Table of Contents! (First Semester)1. Present Tense (ar/er/ir) 14. Future Tense (and irregular)2 Stem Changers --------------------------3 Irregular „yo‟ verbs4 Saber vs. Conocer5 Reflexives6. Ser vs. Estar7 Dipthongs with accents ?8 Verbs Like ger/gir, uir/guir, cer/cir9 Hace + time + que + presente/preterite10. Imperfecto11. Preterite (car/gar/zar, Spock, cucaracha, snakey, etc)12. Comparatives13. Superlatives
Presente -ar, -er, -ir-ar -er Io o -iras o You esa es He/She/It eamos e We emosáis imos Them éisan ís en You all en
Stem changers• Stem changing verbs change inside the boot. e -> ie Perder -> Pierdo e -> i Pedir -> Pido o -> ue Dormir -> Duermo u -> ue Jugar -> Juego
Irregulars -go, -zco, -oy-Go -Zco -Oy Ser Oigo (oir) (cer/cir) Estar Hago (hacer) Conozco (conocer) Dar Pongo (poner) Conducir Ver Producir Saber
Saber vs. ConocerSaber is used when you know facts. - Names of books, music, titles, etc.Conocer is used when you know people. - Names, families, etc.
reflexives• Me• Te• Se• Nos• Os• Se These can hook onto infinitives. “El tiene que lavarse.”
Ser vs. Estar SER Estar ‘ser’ refers to a permanent ‘estar’ refers to a temporary condition, mood, or physical condition, mood, or physical characteristic. appearance. Conjugations:Conjugations: SoyEstoy EresEstás EsEstá SomosEstámos SonEstán“Me llamo Cristina! Soy de Atlanta.” “Estoy muy cansado.”“El chico es muy estupido.” “Lorena estáhumilde y simpatica.”
Diphthongs with accents• Diphthongs are strong vowels.• Oaxaca- Wah-hahk-ah.• Maestro- mai-eh-strow
verbs like -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/gir• uir/guir: in present tense, verbs ending in –uir have a ‘y’ except for ‘nos’ and ‘vos’. Constuyo Construyes Construye Construimos Construis Construyen Ger-Gir In present tense, ‘yo’ switches from ‘g’ to ‘j’. Cojo Coges Coge Cogemos Cogeis Cogen
Preterite: Snakes & Snakey• Snakes and Snakeys are in the past tense.• Snakeys are used when three vowels are in a row. You replace ‘i’ with ‘y’.
trigger words• Words that elude to the use of a preterite term.• ayer• anoche “Ayer, yo comí muchas fresas para la cena.”• anteayer• la semana pesada• cada dia
Comparatives: used to compare one thing to another.Equality: ‘tan’ + adjective/adverb + como Tan = soInequality: mas/menos + adj/adv/noun + que Tanto = so much *When using numbers, use ‘de’, not ‘que’. Tantos/as = so many
SuperlativesEl/la/los/las + Esta es la mujerNoun + MasAdjective + BonitaDe = De todas
El Futuro. • Ir + a + infinitive = -é the immediate -ás future! -á – “Voy a caminar”- -emos I’m going to walk”. -ánHowever, if you “will” do something, there’s a selection of endingsthat refer to the future. “Simpre te amaré.” = I will always love you.
• I r r e g u l a r Future Decir Dir- to say• Haber Habr- to be, to have (helping verb)• Hacer Har- to make, do• Poder Podr- to be able• Poner Pondr- to put, place, set• Querer Querr- to want, love• Saber Sabr- to know a fact, how• Salir Saldr- to leave, go out• Tener Tendr- to have• Valer Valdr- to be worth• Venir Vendr- to come
Table of contents (Second Semester)15. Preterite vs. Imperfect 25. Se impersonal16. Por 26. Progressive w/ ir, andar, seguir17. Para18. Por y Para19. Future vs. Conditional20. Commands (continues onto other slides)21. Present Perfect22. Double Object Pronouns23. Adverbs24. Subjunctive
Preterit vs. ImperfectWhen you use the preterit, you‟re saying you did something in the past.“Ella corré a su clase.”She ran to her class.When you use the imperfect tense, you’re using the past, but the past was at a certain time.“él vivía en el casa en ese tiempo.”He was living at the house at the time.
Por• Por has seven special uses: – General location & motion – Duration of action – Motive of action – Object of search – Translation of „by‟ – Exchange or substitution – Unit of Measure It is used more as „for‟, whereas para can mean „through‟ or „by‟.
Para• Para also has seven uses. – Expresses destination – Deadline or specific future destination – Purpose/goal + infinitive (In order for…) – Purpose + noun (In order for ____) – Recipient – Comparison or opinion – In the employ of… (she works for…)
Por y Para!• Por and para both mean ‘for’. – Por refers to methods of travel, exchange, measure, duration, what you’re looking for, and the duration of something. – Para refers to destination, deadline, comparison, recipient, purposes, and employment.
Future vs. ConditionalÉ íaás íasá íaemos íamoséis íaisán íanThe future is what tells what you’ll do in When you use Conditional tense, you’re sayinga few days, hours, months, years, etc. As you ‘would have’, ‘could have’, or ‘should have’long as you’re not doing something presently or a done something (like, run, walk, write, etc.).few days ago, you’ll use the future tense. Theendings add ontoall verb forms.Infinitive + ending =Comprar + é = “Me gustaría comprar un borro.”I will shop. I would like to buy a donkey.
Commands• Commands are used in the Usted form, which is third person on the boot chart.• -AR verbs use “e” and “en” on the conjugate.• -ER/-IR verbs use “a” and “an”.• Compre ud. la joya.Buy the jewelry.
Commands: continued• For Affirmative commands: – When using the ‘tú’ tense, you’d normally add ‘s’ to the end. For commands, you drop the ‘s’. – Affirmative Irregulars: • Di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, ten, ven
Commands: continued• For Negative commands: in the ‘tú’ tense, you’ll change it to ‘yo’, change the vowel (to the opposite verb ending), and add an ‘s’. – Negative irregulars: • TVDISHES (Tener, Venir, Dar/Decir, Ir, Ser, Hacer/Haber, Estar, Saber)
Present Perfect• Present perfect is when you or someone says they have/had/has done something.Endings: (yo) he comido. I have eaten.• He (tu) has comido. You have eaten.• Has (él) ha comido. She/he/it has eaten.• Ha• Hemos• Habéis• Han
Double Object Pronouns• Yo le pido los discos a mi hermano --> Yo se los pido.• DOPs change your sentence from having too many nouns, to having “it’s” and other words to replace other nouns.
Adverbs• For Spanish adverbs, -mente means ‘ly’. That makes the word ‘mente’ is attached to an adverb.• To add -mente, if the word ends in o, change it to a.• Tipico -> tipicamente (Typically)• If the verb has an acento, it will stay in place.• Bastante- quite• Demasiado- too• Mal- badly• Peor- worse• Nunca- never
Subjunctive• Subjunctive refers to an uncertain attitude. The speaker is hypothetical.IRREGULARS:Dar- déEstar- estéIr- vayaSaber- sepaSer- sea
Se Impersonal• ‘Se’ is used to avoid specifying a person in a sentence.• If you use ‘se’, conjugate the verb to third person.• Se can be used in each tense. – “Se hable español.” – “Se hizo mucho.” – “Se hará mucho.”
Progressive with Ir, Andar, Seguiro Ir- ando/iendo/yendoo Is slowly (but surely) ____ingo Andar- ando/iendo/yendoo Is going around ____ingo Seguir (changes from e to i)- ando/iendo/yendoo Is still ____ing