelanguage to see it your way. Reflection Cycle that expands on the “3 Whats” (what, so what, what now) with five steps: 1. Select (choose artifacts, evidence) 2. Describe (circumstances - who, what, when, where) 3. Analyze (dig deeper, Why did you do it?, Where does it fit? Was it meaningful?) 4. Appraise (How effective was it? What impact did it have?) 5. Transform (What might you change to improve it? What have you learned?). Portfolios (of student work) are concrete evidences of student performance. They are far less susceptible for faking and manufacturing than transcripts and diplomas. In fact, in some instances, portfolios served as replacement for high school diplomas and transcript of records. The biggest drawback of portfolios, whether they are kept in a computer or in a cereal box, is time. It takes time to get organized, time to gather the pieces, time to cull them, time to digitize them (cheerio to cereal boxes), and time to reflect about each artifact and about the whole collection. The main disadvantages of portfolios are: Not easy to evaluate Hard to rank as with a grade or score Qualitative in nature, not a good determinant of student‟s ability This explains the popularity of hard, quantitative tests required in entrance or admission to universities or a certain job.
  27. 27. Some schools create portfolios that serve as a representation of a student‟s work, showing the range of performance and experience. Such records usually hold far more information that employers need. Other schools want to use portfolios as an assessment tool to provide an alternative to standardized teacher testing. While this would seem to be a rationale objective, it is often very difficult to implement in practice. Person in authority who decides on the fate of an applicant, hardly expected to evaluate and make judgment on presented portfolios no matter how detailed or concise the portfolio presentation may be. Why Bother with Portfolios? If you are sincerely dedicated to your work, every nano-second spent on your portfolio is time well spent. Bother with portfolios because:  They tell the most important story: your story, through a chronicle your work that shows how you‟ve grown and mastered your field.  They provide a far richer account of accomplishment than any test score, resumé or synopsis.  They become a gift to your future self, providing a great satisfaction when you review your portfolio, which you should do often.
  28. 28. 8.4 IMPLICATIONS OF PORTFOLIOS ON SOME ELEMENTS OF EDUCATION By: Vicky CURRICULUM–Some people believe that using portfolios will enable teachers to broaden their curriculum to include areas they traditionally could not assess with standardized testing. How well this works depends on how much a curriculum is developed “to the test,” in other words, how much curriculum is geared towards achieving high test scores rather than learning for learning‟s sake. INSTRUCTION–Portfolio assessment appears to compliment a teacher‟s use of instructional strategies centered around teamwork, projects, and applied learning. Portfolios are also compatible with more individualized instruction, as well as strategies focused on different learning styles. ASSESSMENT–A portfolio can be used as an assessment tool. External assessors– employers, evaluation panels, and so on–can benefit from them. Teachers can also utilize them to judge student performance. Plus, students can use their own portfolios for self- assessment and reflection. COMMON TYPES OF STUDENTS' LEARNING PORTFOLIOS Working / Growth Portfolios Showcase Portfolios Evaluation / Assessment Portfolios There are three types of portfolios: Formative Portfolios, which usually occurs on an ongoing basis supporting professional development; Summative Portfolios, which usually occurs within the context of a formal evaluation process; and Marketing Portfolios, which are used for seeking employment (Hartnell-Young &Morriss, 2007). Student learning portfolios, which indeed function as sample selection of students‟ work, in a single discipline, or multiple disciplines, accumulated throughout an assessment period, classified as formative ones. In the context of language teaching & learning processes, student learning portfolios are typically constructed for one of the following three purposes: to show growth, to showcase current abilities, and to evaluate cumulative achievement (Mueller, 2007) . The three common types of student learning portfolios are therefore termed as Working Portfolios (or Growth Portfolios) which emphasize on students‟ learning progresses and processes, Showcase Portfolios which aim at displaying the students‟ products of learning and Assessment Portfolios which are created for specific assessment and evaluation purposes of what students‟ have learned throughout the course.
  29. 29. However, it is critical that a portfolio may tell more than one story, thus, elaborate coincidentally more than one purpose mentioned above. There are no straightforward boundaries between the given categories of student learning portfolios. For example, a showcase portfolio might be used for evaluation purposes, and the Working portfoliosmight “showcase” eventually targeted performances or specific products. A student- learning portfolio of this category elaborates the student‟s collection of work over time, showing growth and improvement reflecting his or her own learning of identified outcomes. This portfolio also referred to as the documentation portfolio. Inclusion in a working portfolio can be everything from brainstorming activities to drafts to finished products, or even the student‟s archives of referential materials .Working portfolios allow teachers to diagnose students' strengths and weaknesses and provide guidance for the students in how to improve or perfect their work. Working portfolios can also show teachers what they might need to emphasize in their teaching. However, the main audience for the working portfolio is the student. With feedback from teachers, students can develop their reflective skills and cope with self-evaluation by working on the projects within the portfolio. The substance of a working portfolio is specific content related to course learning objectives. By constructing and learning on a working portfolio, students can complete an assignment, get feedback from their teachers, make necessary adjustments, and resubmit the assignment for the teacher‟s input. This cycle allows for a process of interaction that students usually consider as much more personalized than scores on a test or general statements made during a class about writing skills, grammatical errors, paper organizations, and so on.
  30. 30. As they are termed, showcase portfolios, typically created to show off students‟ progress and mastery of key curriculum outcomes in a specific course or throughout an entire program. Portfolios of this type, as Madden (2009) describes, include students' very best selection of work, especially elaborated by audio-visual artifact development, including photographs, videotapes, and electronic records of students' completed work. Written analysis and reflections by the students on their own decision- making processes to determine which displayed works are also typical inclusions of showcase portfolios. Constructing a showcase portfolio is demanding but especially fulfilling to students for it enables them to define who they are in terms of their culture, learning, experiences, and beliefs. The content of a showcase portfolio may include projects created in class as well as projects done outside of the classroom environment, maybe for a part-time job or a volunteer experience. The main advantage of a showcase portfolio is that the students can select their best work from a variety of experiences to demonstrate their skills and learning. Showcase portfolios therefore act as students‟ advertisements appealing for potential employers, future teachers or higher study admissions. The primary purpose of an assessment portfolio is to determine where the student has achieved academic goals or performance during the course. A portfolio, which is employed to examine where the student has obtained critical thinking, interpersonal skills or other “soft” skills that are difficult to quantify in an exam, or that are too broad to be assessed in a paper or on one topic, is then an assessment portfolio. Assessment portfolios driven usually by a specific set of requirements about content and possibly format that come out of an agreement between the teacher and the student. Elements in an assessment portfolio must be designed to help the student manifest learning related to specific course objectives defined in the syllabus (Widiatmoko, 2005) for the portfolio is intentionally targeted at demonstrating the student‟s accomplishment of both skills and content elaborated in the course. In other words, assessment portfolios are students‟ collections and archives of their assigned tasks, probably including lab activities, compositions, reviews, assignments, presentations, audio/video productions and so on to show that the students themselves have achieved the intended learning outcomes of the class, and especially to serve the evaluation purposes of their specific audience: the teacher – the assessor.
  31. 31. Therefore, it is comprehensively critical that templates or sample formats, including meticulous lists of required portfolios components, should be given or verified by the teacher on students‟ constructing their assessment portfolios. The following are the three considerably needed steps on implementing assessment portfolios: 1. Identifying what forms of procedural knowledge will be assess through the portfolio process; 2. Designing assessment tasks for the identified learning objectives; 3. Determining the criteria for each assessment task. Through the process of implanting an assessment portfolio, the student gain a more positive perception of himself or herself as the learner, an individual, and a professional in his or her own expertise. Then, the student iswell prepared for world of real work in his or her future life and career. The teacher, examining students‟ individual portfolios, receivescomprehensive portraits of the students, the "beyond the classroom" pictures of them. However, portfolio assessment is always labor-intensive and time-consuming; so a start on a small scale of students‟ portfolios should be great advice for teachers who wish to benefit from portfolio-based evaluation.
  32. 32. 8.5 CREATING A PORTFOLIO ASSIGNMENT By: Menan In order to create a portfolio assignment for the students, it is necessary to establish a series of questions which have to be addressed in designing a portfolio assignment. There are essentially seven (7) questions necessary in the development of a portfolio assignment: 1. Purpose: What is the purpose(s) of the portfolio? 2. Audience: For what audience(s) will the portfolio be created? 3. Content: What samples of student work will be included? 4. Process: What processes (e.g., selection of work to be included, reflection on work, conferencing) will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio? 5. Management: How will time and materials be managed in the development of the portfolio? 6. Communication: How and when will the portfolio be shared with pertinent audiences? 7. Evaluation: If the portfolio is to be used for evaluation, when and how should it be evaluated? Purpose: What is the purpose(s) of the portfolio? As mentioned above, before you can design the portfolio assignment and before your students can begin constructing their portfolios, you and your students need to be clear about the story the portfolio will be telling. Certainly, you should not assign a portfolio unless you have a compelling reason to do so. Portfolios take work to create, manage and assess. They can easily feel like busywork and a burden to you and your students if they just become folders filled with student papers. You and your students need to believe that the selection of and reflection upon their work serves one or more meaningful purposes. Audience: For what audience(s) will the portfolio be created? Selecting relevant audiences for a portfolio goes hand-in-hand with identifying your purposes. Who should see the evidence of a student's growth? The student, teacher and parents are good audiences to follow the story of a student's progress on a certain project or in the development of certain skills. Who should see a student's best or final work? Again, the student, teacher and parents might be good audiences for such a collection, but other natural audiences come to mind such as class or schoolmates, external audiences such as employers or colleges, the local community or school board. As the teacher, you can dictate what audiences will be considered or you can let students have some choice in the decision. Just as the purposes for the portfolio should guide the development of it, the selection of audiences should shape its construction. For example, for audiences outside the classroom it is helpful to include a cover page or table of contents that helps someone unfamiliar with the assignment to navigate through the portfolio and provide context for what is found inside. Students need to keep their audiences in mind as they proceed through each step of developing their portfolios. A good method for checking whether a portfolio serves the anticipated
  33. 33. audiences is to imagine different members of those audiences viewing the portfolio. Can each of them tell why you created the portfolio? Are they able to make sense of the story you wanted to tell them? Can they navigate around and through the portfolio? Do they know why you included what you did? Have you used language suitable for those audiences? Content: What samples of student work will be included? As you can imagine, the answer to the question of content is dependent on the answers to the questions of purpose and audience. What should be included? Well, what story do you want to tell? Before I consider what types of items might be appropriate for different purposes, let me make a more general point. First, hypothetically, there is no limit as to what can be included in a portfolio. Paper products such as essays, homework, letters, projects, etc. are most common. But more and more other types of media are being included in portfolios. Audio and videotapes, cd-roms, two- and three-dimensional pieces of art, posters and anything else that can reflect the purposes identified can be included. Some schools are putting all the artifacts onto a cd-rom by videotaping performances, scanning paper products, and digitizing audio. All of those files are then copied onto a student's cd-rom for a semester or a year or to follow the student across grades as a cumulative record. Realistically, you have to decide what is manageable. But if the most meaningful evidence of the portfolio's goals cannot be captured on paper, then you may consider including other types of media. Obviously, there are a considerable number and variety of types of student work that can be selected as samples for a portfolio. Using the purposes given above for each type of portfolio, I have listed just a few such possible samples of work in the following tables that could be included in each type of portfolio. Growth Portfolios: What samples might be included? Purpose Some possible inclusions a. to show growth or change over time early and later pieces of work early and later tests/scores rough drafts and final drafts reflections on growth goal-setting sheets reflections on progress toward goal(s) b. to help develop process skills samples which reflect growth of process skills self-reflection sheets accompanying samples of work reflection sheets from teacher or peer identification of strengths/weaknesses goal-setting sheets reflections on progress towards goal(s) see more detail below under Process below c. to identify strengths/weaknesses samples of work reflecting specifically identified strengths and weaknesses reflections on strengths and weaknesses of samples goal-setting sheets reflection on progress towards goal(s) d. to track development of one or more products or performances obviously, drafts of the specific product or performance to be tracked self-reflections on drafts reflection sheets from teacher or peer
  34. 34. Showcase Portfolios: What samples might be included? Purpose Some possible inclusions a. to showcase end-of-year/semester accomplishments samples of best work samples of earlier and later work to document progress final tests or scores discussion of growth over semester/year awards or other recognition teacher or peer comments b. to prepare a sample of best work for employment or college admission cover letter sample of work reflection on process of creating sample of work reflection on growth teacher or peer comments description of knowledge/skills work indicates c. to showcase student perceptions of favorite, best or most important samples of student's favorite, best or most important work drafts of that work to illustrate path taken to its final form commentary on strengths/weaknesses of work reflection on why it is favorite, best or most important reflection on what has been learned from work teacher or peer comments d. to communicate a student's current aptitude representative sample of current work match of work with standards accomplished self-reflection on current aptitudes teacher reflection on student's aptitudes identification of future goals Evaluation Portfolios: What samples might be included? Purpose Some possible inclusions a. to document achievement for grading samples of representative work in each subject/unit/topic to be graded samples of work documenting level of achievement on course/grade-level goals/standards/objectives tests/scores rubrics/criteria used for evaluation of work (when applied) self-reflection on how well samples indicate attainment of course/grade-level goals/standards/objectives teacher reflection of attainment of goals/standards identification of strengths/weaknesses b. to document progress towards standards list of applicable goals and standards representative samples of work aligned with respective goals/standards rubrics/criteria used for evaluation of work self-reflection on how well samples indicate attainment of course/grade-level goals/standards/objectives teacher reflection of attainment of goals/standards analysis or evidence of progress made toward standards over course of semester/year c. to place students appropriately representative samples of current work representative samples of earlier work to indicate rate of progress classroom tests/scores external tests/evaluations match of work with standards accomplished self-reflection on current aptitudes teacher reflection on student's aptitudes parent reflection on student's aptitudes other professionals' reflections on student's aptitudes
  35. 35. Other Content In addition to samples of student work and reflection upon that work, a portfolio might also include a table of contents or a cover letter (both typically composed by the student) to aid a reader in making sense of the purposes, processes and contents of the portfolio. This can be particularly useful if the portfolio is to be shared with external audiences unfamiliar with the coursework such as parents, other educators and community members. Process: What processes will be engaged in during the development of the portfolio? One of the greatest attributes of the portfolio is its potential for focusing on the processes of learning. Too often in education we emphasize the products students create or the outcomes they achieve. But we do not give sufficient attention to the processes required to create those products or outcomes, the processes involved in self-diagnosis and self- improvement, or the metacognitive processes of thinking. As a result, the products or outcomes are not as good as we or the students would like because they are often unsure how to get started, how to self-diagnose or self-correct or how to determine when a piece of work is "finished." Although a variety of processes can be developed or explored through portfolios, I will focus on three of the most common: selection of contents of the portfolio; reflection on the samples of work and processes; conferencing about the contents and processes. Selection of Contents Once again, identifying the purpose(s) for the portfolio should drive the selection process. As listed in the tables above, different samples of student work will likely be selected for different purposes. Additionally, how samples are selected might also differ depending on the purpose. For example, for an evaluation portfolio, the teacher might decide which samples need to be included to evaluate student progress. On the other hand, including the student in the decision-making process of determining appropriate types of samples for inclusion might be more critical for a growth portfolio to promote meaningful reflection. Finally, a showcase portfolio might be designed to include significant input from the student on which samples best highlight achievement and progress, or the teacher might primarily make those decisions. Furthermore, audiences beyond the teacher and student might have input into the content of the portfolio, from team or department members, principals and district committees to external agencies to parents and community members. External audiences are most likely to play a role for evaluation portfolios. However, it is important to remember there are no hard rules about portfolios. Anything can be included in a portfolio. Anyone can be involved in the processes of selection, reflection and evaluation of a portfolio. Flexibility applies to portfolios as it does to any authentic assessment. That is, you should be true to your purpose(s), but you should feel no constraints on how you meet them with a portfolio assignment.
  36. 36. How might the selection take place? What I will describe below are just a few of the many possible avenues for selecting which samples will be included in a portfolio. But these examples should give you a good sense of some of the choices and some of the decisions involved. When? when a sample of work is completed -- at the point a piece of work is ready to be turned in (or once the work has been returned by the teacher) the student or teacher identifies that work for inclusion in the portfolio; at periodic intervals -- instead of selecting samples when they are completed, the samples can be stored so that selection might occur every two (three, six or nine) weeks or once (twice or three times) every quarter (trimester or semester); at the end of the ... unit, quarter, semester, year, etc. By whom? by the student -- students are the most common selectors, particularly for portfolios that ask them to reflect on the work selected. Which work students select depends on the criteria used to choose each piece (see below). by the teacher -- teachers may be the selector, particularly when identifying best pieces of work to showcase a student's strengths or accomplishments. by the student and teacher -- sometimes portfolio selection is a joint process involving conversation and collaboration. by peers -- a student might be assigned a "portfolio partner" or "portfolio buddy" who assists the student in selecting appropriate pieces of work often as part of a joint process involving conversation and collaboration. A peer might also provide some reflection on a piece of work to be included in the portfolio. by parents -- parents might also be asked to select a piece or two for inclusion that they particularly found impressive, surprising, reflective of improvement, etc. Based on what criteria? best work -- selection for showcase portfolios will typically focus on samples of work that illustrate students' best performance in designated areas or the culmination of progress made evidence of growth -- selection for growth portfolios will focus on identifying samples of work and work processes (e.g., drafts, notes) that best capture progress shown on designated tasks, processes or acquisition of knowledge and skills. For example, students might be asked to choose o samples of earlier and later work highlighting some skill or content area o samples of rough drafts and final drafts o work that traces the development of a particular product or performance o samples of work reflecting specifically identified strengths and weaknesses evidence of achievement -- particularly for showcase and evaluation portfolios, selection might focus on samples of work that illustrate current levels of competence in designated areas or particular exemplars of quality work
  37. 37. evidence of standards met -- similarly, selection could focus on samples of work that illustrate how successfully students have met certain standards favorite/most important piece -- to help develop recognition of the value of the work completed and to foster pride in that work, selection might focus on samples to which students or parents or others find a connection or with which they are particularly enamored one or more of the above -- a portfolio can include samples of work for multiple reasons and, thus, more than one of the above criteria (or others) could be used for selecting samples to be included Reflection on Samples of Work Many educators who work with portfolios consider the reflection component the most critical element of a good portfolio. Simply selecting samples of work as described above can produce meaningful stories about students, and others can benefit from "reading" these stories. But the students themselves are missing significant benefits of the portfolio process if they are not asked to reflect upon the quality and growth of their work. As Paulson, Paulson and Meyer (1991) stated, "The portfolio is something that is done by the student, not to the student." Most importantly, it is something done for the student. The student needs to be directly involved in each phase of the portfolio development to learn the most from it, and the reflection phase holds the most promise for promoting student growth. In the reflection phase students are typically asked to comment on why specific samples were selected or comment on what they liked and did not like in the samples or comment on or identify the processes involved in developing specific products or performances or describe and point to examples of how specific skills or knowledge improved (or did not) or identify strengths and weaknesses in samples of work or set goals for themselves corresponding to the strengths and weaknesses or identify strategies for reaching those goals or assess their past and current self-efficacy for a task or skill or complete a checklist or survey about their work or some combination of the above Reflection sheets Probably the most common portfolio reflection task is the completion of a sheet to be attached to the sample (or samples) of work which the reflection is addressing. The possibilities for reflection questions or prompts are endless, but some examples I have seen include Selection questions/prompts Why did you select this piece? Why should this sample be included in your portfolio? How does this sample meet the criteria for selection for your portfolio? I chose this piece because ....
  38. 38. Growth questions/prompts What are the strengths of this work? Weaknesses? What would you work on more if you had additional time? How has your ______ (e.g., writing) changed since last year? What do you know about ______ (e.g., the scientific method) that you did not know at the beginning of the year (or semester, etc.)? Looking at (or thinking about) an earlier piece of similar work, how does this new piece of work compare? How is it better or worse? Where can you see progress or improvement? How did you get "stuck" working on this task? How did you get "unstuck"? One skill I could not perform very well but now I can is .... From reviewing this piece I learned .... Goal-setting questions/prompts What is one thing you can improve upon in this piece? What is a realistic goal for the end of the quarter (semester, year)? What is one way you will try to improve your ____ (e.g., writing)? One thing I still need to work on is .... I will work toward my goal by .... Evaluation questions/prompts If you were a teacher and grading your work, what grade would you give it and why? Using the appropriate rubric, give yourself a score and justify it with specific traits from the rubric. What do you like or not like about this piece of work? I like this piece of work because .... Effort questions/prompts How much time did you spend on this product/performance? The work would have been better if I had spent more time on .... I am pleased that I put significant effort into .... Overall portfolio questions/prompts What would you like your _____ (e.g., parents) to know about or see in your portfolio? What does the portfolio as a whole reveal about you as a learner (writer, thinker, etc.)? A feature of this portfolio I particularly like is .... In this portfolio I see evidence of .... As mentioned above, students (or others) can respond to such questions or prompts when a piece of work is completed, while a work is in progress or at periodic intervals after the work has been collected. Furthermore, these questions or prompts can be answered by the student, the teacher, parents, peers or anyone else in any combination that best serves the purposes of the portfolio.
  39. 39. Other reflection methods In addition to reflection sheets, teachers have devised a myriad of means of inducing reflection from students and others about the collection of work included in the portfolio. For example, those engaging in reflection can write a letter to a specific audience about the story the portfolio communicates write a "biography" of a piece of work tracing its development and the learning that resulted write periodic journal entries about the progress of the portfolio compose an imaginary new "chapter" that picks up where the story of the portfolio leaves off orally share reflections on any of the above questions/prompts Reflection as a process skill Good skill development requires four steps: Instruction and modeling of the skill; Practice of the skill; Feedback on one's practice; Reflection on the practice and feedback. Reflection itself is a skill that enhances the process of skill development and virtually all learning in innumerable settings. Those of us who are educators, for example, need to continually reflect upon what is working or not working in our teaching, how we can improve what we are doing, how we can help our students make connections to what they are learning, and much, much more. Thus, it is critical for students to learn to effectively reflect upon their learning and growth. As a skill, reflection is not something that can be mastered in one or two attempts. Developing good reflective skills requires instruction and modeling, lots of practice, feedback and reflection. As many of you have probably encountered, when students are first asked to respond to prompts such as "I selected this piece because..." they may respond with "I think it is nice." Okay, that's a start. But we would like them to elaborate on that response. The fact that they did not initially elaborate is probably not just a result of resistance or reluctance. Students need to learn how to respond to such prompts. They need to learn how to effectively identify strengths and weaknesses, to set realistic goals for themselves and their work, and to develop meaningful strategies to address those goals. Students often have become dependent upon adults, particularly teachers, to evaluate their work. They need to learn self- assessment. So, the reflection phase of the portfolio process should be ongoing throughout the portfolio development. Students need to engage in multiple reflective activities. Those instances of reflection become particularly focused if goal-setting is part of their reflection. Just as instruction and assessment are more appropriately targeted if they are tied to specific standards or goals, student identification of and reflection upon strengths and weaknesses, examples of progress, and strategies for improvement will be more meaningful and purposeful if they are directed toward specific goals, particularly self-chosen goals.
  40. 40. Once opportunities for reflection (practice) take place, feedback to and further reflection upon student observations can be provided by conversations with others. Conferencing is one tool to promote such feedback and reflection. Conferencing on Student Work and Processes With 20 or 30 or more students in a classroom, one-on-one conversations between the teacher and student are difficult to regularly arrange. That is unfortunate because the give and take of face-to-face interaction can provide the teacher with valuable information about the student's thinking and progress and provide the student with meaningful feedback. Such feedback is also more likely to be processed by the student than comments written on paper. Conferencing typically takes several forms: teacher/student -- sometimes teachers are able to informally meet with a few students, one at a time, as the other students work on some task in class. Other times, teachers use class time to schedule one-on-one conferences during "conference days." Some teachers are able to schedule conferences outside of class time. Typically such conferences take only a few minutes, but they give the teacher and the student time to recap progress, ask questions, and consider suggestions or strategies for improvement. teacher/small group -- other teachers, often in composition classes, meet with a few students at a time to discuss issues and questions that are raised, sharing common problems and reflections across students. student/student -- to conserve time as well as to give students the opportunity to learn how to provide feedback along with receiving it, teachers sometimes structure peer-to- peer conferencing. The focus might be teacher-directed (e.g., "share with each other a sample of work you recently selected for your portfolio") or student-directed (e.g., students use the time to get feedback on some work for a purpose they determine). Management: How will time and materials be managed in the development of the portfolio? As appealing as the process of students developing a portfolio can be, the physical and time constraints of such a process can be daunting. Where do you keep all the stuff? How do you keep track of it? Who gets access to it and when? Should you manage paper or create an electronic portfolio? Does some work get sent home before it is put in the portfolio? Will it come back? When will you find the time for students to participate, to reflect, to conference? What about students who join your class in the middle of the semester or year? There is one answer to all these questions that can make the task less daunting: start small! That is good advice for many endeavors, but particularly for portfolios because there are so many factors to consider, develop and manage over a long period of time. In the final section of this chapter (Can I do portfolios without all the fuss?) I will elaborate on how you can get your feet wet with portfolios and avoid drowning in the many decisions described below. How you answer the many management questions below depends, in part, on how you answered earlier questions about your purpose, audience, content and process. Return to those answers to help you address the following decisions:
  41. 41. Management Decisions Possible Solutions Should the portfolio building process wait until the end or should it occur as you go? The easiest solution is to collect work samples along the way but save the selection and reflection until the end, keeping selection simple and limiting the amount of reflection. The more involved (and more common) approach is for participants to periodically make selections and to engage in reflection throughout the process. This gives the student time to respond to identified weaknesses and to address goals set. Will the portfolios be composed of paper or stored electronically (or both)? Paper Portfolio: As you know, the most common form of portfolios is a collection of paper products such as essays, problem sets, journal entries, posters, etc. Most products produced in classrooms are still in paper form, so it makes sense to find ways to collect, select from and reflect upon these items. Hybrid Portfolio: Other forms of products are increasingly available, however, so teachers are adding videotapes, audiotapes, 3-D models, artwork and more to the containers holding the paper products. Electronic Portfolio: Since many of the paper products are now first created in an electronic format, it makes sense to consider keeping some samples of work in that format. Storage is much easier and portability is significantly increased. Additionally, as it becomes easier to digitize almost any media it is possible to add audio and video examples of student work to the electronic portfolio. A considerable amount of work can be burned to a CD or DVD or displayed on a website. An electronic compilation can be shared with a larger audience and more easily follow a student to other grades, teachers and schools. Copies can be made and kept. Where will the work samples and reflections be kept? Obviously, the answer to this question depends on your answer to the previous question about storage format. The possible solutions I describe below will assume that you have chosen an option that includes at least some paper products. A common model for portfolio maintenance is to have two folders for each student -- a working folder and a portfolio folder. As work samples are produced they are stored in the working folder. Students (or other selectors) would periodically review the working folder to select certain pieces to be included in the portfolio folder. Usually reflection accompanies the selection process. For example, a reflection sheet may be attached to each piece before it is placed in the portfolio. In addition to manilla or hanging folders, portfolio contents have also been stored in pizza or laundry detergent boxes, cabinets, binders and accordian folders (Rolheiser, Bower &Stevahn, 2000). For older students, some teachers have the students keep the work samples. Then they are periodically asked to select from and reflect upon the work. Students might only keep the working folders while the teacher manages the portfolio folders. As a parent, I know I also would like to look at my child's work before the end of the semester or year. So, some teachers send work home in carefully structured folders. One side of a two-pocket folder might be labeled "keep at home" while the other side might be labeled "return to school." The work likely to end up in the portfolio would be sent home in the "return to school" pocket. Who will be responsible for saving/storing them? Typically the teacher keep the contents of the portfolio as they are usually stored in the classroom. Older students (and sometimes younger ones) are also given the responsibility of managing their portfolios in the classroom, making sure all samples make it into the appropriate folders/containers, remain there, are put back when removed, and are kept neatly organized. As mentioned above, older students sometimes are required to keep track of their work outside the classroom, bringing it to class on certain days for reflection and other tasks. For electronic portfolios, it usually depends on teacher preference and whether or not students have access to storage space on the network or can save samples locally, or burn them to CDs or DVD, or add them to websites. Who will have access to it, and when? Who? Again, that depends on the purposes for the portfolio. Usually the teacher and student will have access to the working folder or the final samples.
  42. 42. But, for some types of showcase portfolios, only the teacher might have access because she is constructing the portfolio about the student. For older students, the teacher might only have limited access as the student controls the portfolio's development. Parents might have access and input as samples of work are sent home. Other educators might also have access to final portfolios for larger evaluative purposes. When? Typically, students and teachers contribute samples to a working folder as they are created. Access to a portfolio folder is gained on a more regular schedule as times for selection and reflection are scheduled. Parents or other educators might have access at certain intervals depending on the purpose of the portfolio and the process that has been chosen. How will portfolio progress be tracked? A checklist sheet is sometimes attached to the front of a folder so that the teacher or the student can keep track of when and which samples have been added, which have been removed (temporarily or permanently), when reflections have been completed, when conferences have taken place, and whether or not any other requirements have been completed. The teacher might just keep a schedule of when selections, reflections or conferences are to take place. Older students might be required to keep track of the process to make sure all requirements are met. What will the final product look like? Once again, this depends on the purposes and audiences for the portfolio, as well as the type of contents to be included. Showcase portfolios will typically have a more formal and polished presentation. A cover letter or introduction along with a table of contents might be included to provide context for a potentially wide range of readers, and to give the student or teacher a chance to more fully flesh out the student's story. Growth or evaluation portfolios might have a less formal presentation, unless the evaluation is part of a high stakes assessment. If the student and teacher are the primary readers, less context is needed. However, if parents are the primary or a significant intended audience, more explanation or context will be needed. What if students join your class in the middle of the process? Obviously, one advantage of choosing to build the portfolio at the end of a period of time rather than build it along the way (see the first question) is that transient students can still easily participate. They have less work to consider, but they can still engage in the selection and reflection process. If selection and reflection occur as work is being produced, the new student can simply join the process in progress. Some adaptation will likely be necessary, but the student can still demonstrate growth or competence over a shorter period of time. If the portfolio is also to be evaluated, further adjustment will need to be made.
  43. 43. References Baume (2000) Dialogues: Assessment. Educational Developments.1(3) Baume, D. and Yorke, M. (2002) (1) Portfolio Assessment? Yes, but . . .. In: G. Webb and P. Schwarz (eds.) Case studies on Teaching in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page (in press). Baume, D. and Yorke, M. (2002) (2) The reliability of assessment by portfolio on a course to develop and accredit teachers in higher education. Studies in Higher Education (in press).Open University, Institute of Educational Technology. Available from: Kolb, D.A., Rubin, I.M. and McIntyre, J.M. (1974) Organizational Psychology – An Experiential Approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Nonaka, I. (1994) A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation.Organisation Science.5(1). Rowntree, D. (1977) Assessing Students: How Shall We Know Them?. London: Harper & Row. Rust, C. (2000) An opinion piece: A possible student-centred assessment solution to some of the current problems of modular degree programmes. Active Learning 1(2), 6-131. SEDA Teacher Accreditation Scheme (2001). Available from: SEDA (2001) Teacher Accreditation Scheme [online]. Available from: Wolf, A. (1995) Competence-based assessment.Buckingham: Open University Press. Badger, E. (1992).More than testing.Arithmetic Teacher, 39(9), 7-11. Chapman, C. (1990). Authentic writing assessment. ED328606 Gives examples of how authentic writing assessment can be implemented in curricula. Illustrates how such assessment should be integrated across subjects rather than restricted to writing as a subject. Costa, A. L., &Kallick, B. (1992).Reassessing assessment. In A. L. Costa, J. A. Bellanca, & R. Fogarty, (Eds.), If minds matter: A forward to the future, Volume II (pp. 275-280). Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing. Drake, F. D. (1997). Using alternative assessments to improve the teaching and learning of history. ED412170 Traditional assessment needs to be supplemented by new measures as they do not provide intellectual challenge or stimulation in the study of history. Alternative assessments can improve both the teaching and learning of history by allowing for greater communication and analytical skills while providing in-depth understanding of historical themes. Nickell, P. (1993). Alternative assessment: Implications for social studies. ED360219 Describes the implications that the growth of alternative assessment has for social studies.Nickell argues for revision of the social studies curriculum, instructional practices, and integration of assessment with instruction. Pandey, T. (1990).Authentic mathematics assessment. ED354245 Suggests ideas for authentic assessment strategies in the mathematics curriculum. Illustrates how well authentic assessment can meet the needs of a mathematics framework that focuses on conceptualization and analytical skills. Describes authentic assessment in relation to more traditional mathematics assessment tools. Wiggins, G. (1990). The case for authentic assessment. ED328611 Argues the case for authentic assessment persuasively and passionately. This paper presents a definition of authentic assessment and offers a rational for it. It argues against criticisms of cost, time, and public mistrust. Wiggins claims that without authentic assessment practices, students are at risk of being ignored by conventional testing methods.
  44. 44. Classroom Assessment: Minute by Minute, Day by Day. Leahy, Lyon, Thompson &Wiliam 2005) - See more at: Andrade, H. G. (2000). Using rubrics to promotethinking and learning.Educational Leadership, 57(5), 13–18. Montgomery, K. (2001). Authentic assessment: A guidefor elementary teachers. New York: Longman. ISBN: 0321037820. Penta, M. Q. (2002). Student portfolios in a standardizedworld.Kappa Delta Pi Record, 38(2), 77–81. Stiggins, R. J. (2001). Student-involved classroomassessment.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0130225371. Website Indiana University, College of Education—http://reading.indiana.eduRelated websites and materials to enhance understanding of portfolio assessment. Victoria B. Damiani, EdD, NCSP, is Associate Professor ofEducational and School Psychology and Coordinator of Master’s and Specialist Programs at Indiana University ofPennsylvania. © 2004 National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814—(301) 657-0270.