I Hate Process. I Love ProcessWhy	  designers	  are	  divided	  about	  process	  &	  what	  to	  do	  about	  it.	  	  Jo...
E.	  Chris9na	  Persson	     Joan	  Verme>e	  @chris9na_xd	                  @jayeffvee	  
What	  we’ll	  talk	  about	  •  The	  Hate/Love	  debate	  over	  process	  •  The	  Intersec9on	  •  How	  to	  create	 ...
I	  Hate	  Process.	                         Kill	  Bill.	  Mo9on	  Picture.	  Directed	  by	  Quen9n	  Taran9no.	  Mirama...
I	  Hate	  Process.	                                                           I	  Love	  Process.	                       ...
So	  what’s	  the	  right	  answer?	  
So	  what’s	  the	  right	  answer?	  It	  depends.	  
So	  what’s	  the	  right	  answer?	  It	  depends.	  .	  .	  .	  like	  anything	  we	  design.	  
When	  7	  out	  of	  10	  Americans	  were	  asked	  about	  the	  last	  9me	  9me	  they	  felt	  they	  “had	  to	  ha...
47%	  of	  “rapidly	  growing”	  Bri9sh	  businesses	  rank	  design	  first	  among	  their	  key	  success	  factors.	   ...
Plan	  –	  Define	  -­‐-­‐	  Develop	  –	  Extend	  	  Gather	  Assump9ons	  &	  Requirements	  -­‐	  Analyze	  Compe99on	 ...
Think	     Draw	     Make	                          Illustra9on:	  Brandon	  Baselice	  
Think	  Define	  problem	  Define	  business	  goals	  Research	  users	  Research	  market	  Conduct	  compara9ve	  analysi...
Draw	  Imagine	  what	  could	  be	  	  Sketch	  &Ideate	  	  Refine	  &	  Detail	  Build	  consensus	  Prototype	  Test	  ...
Make	  Measure	  Set	  9meline	  &	  milestones	  Build	  Deliver	  Extend	                             Illustra9on:	  Bra...
Think	     Draw	     Make	                          Illustra9on:	  Brandon	  Baselice	  
When	  process	  chafes	  us	  as	  designers	  it’s	  a	  sign	  that	  an	  organiza9on	  is	  	  	  	  	  	  	  out	  o...
The	  Organiza9on	              D	                                      D	  Think	        M	     T	                       ...
The	  Organiza9on	              D	                                      D	  Think	        M	     T	                       ...
D	  Think	       M	     The	  Organiza9on	                                                 h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/laug...
D	  Think	       M	          The	  Organiza9on	                             Indicators	                        •    Over-­...
D	       Think	       M	     The	  Organiza9on	       Facilitates	  Make	                             Facilitates	  Draw	 ...
The	  Organiza9on	              D	                                      D	  Think	        M	     T	                       ...
T	            Draw	                       The	  Organiza9on	          M	                                                E....
T	            Draw	          M	                       h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/richardmccoy/6379314895/	  
T	            Draw	                        The	  Organiza9on	          M	                        Indicators	              ...
T	                   Draw	                              The	  Organiza9on	                 M	       Facilitates	  Think	  ...
The	  Organiza9on	              D	                                      D	  Think	        M	     T	                       ...
D	  T	              Make	                         The	  Organiza9on	                                              h,p://ww...
D	  T	              Make	                              The	  Organiza9on	                              Indicators	        ...
D	       T	                   Make	                              The	  Organiza9on	         Facilitates	  Think	          ...
Facilitates	  Think	  •    Design	  Studio	  •    Steal	  other	  peoples’	  research	  •    Ask	  “Why”	  five	  9mes	  • ...
Facilitates	  Draw	  •    Start	  sketching	  &	  keep	  sketching	  •    Test	  &	  refine	  •    Don’t	  do	  wireframes	...
Facilitates	  Make	  •    Create	  brief	  with	  team	  (via	  kick-­‐off	  with	  	  	       stakeholders	  &	  core	  te...
Enter	  into	  the	  enemy’s	  strengths	  	  in	  order	  to	  defeat	  them	  from	  within.	                           ...
D	                        Engage	  +	  Guide	  =	  Balance 	  	  Think	       M	     .	  .	  .	  start	  with	  their	  st...
Engage	  +	  Guide	  =	  Balance 	  	           Draw	           .	  .	  .	  start	  with	  their	  strength	  T	          ...
D	                                  Engage	  +	  Guide	  =	  Balance 	  	  T	         Make	              .	  .	  .	  start...
So	  what	  about	  you?	  
So	  what	  about	  you?	  Are	  you	  a...	  
D	                                       D	  Thinker	        M	     T	                                       Draw	     T	 ...
D	                                     D	  Think	        M	     T	                                 Drawer	     T	         ...
D	                                       D	  Think	        M	     T	                                     Draw	     T	     ...
•  When	  you’re	  on	  a	  project,	     what	  gives	  you	  that	  sense	     of	  flow?	  •  Do	  you	  find	  it	  impo...
You	  can	  be	  in	  sync	  with	  the	  organiza9on	                  and	  get	  sucked	  into	  the	  vortex.	        ...
You	  can	  be	  out	  of	  sync	  with	  the	  organiza9on	                   And	  feel	  an	  inordinate	  amount	  of	...
So	  it’s	  good	  to	  know	  where	  you	  sit	  
So	  it’s	  good	  to	  know	  where	  you	  fit	  And	  know	  where	  you	  need	  to	  grow.	  
Summary	  •  The	  Hate/Love	  debate	  •  The	  Intersec9on	      –  Do	  the	  designers	  &	  organiza9on	  have	  what...
Discussion	  Tell	  us	  your	  stories.	  	  	  What	  remedies	  have	  you	  used	  or	  would	  try?	  What	  struggle...
Sources:	  Models	  of	  the	  Design	  Process	  •  Think	  –	  Draw	  –	  Make.	  Brian	  Ling,	  thinkdrawmake.com,	  D...
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I Hate Process. I Love Process. IXD12. Christina Persson & Joan Vermette.


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As a designer, have you ever felt frustrated by having to break the creative process up into tiny task boxes that block the way to good design?

Have you ever felt frustrated by a lack of structure, leading to endless rework, crossed communication lines, and plain old wasted time?

There's too much process in some cultures, and not enough in others. And we declare that we hate process or we love process, as though that were an immutable quality of our souls.
But what do designers need?

We believe in a core, necessary way of sequencing design work to get the best results. Borrowing from Design Sojourn’s Brian Ling, we express this core as “Think – Draw – Make.” When process chafes us as designers, it’s a sign that an organization is unbalanced in one of these three key activities. If they front-load a project with tons of research and still can’t make a decision, they’re caught in “think.” If they ask us to come to the kickoff with wireframes, they’re caught in “draw.” If they’re hell-bent on getting to build immediately, they’re caught in “make.” Similarly, we’re not blank slates, either – each of us brings our particular skills to a project, and we have our own attachments, as well.

Our presentation will discuss how to know which culture you’re dealing with, where you sit with regard to that culture, and provide some skills for how to bring yourself and the culture together back into balance.

Published in: Design, Technology, Business
  • @ckubitsky One of the points we make when we talk about Think-Draw-Make is that they aren't necessarily strictly sequential. You can sometimes draw or make in order to bring the goals and principles into focus, for instance.

    IxDA will be putting the videos for talks online in the next few weeks. Plus, we're thinking of creating a workshop and a game based on these ideas - stay tuned!

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  • This is a great presentation! I really wish I could have been ad IXD12 to see you present it. The framework of Think.Draw.Make is very similar to how we are defining the flexible process for UX at my organization. I think the key difference is that we stretch the Draw activities to overlap between Think and Make. We feel it's important to the definition process to include some drawing and concepting. Without pictures, it's hard to get what's in people's heads out and agreed upon :)
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  • It's official! The slides from the Interaction Design Association's IXD12 conference are posted!
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I Hate Process. I Love Process. IXD12. Christina Persson & Joan Vermette.

  1. 1. I Hate Process. I Love ProcessWhy  designers  are  divided  about  process  &  what  to  do  about  it.    Joan Vermette, @jayeffveeUser Experience ConsultantE. Christina Persson, @christina_xdExperience Design Director
  2. 2. E.  Chris9na  Persson   Joan  Verme>e  @chris9na_xd   @jayeffvee  
  3. 3. What  we’ll  talk  about  •  The  Hate/Love  debate  over  process  •  The  Intersec9on  •  How  to  create  change  in  organiza9ons  to  get  what  we  need  •  How  to  iden9fy  and  assess  our  own  orienta9on  and  skills  
  4. 4. Process  
  5. 5. I  Hate  Process.   Kill  Bill.  Mo9on  Picture.  Directed  by  Quen9n  Taran9no.  Miramax  Films,  2003.  
  6. 6. I  Hate  Process.   I  Love  Process.   Kill  Bill.  Mo9on  Picture.  Directed  by  Quen9n  Taran9no.  Miramax  Films,  2003.  
  7. 7. So  what’s  the  right  answer?  
  8. 8. So  what’s  the  right  answer?  It  depends.  
  9. 9. So  what’s  the  right  answer?  It  depends.  .  .  .  like  anything  we  design.  
  10. 10. When  7  out  of  10  Americans  were  asked  about  the  last  9me  9me  they  felt  they  “had  to  have”  a  product,      it  was  due  to  design.   Kelton  Research   Marty  Neumeier,  The  Designful  Company,  2009    
  11. 11. 47%  of  “rapidly  growing”  Bri9sh  businesses  rank  design  first  among  their  key  success  factors.   Design  Council  study.     Marty  Neumeier,  The  Designful  Company,  2009    
  12. 12. Plan  –  Define  -­‐-­‐  Develop  –  Extend    Gather  Assump9ons  &  Requirements  -­‐  Analyze  Compe99on  -­‐  Understand  Goals  &  Tasks  -­‐  Develop  Personas  &  Scenarios  -­‐  Build  Content  Model  -­‐  Design  Informa9on  Architecture  -­‐  Priori9ze  Features  -­‐  Design  Interac9on  –  Prototypes  &  Pa>erns  –  Validate  Usability       Define  the  problem  -­‐  Gather  per9nent  informa9on  -­‐  Generate  mul9ple  solu9ons  -­‐       Analyze  and  select  a  solu9on  -­‐  Test  and  implement  the  solu9on     Research  -­‐  Modeling  -­‐  Scenarios  -­‐  Framework  -­‐  Detailed  Design     Prepare  –  Understand  –  Render  –  Iterate  –  Test  -­‐  Enable     Inves9gate  –  Sketch  –  Build     Conceive  –  Plan  –  Make     Uncover  -­‐  Define  -­‐  Ideate  -­‐  Build  the  Concept  –  Design    Understand  -­‐  Explore  -­‐  Ar9culate  –  Realize     Analysis  -­‐  Design  -­‐  Implementa9on  –  Deployment     Define  –  Design  –  Guide     Research  &  Analysis  -­‐  Concept  –  Design  -­‐  Develop     Analyze  -­‐  Create  -­‐  Test     Ask  -­‐  Imagine  -­‐  Plan  -­‐  Create  –  Improve     Define  -­‐  Collect  -­‐  Brainstorm  and  Analyze  -­‐  Develop  -­‐  Feedback  –  Improve     Discover  –  Define  –  Develop  –  Deliver     Concept  -­‐  Prototype  -­‐  Validate  Internally  -­‐  Test  Externally  -­‐  Learn  from  User  Behavior  -­‐  Iterate     Iden9fy  the  Problem  -­‐  Iden9fy  Criteria  and  Constraints  -­‐  Brainstorm  Possible  Solu9ons  -­‐  Generate  Ideas    -­‐  Explore  Possibili9es  -­‐  Select  an   Approach  -­‐  Build  a  Model  or  Prototype  -­‐  Refine  the  Design     Discovery  &  Research  -­‐  Interac9on  Design  -­‐  Visual  Design  –  Engineering    
  13. 13. Think   Draw   Make   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  14. 14. Think  Define  problem  Define  business  goals  Research  users  Research  market  Conduct  compara9ve  analysis  Define  scope   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  15. 15. Draw  Imagine  what  could  be    Sketch  &Ideate    Refine  &  Detail  Build  consensus  Prototype  Test  &  Revise   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  16. 16. Make  Measure  Set  9meline  &  milestones  Build  Deliver  Extend   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  17. 17. Think   Draw   Make   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  18. 18. h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/piercepresley/69600192/  
  19. 19. When  process  chafes  us  as  designers  it’s  a  sign  that  an  organiza9on  is              out  of  balance  with  one  of  these  three  key  ac9vi9es.      
  20. 20. The  Organiza9on   D   D  Think   M   T   Draw   T   Make   M  
  21. 21. The  Organiza9on   D   D  Think   M   T   Draw   T   Make   M  
  22. 22. D  Think   M   The  Organiza9on   h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/lauggh/443244547/in/faves-­‐74877869@N05/  
  23. 23. D  Think   M   The  Organiza9on   Indicators   •  Over-­‐focus  on  data  &  proof   •  Lack  of  focus  on  the  outcome   •  Endless  discussions  about  strategy   •  Sense  that  the  team  is  looking  for  the  one   true  perfect  –  &  provable  –  answer  
  24. 24. D   Think   M   The  Organiza9on   Facilitates  Make   Facilitates  Draw  •  Create  project  plan   •  Start  sketching!  •  Create  brief  with  team   •  Keep  sketching!  •  Publish  plan  and  brief   •  Test  •  Refer  to  plan/brief  regularly   •  Refine  •  Establish  guidelines  for   “Research  project”  
  25. 25. The  Organiza9on   D   D  Think   M   T   Draw   T   Make   M  
  26. 26. T   Draw   The  Organiza9on   M   E.  Chris9na  Persson  
  27. 27. T   Draw   M   h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/richardmccoy/6379314895/  
  28. 28. T   Draw   The  Organiza9on   M   Indicators   •  “I  know  it  when  I  see  it.”   •  Nonchalance  at  the  business  goal  and  the   defini9on  phase.   •  Design  by  trial  &  error:  changing   requirements   •  When  you  approach  finishing  the  design   asympto9cally.  You  never  finish  the  details.  
  29. 29. T   Draw   The  Organiza9on   M   Facilitates  Think   Facilitates  Make  •  Design  Studio   •  Set  design  milestones  •  Steal  other  peoples’   •  Capture  the  tenets  and   research   keep  referring  back  to  •  Ask  “How  do  we  know   them   when  we  hit  the  mark?”   •  Introduce  the  concept  of  •  Ask  “Why”  five  9mes   phasing  
  30. 30. The  Organiza9on   D   D  Think   M   T   Draw   T   Make   M  
  31. 31. D  T   Make   The  Organiza9on   h,p://www.flickr.com/photos/dukejeffrie/17764144/in/faves-­‐74877869@N05/  
  32. 32. D  T   Make   The  Organiza9on   Indicators   •  Your  key  indicator  is  when  they  are  focused   on  produc9on,  and  don’t  leave  room  for   visioning.   •  When  you  feel  like  you’re  taking  an  oral-­‐ exam  on  what  you’ve  learned  up  to  that   point,  and  are  learning  nothing  new.   •  When  drawing  is  not  specula9ve   •  There’s  no  9me  for  “what  if….?”  
  33. 33. D   T   Make   The  Organiza9on   Facilitates  Think   Facilitates  Draw  •  Collude  with  the  business   •  Don’t  do  wireframes  •  Sprint  Zero  (for  Agile)   •  Create  a  mini-­‐spec    •  Pull  the  differen9ators  into   •  Use  screenshots  as  starter   a  separate  environment   to  explore  ideas   •  Ad-­‐hoc  sketch/whiteboard   sessions  with  core  team   •  Proof-­‐of-­‐Concept  sprints   (for  Agile)  
  34. 34. Facilitates  Think  •  Design  Studio  •  Steal  other  peoples’  research  •  Ask  “Why”  five  9mes  •  Collude  with  the  business  •  Ask  “How  do  we  know  we  hit  the  mark?”  •  Sprint  Zero  for  vision  work  (Agile)  •  Pull  the  market  differen9ators  into  a   separate  environment   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  35. 35. Facilitates  Draw  •  Start  sketching  &  keep  sketching  •  Test  &  refine  •  Don’t  do  wireframes  •  Mini-­‐spec  if  team  needs  some  guidance  •  Use  drawing  to  elucidate  the  not  yet  ar9culated  needs.  •  Ad-­‐hoc  sketch  sessions  with  core  team.  •  Use  screenshots  as  starter  to  explore  ideas    •  Use  latest  build  as  prototype  to  test  implemented  design  •  Proof-­‐of-­‐concept  sprint  to  enable  explora9on  (Agile)  •  Pull  the  market  differen9ators  into  a  separate  environment  
  36. 36. Facilitates  Make  •  Create  brief  with  team  (via  kick-­‐off  with       stakeholders  &  core  team).  •  Set  design  milestones,  or  even  overall  project  plan  •  Publish  plan  and  brief  •  Refer  to  plan  and  brief  regularly  (to  counter  changing   requirements)  •  Capture  the  tenets  &  keep  referring  to  them  •  Introduce  concept  of  phasing  •  Establish  guidelines  for  a  ‘research  project’   Illustra9on:  Brandon  Baselice  
  37. 37. Enter  into  the  enemy’s  strengths    in  order  to  defeat  them  from  within.    Walter  Benjamin   h>p://walterbenjaminportbou.cat/en/content/walter-­‐benjamin  
  38. 38. D   Engage  +  Guide  =  Balance    Think   M   .  .  .  start  with  their  strength  If  you’re  expected  to  bring  research  results  to  the  next  mee9ng,  bring  sketches  based  on  those  research  results.    
  39. 39. Engage  +  Guide  =  Balance     Draw   .  .  .  start  with  their  strength  T   M   Host  a  design  studio  to  gather  requirements   and  funnel  down  to  single  concept.  
  40. 40. D   Engage  +  Guide  =  Balance    T   Make   .  .  .  start  with  their  strength   Use  the  latest  build  as  a  prototype  and  put   in  front  of  users  to  uncover  user  needs.  
  41. 41. So  what  about  you?  
  42. 42. So  what  about  you?  Are  you  a...  
  43. 43. D   D  Thinker   M   T   Draw   T   Make   M  
  44. 44. D   D  Think   M   T   Drawer   T   Make   M  
  45. 45. D   D  Think   M   T   Draw   T   Maker   M  
  46. 46. •  When  you’re  on  a  project,   what  gives  you  that  sense   of  flow?  •  Do  you  find  it  impossible  to   grasp  and  organize  details   un9l  you  have  a  sense  of   the  whole?    •  Do  you  frequently  feel  “I   don’t  know  the  solu9on   un9l  I  see  it?”  •  Do  you  find  it  hard  to  act   un9l  you  know  the  dates?     Joan  Verme>e  
  47. 47. You  can  be  in  sync  with  the  organiza9on   and  get  sucked  into  the  vortex.   h>p://sc6.blogspot.com/2010/04/todays-­‐quote-­‐when-­‐was-­‐this-­‐quote-­‐made.html  
  48. 48. You  can  be  out  of  sync  with  the  organiza9on   And  feel  an  inordinate  amount  of  stress   h>p://www.flickr.com/photos/photolosophybyruss/5465729022/  
  49. 49. So  it’s  good  to  know  where  you  sit  
  50. 50. So  it’s  good  to  know  where  you  fit  And  know  where  you  need  to  grow.  
  51. 51. Summary  •  The  Hate/Love  debate  •  The  Intersec9on   –  Do  the  designers  &  organiza9on  have  what  they  need?    •  Iden9fy  +  Engage  +  Guide  =  Balance   –  Iden9fy  the  organiza9on   –  Engage  via  their  strength   –  Guide  &  develop  weak  design  muscles  •  Start  with  yourself  
  52. 52. Discussion  Tell  us  your  stories.      What  remedies  have  you  used  or  would  try?  What  struggles  are  you  facing?  What  are  your  successes?     E.  Chris9na  Persson   Joan  Verme>e   chris9na@madpow.com   jayeffvee@mac.com   @chris9na_xd   @jayeffvee   Thanks  to  Brian  Ling  (thinkdrawmake.com,  Design  Sojourn).  
  53. 53. Sources:  Models  of  the  Design  Process  •  Think  –  Draw  –  Make.  Brian  Ling,  thinkdrawmake.com,  Design  Sojourn  •  Define  the  problem  -­‐  Gather  per9nent  informa9on  -­‐  Generate  mul9ple  solu9ons  -­‐  Analyze  and  select  a  solu9on  -­‐  Test  and   implement  the  solu9on  [Industry  Ini9a9ves  for  Science  and  Math  Educa9on  (IISME)]  •  Research  -­‐  Modeling  -­‐  Scenarios  -­‐  Framework  -­‐  Detailed  Design  [Coopers  descrip9on  of  their  process]  •  Discovery  &  Research  -­‐  Interac9on  Design  -­‐  Visual  Design  –  Engineering  [Boxes  and  Arrows]  •  Ask  -­‐  Imagine  -­‐  Plan  -­‐  Create  –  Improve  [EiE:  Engineering  is  Elementary]  •  Define  -­‐  Collect  -­‐  Brainstorm  and  Analyze  -­‐  Develop  -­‐  Feedback  –  Improve  [Chicago  Architecture  Founda9on]  •  Research  &  analysis  -­‐  Concept  -­‐  Design  –  Develop  [Konigi.  Note,  every  cycle  here  has  analyze  -­‐  create  –  test]  •  Understand  -­‐  Explore  -­‐  Ar9culate  –  Realise  [Meld  studios]  •  Analysis  -­‐  Design  -­‐  Implementa9on  –  Deployment  [UPA]  •  Gather  Assump9ons  &  Requirements  -­‐  Analyze  Compe99on  -­‐  Understand  Goals  &  Tasks  -­‐  Develop  Personas&  Scenarios  -­‐  Build   Content  Model  -­‐  Design  Informa9on  Architecture  -­‐  Priori9ze  Features  -­‐  Design  Interac9on  -­‐  Prototypes  &  Pa>erns  -­‐  Validate   Usability.  [Peter  Merholz,  peterme.com  2002.]  •  Concept  -­‐  Prototype  -­‐  Validate  Internally  -­‐  Test  Externally  -­‐  Learn  from  User  Behavior  –  Iterate  [Jeff  Gothelf]  •  Conceive  -­‐  Plan  –  Make  [Richard  Buchanan]  •  Define-­‐  Design  –  Guide  [Joan  Verme>e]  •  Plan  -­‐  Define  -­‐  Develop  –  Extend.  [Russ  Unger]  •  Prepare  –  Understand  –  Render  –  Iterate  –  Test  Enable[(Purite  Process,  Russ  Unger]  •  Discover  –  Define  –  Develop  –  Deliver  [Bri9sh  Design  Council]  •  Inves9gate  –  Sketch  –  Build  [Chris9na  Persson]  •  Iden9fy  the  Problem  -­‐  Iden9fy  Criteria  and  Constraints  -­‐  Brainstorm  Possible  Solu9ons  -­‐  Generate  Ideas    -­‐  Explore  Possibili9es  -­‐   Select  an  Approach  -­‐  Build  a  Model  or  Prototype  -­‐  Refine  the  Design.  [NASA]  •  Uncover  -­‐  Define  -­‐  Ideate  -­‐  Build  the  Concept  –  Design  [David  Armano]  •  Design  process  visualiza9on.  [David  Armano]