Dyslexia, c.craig
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  • 1. A visual and auditory disability
  • 2. WHAT IS DYSLEXIA? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders states that:  Dyslexia is a brain based learning disability.  It is common that people with dyslexia have difficultly with:  1) phonological processing, this is the auditory aspect.  2) spelling, the visual and decoding  3) rapid, visual-verbal responding  In some cases, Dyslexia can be inherited. Recent studies recognize a number of genes in an individual that are more likely to develop dyslexia. (NINDS, 2011)
  • 3. “AFFECTS 80% OF THOSE LABELED “LEARNING DISABLED” ” (Neilsen, 2002)
  • 4. WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA? Neilson (2002) states: Students may exhibit one or more of the following:  Inability to learn or remember words by sight  Difficulty in decoding and spelling  Lack of organization of material
  • 5. CONTINUED CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA:  Difficulty in finding the right words for oral or written communication  No enjoyment of reading independently  Difficulty writing from dictation  Reversal of letters and words
  • 6. CONTINUED CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA:  Difficulty in storing and retrieving names on printed words  Poor visual memory for language symbols  Erratic eye movements while reading  Auditory processing difficulties
  • 7. CONTINUED CHARACTERISTICS OF DYSLEXIA:  Difficulty in applying what has been read to social or learning situations  Illegible hand writing  Confusing vowels or substituting on consonant  Inadequate fine motor skills (Neilsen, 2002, p.69-70)
  • 8. HOW CAN AN EDUCATOR HELP STUDENTS WITH DYSLEXIA?
  • 9. AS THE EDUCATOR  Understand the student’s specific difficulties and acknowledge their strengths  Be flexible  Credit effort too  Make sure corrections are grade/age appropriate (Hodge, 2000)
  • 10. IN CLASS  Make sure day to day activities are written down and not just verbally said  Make an outline of what is going to be taught in the lesson, this is helpful for the child’s long term memory  Handouts are very helpful  Encourage organizational skills with folders and binders  Break down tasks into smaller bits of information  Seat child fairly close so help and encouragement is near (Hodge, 2000)
  • 11. COPYING OFF THE BOARD  Use different colored markers or chalk when different points are made  Make sure writing is clear and well spaced  Leave information on board for an extended period of time, so child is able to take his/her time (Hodge, 2000)
  • 12. READING  Introduce new words slowly  Involve a structure that involves repetition of words  Don’t give the child books above their level this will discourage them  Don’t ask them to read out loud in class unless you’ve given them time to practice before hand  Give the student audio books to listen to (Hodge, 2000)
  • 13. HANDWRITING  Encourage children to study their own handwriting and critique themselves  Allow the child to use cursive, it is easier for them to decode  Make cursive chart easily accessible  When practicing handwriting use words the child is already familiar with (Hodge, 2000)
  • 14. MATH  Allow children to verbalize their way through problems  Rehearse mathematical vocabulary consistently  Encourage child to check answers against the question (Hodge, 2000)
  • 15. HOMEWORK  Make sure the child writes down the correct information that is needed for homework  Encourage child to get phone numbers of other students in case they have questions  Set a time limit on homework. They are more likely to spend more effort and time completing homework then a child without dyslexia  Set homework that is a real benefit to the child (Hodge, 2000)
  • 16. REFERENCES Hodge, P.L. (2000). A Dyslexic Child in the Classroom. Retrieved July 11, 2013 from Davis Dyslexia Association International, Dyslexia the Gift Web site: http://www.dyslexia.com/library/classroom.htm National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2011, September 30). NINDS Dyslexia Information Page. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dyslexia/dyslexia.htm Nieslen, L. B. (2002). Brief Reference of Student Disabilities…With Strategies for the Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Images retrieved from http://office.microsoft.com/en- us/images/results.aspx?qu=think&ex=1