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    • Singapore a. Government The Ministry of Education aims to help our students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realise their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. b. Agency of education IDP Education - Singapore 4th Floor, Regional Language Centre 30 Orange Grove Road, Singapore, 258352 AS Edu Centre Pty Ltd - Singapore Blk 809, French Road, #03-182, Singapore, 200809 Jack Study Abroad - Singapore #12-05 Park Mall (Next to Dhoby Ghaut Station), Singapore, 238459, Singapore AUG (AusEd UniEd) - Singapore 7 Maxwell Road, #04-09 Annex B Ministry of National Development Complex, Singapore, 69111 Australia Migration Agency - Singapore 6 Battery Road #38-03, Singapore, 049909, Singapore Educational Link Consultants - Singapore 545 ORCHARD ROAD #06-04 FAR EAST SHOPPING CENTRE SINGAPORE 238882, Singapore, 238882, Singapore JM Education Counselling Centre - Singapore 91 Bencoolen Street #01 82 Sunshine Plaza, Singapore, 189652 One-Stop Student Service - Singapore 22, Jalan Hikayat Singapore 769866, Singapore, 769866, Singapore Adroit Foreign Education Link - Singapore 111 North Bridge Road #08-28 Peninsula Plaza , Singapore, 179098 iCORP Education - Singapore 24 Raffles Place 25 06 A Clifford Centre, Singapor 9 Penang Rd #10-18 Park Mall, Singapore, 238459
    • c. Levels of education d. Population 5,353,494 M e, Student-Teacher ratio
    • f. Problems of education g. Compulsory education Singapore has achieved almost universal education at the primary and the secondary levels through years of effort. Today, children who are not enrolled in national schools form only a small percentage of the cohort. The Government is however concerned that they are not being equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be productive citizens in a knowledge-based economy. Hence, the Committee on Compulsory Education in Singapore (CCES) was formed in December 1999 to review whether compulsory education should be introduced in Singapore, and if so, the form and duration it should take. h. Important features Downtown Core, Singapore Currency Singapore dollar (SGD); Brunei Dollar(B$) Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March Trade organisations WTO, APEC, IOR-ARC, ASEAN Statistics GDP $318.9 billion (2011 est. PPP) GDP growth 0.3% (Q3 2012) GDP per capita $62,100 (PPP, 2010 est.),[1] $43,117 (nominal, 2010 est.)[2] GDP by sector Agriculture: 0%; industry: 26.6%;services: 73.4% (2011 est.) Inflation (CPI) 5.2% (2011 est.) Population below poverty line N/A Gini coefficient 47.3 (2011) Labour force 3.237 million (2011 est.) Labour force by occupation agriculture 0.1%, industry 19.6% 18%, services 80.3% (2011) Unemployment 1.9% (2012 est.) Main industries Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed foodand beverages, ship repair, offshore platform
    • construction, life sciences, entrepot trade Letiracy rate – 92.5 % Philippine a. Government K-12 Basis education program b. gency of education c. Levels of education
    • d. Population e. Student-Teacher ratio f. Problem of education g. Compulsory education THE Federation of Associations of Private Schools and Administrators, the country’s largest association of private schools, wants the two years of senior high school or Grades 11 and 12 of the K to 12 program placed under the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (Tesda) instead of the Department of Education (DepEd). h. Important features I. Letiracyrat – 92.6 % XI. The teacher on his profession.
    • Professional characterestics of a teacher A. Mastery of the subject matter – This refers to the subject the teacher should teach the subjects he/she knows very well. It is needless to underscore the fact that the teacher must have a complete mastery of the subject he/she teaches. B. Mastery of the methods, approaches, and strategies- This refers to the blueprint of the procedure that the teacher follows in teaching. The teacher however, does not need to master all the methods, approaches,strategies and techniques found in the book. He she needs to master a few, each suitable to a particular teaching situation. He/she can utilize the teaching approaches, methods, and strategies with almost dexterity to be able to produce the best results. The teacher however provide varied learning experiences to avoid boredom and monotomy and to maximize leaning amonn his/her studensts. C. Mastery of the medium instruction- This enables the teacher to explain very clearly his/her points to his/her students so that they understand him/her. If the medium of instruction in english, the teacher must have a good vocavolary and mastery the rules of grammar of the language. He/she speaks well with acceptable pronouncaition of words and uses correct grammar. The use of Taglish where English is the medium of instruction should be avoided. D. Mastery of the planning and organizing instructional materials and other resources- Planning is a very important phase in classroom instruction. Good planning ensures the smooth and logical flow of learning activities, thus, avoid waste but save time. Planning enables the teacher to accomplish the work he/she sets for itself in the most effective way in the shortest time possible E. Mastery of the educational philoshopies and psychology of learning- the teacher must have mastered the principles and techniques that make children kearn better. he/she must know the factors that facilitate learning such as learning by doing, motivating, reinforcing, and disciplining, dealing with individual deffirences, developing critical thinking, making decision, self-direction, self-realince, and countless others to makes his/her teaching very effective and enjoyable too. F. Mastery in the formulating of goals and objectives- no one can teach without gaols and objectives. These are the teacher's guide in teaching. While the teacher must know he/she instructional goals and objectives, he/she must now also the goals and objectivesof his/her institution and those of the nation. G. Mastery of classroom management, including discipline- The teacher is a manager and director of a learning activities and he/she should see to it that class sessions are started and conducted smoothly and productively. Learning devise are in proper places and manipulated properly; lighting and ventilation are attended to; seats properly arranged and discipline is at its best. F. Mastery of measurement and evaluation- Measurement and evaluation of students achievement is an important task of a teacher. Besides having in mind the uses of the different teacher-made tests, he/she know when to use and how to constract norm-referenced or criterion-referenced tests. He/she also knows how to contrust the different teacher-made tests and thir uses. Importantly, he/she knows how to interpret tests results. G. Mastery of the techniques of motivation- This ia an important aspect of teaching because unless the students are interested in the lesson they do not pay attentiom and they do not learn. Their interest in the lesson should be arroused and satisfied so that they will learn. H. Mastery of art and questioning- Questioning is very important tool of teaching. It is in fact the heart of teaching strategies. Paticipation of students to some extent depends on the question asked by the teacher. There two major types of questions, namely: question that elicit funtual information and questions that develop critical and analytical thinking. The more critical questions given, the more learning takes place. “To teach is to question well”. J. Mastery of the basic of guidance and councelling- The teacher is always a guidance counsellor to certain extent. Thruogh counselling, he/she gives students assistance to reach their personal gaols. Personal chracterestics of a good teacher 1. Intelligence – A teacher hs to be intellegent because he/she is dealing with verbal materials and individuals with varying levels of intelligences.
    • 2. Puntuality – An effective teacher is always puntual and enthusiastic in his/her teaching. he/she goes to class on time and dismisses it as scheduled. 3. Good physical and mental health – Taking all other things, an unhealthly teacher cannot do what a healthly teacher can do. A teacher who is phisically or mental capable accomplishes what he/she ought to do. Thus, a teacher must be at the speak of his/her can go about his/her business of teaching. 4. Loyalty and commitment – A taecher must be loyal and commited to his/her profession and to the institution he/she serves. A teacher is cooperative, industriuos and kind-hearted and prepares any assignment given to him.her with gladness and finesse. 5. Respect for the dignity of the individual – The teacher respect the dignity of any person he/she comes in contact with especially his/her superiors, peers, and students, he/she recognize the individual worth of people particularly his/her students. 6.Fair level of tolerance, firmness and impartiality – A teacher meets all kinds of classroom problems and students, such as inattentiveness and students not doing well with their lessons. A teacher must maintain a fair level of tolerance for them to be able to endure the ordeal and stress. he/she must remember that he/she cannot make robots out of children, which sholud not be done anyway, but they shouldbe developed into well disciplined, intelligent, law abiding, and productive citizens of the country. 7. Adaptability – A teacher can adjust hemself/himself to any teaching situation. If he/she can handle fast learners, he/she can also handle slow learners in class. If he/she can handle tamed students, he/she can also handle unruly students. If he/she can teach in the urban area, he/she can also teach in the rural area. 8. Alertness, resourcesfulness, creativity- a teacher must be alert, resourcesful, and creative in dealing with critical teaching situations. he/she must be resourcesful and creative in locating modern learning materials. he/she creates a situation that arouses student's interest. he/she can vary his/her technique, his/her adio-visual materials. he/she injects a clean humor. 9. Appropriate grooming – A teacher must be well groomed to maintain his/her dignity in profession he/she dresses modesty, neatly, and appraitely. 10. Christian outlook, missionary spirits- There is not much money in teaching compared lucrative occupations. But it is very rich in service. Teaching is a mission. A teacher finds happiness and fufillment in giving his/her selfless service to his/her students. That is why teacher must develop christain outlook or missionary spirits to him/her job. The teacher is most happy in rendering selfless service when he/she a missionary spirit. He/she is willing to make sacrifies, always helpful to his/her students, always approachable, friendly and kind to the community. 11. Clean sense of humor- A teacher must hace a store of clean humorous tales and anecdotes to awaken his/her students when they become sleepy and inattentive. His/ her humorous tales are relevant to his/ her lesson. Clean humor is often a good means of manintaining the interests, attention, cheerfulness and enthusiasm of studentions. 12. Good professional and human relatios – A teacher must have good human relations with his/her students. he/she is cheerful and socializes with the students amd parents but still gain respect. He/she knows the limits of socialization. He/she makes students understand that his/her orders are legitimate thus commands obedience. He/she emphasizes to his/her students that gifts and favors are not to be equated with academic grades or achievement. 13. Good moral and ethical character- One thing that a teacher should always try to keep high is her/his moral ethical character. he/she must keep the social and spiritaul values that are accepted not only in his/her school and his/her community. A teacher is usaully considered and expected to be a role model in character and he/she must maintain that impression. he/she avoid committing acts that would tarnish his/her reputation because his/her effeciency as a teacher is adversely affected by a bad reputation. he/she must be a person of honesty, integrited, fairness, impartiality and trustworthiness. 14. Desire to grow professionally – A teacher must grow professionally while in service. Change is constantly taking place and what the learned in school a few years ago maybe obsolete now. Hence, he/she must attend educational conferences. Seminars, and workshops. he/she read modern books and joulnals in education and durther his/her studies. he/she also joins educational associations. 15. Leadership and fellowship- If a teacher has a bright ideas and can sway people to his/her side of thinking, he/she may assume the position of leadership among his/her peers. If he/she performs the role of a follower, he/she must be cooperative and must legitimate orders from his/her superiors. 16. Love for children – If a teacher has a genuine love for children he/she will be happy in his/her job and he/she
    • becomes efficient. A teacher should treat his/her students as a good paent treats his/her children. 17. Observes the Code of Professional Ethics – The teaching profession has a code of ethics that explains the relationship of a teacher to the state, to his/her superiors, to his/her peers, to his/her students and to the people of the community. XII. a. The teacher inside the classroom b. The teacher outside the classroom c. The teacher in the community
    • XIII. Professionalization of teaching Historical perspective of the Philippine educational system. YEAR OFFICIAL NAME HEAD OF OFFICE LEGAL BASES 1863 Superior Commission of Chairman Educational Degree of 1863 Primary Instruction 1901- Department of Public General Act No. 74 of the philippine 1961 Instruction Superintendent Commission, Jan 21, 1901 1916- Department of Public Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916 1942 Instruction (Jones Law) 1942 Department of Education, Commissioner Renamed by the Japanese 1944 Health and public walfare Exec. Commission, June 11, 1947 1944 Department of Education, Minister Renamed by Japanese Sponsored Health and Public Walfare Philippine Republic same Department of public Secretary Renamed by Japanese Sponsored year Instruction Philippine Republic 1945- Department of Public Secretary Renamed by the Commomwealth 1946 Instruction and Information Government 1946- Department of Instruction Secretary Renamed by the Commomwealth 1947 Government 1947 Department of Education Secretary E.O. No. 94 October 1947 1975 (Recognization Act of 1947) 1975- Department of Education and Secretary Proc. No. 1081, 1978 Culture September 24, 1972 1978- Ministry of Education and Minister P.D. No. 1397, June 2, 1978 1984 Culture Minister Education Act of 1982 1984- Ministry of Education Culure Secretary E.O. No. 117 January 30, 1987 2001 Culture and Sports 2002- Department of Secretary R.A. no. 9155 present Education
    • REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7722REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7722 AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SEC. 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the “Higher Education Act of 1994”. SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. - The State shall protect, foster and promote the right of all citizens to affordable quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to ensurethat education shall be accessible to all.The State shall likewise ensure and protect academic freedom and shall promote its exercise and observance for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of responsible and effective leadership, the education of high-level and middle-level professionals, and the enrichment of ourhistorical and cultural heritage. State-supported institutions of higher learning shall geartheirprograms to national, regional or local development plans. Finally, all institutions of higher learning shall exemplify through their physical and natural surroundings the dignity and beauty of, as well as their pride in, the intellectual and scholarly life. SEC. 3. Creation of the Commission on Higher Education. - In pursuance of the abovementioned policies, the Commission on Higher Education is hereby created, hereinafter referred to as the Commission.The Commission shall be independent and separate from the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes only. Its coverage shall be both public and private institutions of higher education as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions, public and private. SEC. 4. Composition of the Commission. - The Commission shall be composed of five (5) full-time members. During the transition period which begins upon approval of this Act, the President may appoint the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports as ex officio chairman of the Commission for a maximum period of one (1) year. Thereafter, the President shall appoint a Chairman of the Commission and four (4) commissioners, who shall be holders of earned doctorate(s), who have been actively engaged in higher education for at least ten (10) years, and must not have been candidates for elective positions in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. They shall be academicians known for their high degree of professionalism and integrity who have distinguished themselves as authorities in their chosen fields of learning. The members of the Commission shall belong to different academic specializations. In no case shall any and all of the Commissioners appoint representatives to act on their behalf . SEC. 5. Term of Office. - The President shall appoint the full-time chairman and the commissioners for a term of four (4) years, without prejudice to one reappointment. The terms of the initial appointees shall be on a staggered basis: the full-time chairman shall hold office for a term of four (4) years, the next two (2) commissioners for three (3) years, and the last two (2) commissioners for two (2) years. The commissioners shall hold office until their successors shall have been appointed and qualified. Should a member of the Commission fail to complete his term, his successor shall beappointed by the President of the Philippines but only for the unexpired portion of the term. SEC. 6. Rank and Emoluments. - The chairman and the commissioners shall have the rank of a Department Secretary and Undersecretary, respectively. They shall receive the compensation and other emoluments corresponding to those of a Department Secretary and Undersecretary, respectively, and shall be subject to the same disqualifications. SEC. 7. Board of Advisers. - There shall be constituted a Board of Advisers which shall meet with the Commission at least once a year to assist it in aligning its policies and plans with the cultural, political and socioeconomic development needs of the nation and with the demands of world-class scholarship. The Board of Advisers shall be composed of the following: a. the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports, as chairman;b. the Director-General of the National Economic and Development Authority, as co-chairman;
    • c. the Secretary of Science and Technology; d. the Secretary of Trade and Industry; e. the Secretary of Labor and Employment; f. the President of the Federation of Accrediting Associations of the Philippines (FAAP); and g. the President of the Fund for Assistance to Private Education (FAPE). Two (2) additional members of the Board of Advisers may be appointed by the President upon recommendation of the Commission. SEC. 8. Powers and Functions of the Commission. - The Commission shall have the following powers and functions: a. formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education and research; b. formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities and programs on research; c. recommend to the executive and legislative branches, priorities and grants on higher education and research; d. set minimum standards for programs and institutions of higher learning recommended by panels of experts in the field and subject to public hearing, and enforce the same; e. monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and institutions of higher learning for appropriate incentives as well as the imposition of sanctions such as, but not limited to, diminution or withdrawal of subsidy, recommendation on the downgrading or withdrawal of accreditation, program termination or school closure; f. identify, support and develop potential centers of excellence in program areas needed for the development of world-class scholarship, nation building and national development; g. recommend to the Department of Budget and Management the budgets of public institutions of higher learning as well as general guidelines for the use of their income; h. rationalize programs and institutions of higher learning and set standards, policies and guidelines for the creation of new ones as well as the conversion or elevation of schools to institutions of higher learning, subject to budgetary limitations and the number of institutions of higher learning in the province or region where creation, conversion or elevation is sought to be made; i. develop criteria for allocating additional resources such as research and program development grants, scholarships, and other similar programs: Provided, That these shall not detract from the fiscal autonomy already enjoyed by colleges and universities;j. direct or redirect purposive research by institutions of higher learning to meet the needs of agro-industrialization and development; k. devise and implement resource development schemes; l. administer the Higher Education Development Fund, as described in Section 10 hereunder, which will promote the purposes of higher education; m. review the charters of institutions of higher learning and state universities and colleges including the chairmanship and membership of their governing bodies and recommend appropriate measures as basis for necessaryaction; n. promulgate such rules and regulations and exercise such other powers and functions as may be necessary to carry out effectively the purpose and objectives of this Act; and o. perform such other functions as may be necessary for its effective operations and for the continued enhancement, growth or development of higher education. SEC. 9. The Secretariat. - The Commission shall organize a secretariat which shall be headed by an executive officer, subject to the national compensation and position classification plan. It shall fix the secretariat’s staffing pattern, determine the duties, qualifications, responsibilities and functions, as well as the compensation scheme for the positions to be created upon the recommendation of the executive officer. It shall also prepare and approve its budget.The Commission shall appoint the members of the staff upon the recommendation of the executive officer. 57 SEC. 10. The Higher Education Development Fund. - 58 A Higher Education Development Fund, hereinafter referredto as the Fund, is hereby established
    • exclusively for thestrengthening of higher education in the entire country. a. The Government’s contribution to the Fund shall be the following: 1. the amount of Five hundred million pesos (P500,000,000) as seed capital; 2. the amount of Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) for the initial operation of the Commission; 3. the equivalent of forty percent (40%) annual share on the total gross collections of the travel tax; 4. the equivalent of thirty percent (30%) share of the collections from the Professional Registration Fee; and 5. the equivalent of one percent (1%) of the gross sales of the lotto operation of the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO). b. Starting Fiscal Year 1995 and every year thereafter, government financing institutions identified and requested by the Commission may contribute to the Fund an amount equivalent to not less than three percent (3%) but c. The Fund shall have a private portion to be raised from donations, gifts, and other conveyances including materials, equipment, properties and services by gratuitous title. SEC. 11. Management and Administration of the Higher Education Development Fund. - The Fund shall be administered by the Commission. For sound and judicious management of the Fund, the Commission shall appoint a reputable government financial institution as portfolio manager of the Fund, subject to the following conditions. As administrator of the Fund, the Commission shall prepare the necessary guidelines for its use, subject to the following conditions: a. No part of the seed capital of the Fund, including earnings thereof, shall be used to underwrite overhead expenses for administration; b. Unless otherwise stipulated by the private donor, only earnings of private contributions shall be used for administrative expenses; c.The Commission shall appoint and organize a separate staff, independent administratively and budgetarily separate from the Commission Secretariat; and d.The Fund shall be utilized equitably according to regions and programs. SEC. 12. The Technical Panels. - The Commission shall reconstitute and/or organize technical panels for different disciplines/program areas. They shall assist the Commission in setting standards and in program and institution monitoring and evaluation. The technical panels shall be composed of senior specialists or academicians to be appointed by the Commission. SEC. 13. Guarantee of Academic Freedom. - Nothing in this Act shall be construed as limiting the academic freedom of universities and colleges. In particular, no abridgment of curricular freedom of the individual educational institutions by the Commission shall be made except for: (a) minimum unit requirements for specific academic programs; (b) general education distribution requirements as may be determined by the Commission; and (c) specific professional subjects as may be stipulated by the various licensing entities. No academic or curricular restriction shall be made upon private educational institutions which are not required for chartered state colleges and universities. SEC. 14. Accreditation. - The Commission shall provide incentives to institutions of higher learning, public and private, whose programs are accredited or whose needs are for accreditation purposes. SEC. 15. Tax Exemptions. - Any donation, contribution, bequest, and grant which may be made to the Commission shall constitute as allowable deduction from the income of the donor for income tax purposes and shall be exempt from donor’s tax, subject to such conditions as provided under the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended. SEC. 16. Authority. - The Commission shall exercise such authority as may be deemed necessary within its premises or areas of operation to effectively carry out its powers and functions and to attain its objectives: Provided, That the Commission may seek the assistance of other government agencies for the proper implementation of this Act.
    • SEC. 17. Appropriation. - The amount of Five hundred million pesos (P500,000,000) is hereby authorized to be appropriated for the seed capital of the Fund. The additional amount of Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of the funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated or out of the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) funds for the initial operation of the Commission. The sum equivalent to the appropriations for the current year for the Bureau of Higher Education and the degreegranting programs of the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education, including those for higher and tertiary education and degree granting vocational and technical programs of the Bureau of Technical Vocational Education in the regional offices, as well as parts of the budgetary items under the DECS budget that are concerned with higher and tertiary education and degree-granting vocational and technical programs such as those for personal services, maintenance and other operating expenses and capital outlay, shall be transferred to the Commission. Thereafter, the funds necessary shall be included in the General Appropriations Act. SEC. 18. Transitory Provisions. - Such personnel, properties, assets and liabilities, functions and responsibilities of the Bureau of Higher Education, including those for higher and tertiary education and degree- granting vocational and technical programs in the regional offices, under the Department of Education, Culture and Sports, and other government entities having functions similar to those of the Commission are hereby transferred to the Commission. The Commission shall have the authority to appoint its own personnel. All regular or permanent employees transferred to the Commission shall not suffer any loss of seniority or rank or decrease in emoluments. Personnel of the Bureau of Higher Education not otherwise transferred to the Commission shall be reassigned by the DECS in any of its offices and bureaus: Provided, however, That, any employee who cannot be accommodated shall be given all the benefits as may be provided under existing laws, rules and regulations. Jurisdiction over DECS-supervised or chartered statesupported post-secondary degree-granting vocational and technical programs and tertiary institutions shall be transferred to the Commission. A transitory body is hereby created which shall be omposed of the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), Chair of the Senate Committee on Education, Arts and Culture, Chair of the House Committee on Education and Culture, a representative each of the Association of Christian Schools andColleges (ACSC), the Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP), the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities (PACU), the Philippine Association of Private Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAPSCU), the Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC), and the Philippine Association of Private Technical Institutions (PAPTI). The transitory body shall facilitate the complete and full operation of the Commission which shall not be later than three (3) months after the effectivity of this Act. It shall likewise, promulgate the rules and regulations necessary to effectively implement the smooth and orderly transfer to the Commission. The transition period not exceeding three (3) months shall commence from the approval of this Act. SEC. 19. Repealing Clause. -All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations or parts thereof which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SEC. 20. Separability Clause. - If any part or provision of this Act shall be held unconstitutional or invalid, other provisions hereof which are not affected thereby shall continueto be in full force and effect.a SEC. 21. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved, August 25, 1994 (SGD.) FIDEL V. RAMOS President of the Philippines
    • [REPUBLIC ACT 7796] AN ACT CREATING THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, PROVIDING FOR ITS POWERS, STRUCTURE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: “SECTION 7. Composition of the TESDA Board. — The TESDA Board shall be composed of the following: The Secretary of Labor and Employment Chairperson Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Co-Chairperson Secretary of Trade and Industry Co-Chairperson Secretary of Agriculture Member Secretary of Interior and Local Government Member Director-General of the TESDA Secretariat Member In addition, the President of the Philippines shall appoint the following members from the private sector: two (2) representatives, from the employer/industry organization, one of whom shall be a woman; three (3) representatives, from the labor sector, one of whom shall be a woman; and two (2) representatives of the national associations of private technical-vocational education and training institutions, one of whom shall be a woman. As soon as all the members of the private sector are appointed, they shall so organize themselves that the term of office of one-third (1/3) of their number shall expire every year. The member from the private sector appointed thereafter to fill vacancies caused by expiration of terms shall hold office for three (3) years.” This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 1283 and House Bill No.12194 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on August 23, 1994. Approved: August 25, 1994. Republic Act 7796 RULES AND REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE TESDA ACT OF 1994 Pursuant to Section 36 of the TESDA Act of 1994, the TESDA Board hereby promulgates the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Act, as follows: RULE III TESDA BOARD “SEC 2. Composition of the TESDA Board. — The TESDA Board is composed of the following: The Secretary of Labor and Employment Chairperson Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Co-Chairperson Secretary of Trade and Industry Co-Chairperson Secretary of Agriculture Member Secretary of Interior and Local Government Member Director-General of the TESDA Secretariat Member Private sector representatives appointed by the President: a) Two (2) representatives from the employer/industry organization, one of whom shall be a woman; b) Three (3) representatives from the labor sector, one of whom shall be a woman; c) Two (2) representatives of the national associations of private technicalvocational education and traininginstitutions, one of whom shall be a woman.” Approved: August 25, 1994 (SCD.) FIDEL V. RAMOS President of the Philippines
    • REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9155 August 11, 2001 AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION, ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY, RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: Sec. 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001." Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and to make such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino children a free and compulsory education in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include alternative learning systems for out-of-school youth and adult learners. It shall be the goal of basic education to provide them with the skills, knowledge and values they need to become caring, seIf-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens. The school shall be the heart of the formal education system. It is where children learn. Schools shall have a single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all learners. Governance of basic education shall begin at the national level it is at the regions, divisions, schools and learning centers herein referred to as the field offices - where the policy and principle for the governance of basic education shall be translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs. The State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education. The State shall ensure that the values, needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for the children, out-of- school youth and adult learners. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for the learners they serve.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 3. Purposes and Objectives. - The purposes and objectives of this Act are: (a) To provide the framework for the governance of basic education which shall set the general directions for educational policies and standards and establish authority, accountability and responsibility for achieving higher learning outcomes;cralaw (b) To define the roles and responsibilities of and provide resources to, the field offices which shall implement educational programs, projects and services in communities they serve;cralaw (c) To make schools and learning centers the most important vehicle for the teaching and learning of national values and for developing in the Filipino learners love of country and pride in its rich heritage;cralaw (d) To ensure that schools and learning centers receive the kind of focused attention they deserve and that educational programs, projects and services take into account the interests of all members of the community;cralaw (e) To enable the schools and learning centers to reflect the values of the community by allowing teachers/learning facilitators and other staff to have the flexibility to serve the needs of all learners;cralaw (f) To encourage local initiatives for the improvement of schools and learning centers and to provide the means by which these improvements may be achieved and sustained; and (g) To establish schools and learning centers as facilities where schoolchildren are able to learn a range of core competencies prescribed for elementary and high school education programs or where the out-of-school youth and adult learners are provided alternative learning programs and receive accreditation for at least the equivalent of a high school education.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 4. Definition of Terms.- For purposes of this Act, the terms or phrases used shall mean or be understood as follows: (a) Alternative Learning System -is a parallel learning system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. It encompasses both the nonformal and informal sources of knowledge and skills;cralaw (b) Basic Education - is the education intended to meet basic learning needs which lays the foundation on which subsequent learning can be based. It encompasses early childhood, elementary and high school education as well as alternative learning systems four out-of-school youth and adult learners and includes education for those with special
    • needs;cralaw (c) Cluster of Schools - is a group of schools which are geographically contiguous and brought together to improve the learning outcomes;cralaw (d) Formal Education - is the systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically structured and sequential learning corresponding to the general concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. At the end of each level, the learner needs a certification in order to enter or advance to the next level;cralaw (e) Informal Education - is a lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes and insights from daily experiences at home, at work, at play and from life itself;cralaw (f) Integrated School. - is a school that offers a complete basic education in one school site and has unified instructional program;cralaw (g) Learner - is any individual seeking basic literacy skills and functional life skills or support services for the improvement of the quality of his/her life;cralaw (h) Learning Center - is a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program for out-of-school youth and adults. It is a venue for face-to-face learning and activities and other learning opportunities for community development and improvement of the people's quality of life;cralaw (I) Learning Facilitator - is the key learning support person who is responsible for supervising/facilitating the learning process and activities of the learner;cralaw (j) Non-Formal Education - is any organized, systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population;cralaw (k) Quality Education - is the appropriateness, relevance and excellence of the education given to meet the needs and aspirations of an individual and society;cralaw (I) .School - is an educational institution, private and public, undertaking educational operation with a specific age-group of pupils or students pursuing defined studies at defined levels, receiving instruction from teachers, usually located in a building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber site; and (m).School Head - is a person responsible for the administrative and instructional supervision of the school or cluster of schools. CHAPTER 1 GOVERNANCE OF BASIC EDUCATION Sec. 5. Principles of Shared Governance. - (a) Shared governance is a principle which recognizes that every unit in the education bureaucracy has a particular role, task and responsibility inherent in the office and for which it is principally accountable for outcomes;cralaw (b) The process of democratic consultation shall be observed in the decision-making process at appropriate levels. Feedback mechanisms shall be established to ensure coordination and open communication of the central office with the regional, division and school levels;cralaw (c) The principles of accountability and transparency shall be operationalized in the performance of functions and responsibilities at all levels; and (d) The communication channels of field offices shall be strengthened to facilitate flow of information and expand linkages with other government agencies, local government units and nongovernmental organizations for effective governance.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 6. Governance. - The Department of Education, Culture and Sports shall henceforth be called the Department of Education. It shall be vested with authority, accountability and responsibility for ensuring access to, promoting equity in, and improving the quality of basic education. Arts, culture and sports shall be as provided for in Sections 8 and 9 hereof.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 7. Powers, Duties and Functions. - The Secretary of the Department of Education shall exercise overall authority and
    • supervision over the operations of the Department. A. National Level In addition to his/her powers under existing laws, the Secretary of Education shall have authority, accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Formulating national educational policies;cralaw (2) Formulating a national basic education plan;cralaw (3) Promulgating national educational Standards;cralaw (4) Monitoring and assessing national learning outcomes;cralaw (5) Undertaking national educational research and studies;cralaw (6) Enhancing the employment status, professional competence, welfare and working conditions of all personnel of the Department; and (7) Enhancing the total development of learners through local and national programs and/or projects. chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary The Secretary of Education shall be assisted by not more than four (4) undersecretaries and not more than four (4) assistant secretaries whose assignments, duties and responsibilities shall be governed by law. There shall be at least one undersecretary and one assistant secretary who shall be career executive service officers chosen from among the staff of the Department. B. Regional Level There shall be as many regional offices as may be provided by law. Each regional office shall have a director, an assistant director and an office staff for program promotion and support, planning, administrative and fiscal services. Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards, the regional director shall have authority, accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Defining a regional educational policy framework which reflects the values, needs and expectations of the communities they serve;cralaw (2) Developing a regional basic education plan;cralaw (3) Developing regional educational standards with a view towards bench-marking for international competitiveness;cralaw (4) Monitoring, evaluating and assessing regional learning outcomes;cralaw (5) Undertaking research projects and developing and managing region wide projects which may be funded through official development assistance and/or or other finding agencies;cralaw (6) Ensuring strict compliance with prescribed national criteria for the recruitment, selection and training of all staff in the region and divisions. (7) Formulating, in coordination with the regional development council, the budget to support the regional educational plan which shall take into account the educational plans of the divisions and districts;cralaw (8) Determining the organization component of the divisions and districts and approving the proposed staffing pattern of all employees in the divisions and districts;cralaw (9) Hiring, placing and evaluating all employees in the regional office, except for the position of assistant director;cralaw (10) Evaluating all schools division superintendents and assistant division superintendents in the region;cralaw (II) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the regional office, including professional staff development.;cralaw (12) Managing the database and management information system of the region;cralaw (13) Approving the establishment of public and private elementary and high schools and learning centers; and (14) Preforming such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary C. Division Level
    • A division shall consist of a province or a city which shall have a schools division superintendent, at least one assistant schools division superintendent and an office staff for programs promotion, planning, administrative, fiscal, legal, ancillary and other support services. Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards the schools division superintendents shall have authority, accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Developing and implementing division education development plans;cralaw (2) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the division, including professional staff development;cralaw (3) Hiring, placing and evaluating all division supervisors and schools district supervisors as well as all employees in the division, both teaching and non-teaching personnel, including school heads, except for the assistant division superintendent;cralaw (4) Monitoring the utilization of funds provided by the national government and the local government units to the schools and learning centers;cralaw (5) Ensuring compliance of quality standards for basic education programs and for this purpose strengthening the role of division supervisors as subject area specialists;cralaw (6) Promoting awareness of and adherence by all schools and learning centers to accreditation standards prescribed by the Secretary of Education;cralaw (7) Supervising the operations of all public and private elementary, secondary and integrated schools, and learning centers; and (8) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities. D. Schools District Level Upon the recommendation of the schools division superintendents, the regional director may establish additional schools district within a schools division. School districts already existing at tile time of the passage of the law shall be maintained. A schools district shall have a schools district supervisor and an office staff for program promotion. The schools district supervisor shall be responsible for: (1) Providing professional and instructional advice and support to the school heads and teachers/facilitators of schools and learning centers in the district or cluster thereof;cralaw (2) Curricula supervision; and (3) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary E. School Level There shall be a school head for all public elementary schools and public high schools or a cluster thereof. The establishment of integrated schools from existing public elementary and public high schools shall be encouraged. The school head, who may be assisted by an assistant school head, shall be both an instructional leader and administrative manager. The school head shall form a them with the school teachers/learning facilitators for delivery of quality educational programs, projects and services. A core of nonteaching staff shall handle the school's administrative, fiscal and auxiliary services. Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards, the school heads shall have authority, accountability and responsibility for the following: (1) Setting the mission, vision, goals and objectives of the school;cralaw (2) Creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching and learning;cralaw (3) Implementing the school curriculum and being accountable for higher learning outcomes;cralaw (4) Developing the school education program and school improvement plan;cralaw (5) Offering educational programs, projects and services which provide equitable opportunities for all learners in the community;cralaw (6) Introducing new and innovative modes of instruction to achieve higher learning outcomes;cralaw (7) Administering and managing all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the school;cralaw
    • (8) Recommending the staffing complement of the school based on its needs;cralaw (9) Encouraging staff development;cralaw (10) Establishing school and community networks and encouraging the active participation of teachers organizations, nonacademic personnel of public schools, and parents-teachers-community associations;cralaw (11) Accepting donations, gifts, bequests and grants for the purpose of upgrading teachers' learning facilitators' competencies, improving ad expanding school facilities and providing instructional materials and equipment. Such donations or grants must be reported to the appropriate district supervisors and division superintendents; and (12) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.nroblesvirtuallawlibrary The Secretary of Education shall create a promotions board, at the appropriate levels, which shall formulate and implement a system of promotion for schools decision supervisors, schools district supervisors, and school heads. Promotion of school heads shall be based on educational qualification, merit and performance rather than on the number of teachers/learning facilitators and learners in the school. The qualifications, salary grade, status of employment and welfare and benefits of school heads shall be the same for public elementary, secondary and integrated schools. No appointment to the positions of regional directors, assistant regional directors, schools division superintendents and assistant schools division superintendents shall be made unless file appointee is a career executive service officer who preferably shall have risen from the ranks. CHAPTER 2 TRANSFER OF CULTURAL AGENCIES Sec. 8. Cultural Agencies. - The Komisyon ng Wikang Pilipino, National Historical Institute, Records Management and Archives Office and the National Library shall now be administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and no loner with the Department of Education. The program for school arts and culture shall remain part of the school curriculum. CHAPTER 3 ABOLITION OF THE BUREAU OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL SPORTS Sec. 9. Abolition of BPESS. - All functions, programs and activities of the Department of Education related to sports competition shall be transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). The program for school sports and physical fitness shall remain part of the basic education curriculum. The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) is hereby abolished. The personnel of the BPESS, presently detailed with the PSC, are hereby transferred to the PSC without loss of rank, including the plantilla positions they occupy. All other BPESS personnel shall be retained by the Department. CHAPTER 4 SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE OF OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES Sec. 10. The Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Budget and Management shall, within ninety (90) days from the approval of this Act, jointly promulgate the guidelines on the allocation, distribution and utilization of resources provided by thenational government for the field offices, taking into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the teaching service. The Secretary of the Department of Education shall ensure that resources appropriated for the field offices are adequate and that resources for school personnel, school desks and textbooks and other instructional materials intended are allocated directly and released immediately by the Department of Budget and Management to said offices.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 11. The Secretary of the Department of Education, subject to civil service laws and regulations, shall issue appropriate personnel policy rules and regulations that will best meet the requirements of the teaching profession taking into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the teaching service.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 12. The Commission on Audit, in the issuance of audit rules and regulations that will govern the utilization of all resources as well as the liquidation, recording and reporting thereof, shall take into account the different characteristics and distinct features of the department's field offices, its organizational set up as well as the nature of the operations of
    • schools and learning centers. CHAPTER 5 FINAL PROVISIONS Sec. 13. Governance in the ARMM; - The Regional Education Secretary for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) shall exercise similar governance authority over the divisions, districts, schools and learning centers in the region as may be provided in the Organic Act. without prejudice to the provisions of Republic Act No. 9054, entitled "An Act to Strengthen and Expand tile Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Amending for the Purpose Republic Act No.6734, entitled' An Act Providing for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, as amended"'.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 14. Rules and Regulations. - The Secretary of Education shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations within ninety (90) days after the approval of this Act: Provided, That the Secretary of Education shall fully implement the principle of shared governance within two (2) years after the approval of this Act.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 15. Separability Clause. - If for any reason, any portion or provision of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional, other parts or provisions hereof which are not affected thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 16 Repealing Clause. - All laws, decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations, part or parts thereof, inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.chanrobles virtualaw library Sec. 17. Effectivity Clause. - This Act. shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation Approved: (Sgd) FRANKLIN M. DRILON President of the Senate (Sgd) OSCAR G. YARES Secretary of the Senate (Sgd) ROBERTO P. NAZARENO Secretary General House of Representatives Approved:August 11, 2001 (Sgd) GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines
    • [EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 356, September 14, 2004] RENAMING THE BUREAU OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION TO BUREAU OFALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM WHEREAS, it is a declared State policy, "to protect and promote the right of all citizen to quality basic education and to promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino children in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include alternative learning system for out-of school youth and adult learners." (Section 2 of PA. 9155, The Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001) WHEREAS, Section 12.1 Rules XII of R.A. 9155 stipulates that "the alternative Learning System is a parallel learning system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction, encompassing both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills"; WHEREAS, the Department of Education, through the Bureau of Non-formal Education is mandated to ensure that all learning needs of marginalized learners are addressed; WHEREAS, one of the most important initiatives in Non-formal Education in the Philippines in the last 10 Sears is the Alternative Learning System (ALS, which is a major component of basic education with a clearly defined role within the overall educational goals; WHEREAS, the ALS will respond to the need of a more systematic and flexible approach in reaching to all types of learners outside the school system; NOW, THEREFORE, I, GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law, do hereby order: SECTION 1. The Bureau of Non-formal Education is hereby renamed to Bureau of alternative Learning System (BALS). SEC. 2 The Bureau of Alternative Learning System shall have the following functions: a. Address the learning needs of the marginalized groups of the population including the deprived, depressed and underserved citizens, b. Coordinate with various agencies for skills development to enhance and ensure continuing employability, efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness in the labor market; c. Ensure the expansion of access to educational opportunities for citizens of different interests, capabilities demographic characteristics and socio-economic origins and status; and d. Promote certification and accreditation of alternative learning programs both formal and informal in nature for basic education. SEC. 3. Funds necessary to carry out the provisions of this Executive Order shall be taken from the present funds available in the Department of Education and shall thereafter be included in the General Appropriations Act. SEC. 4. All orders, issuances, rules and regulations, or parts thereof inconsistent with this Executive Order are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SEC. 5. This Executive Order shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette, DONE in the City of Manila this 13th day of September in the year of Our Lord, two thousand and four. (SGD.) GLORIA MACAPAGALARROYO By the President
    • PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 6-A September 29, 1972 AUTHORIZING THE UNDERTAKING OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, PROVIDING FOR THE MECHANICS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FINANCING THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution as Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and pursuant to Proclamation No. 1081 dated September 21, 1972, and General Order No. 1 dated September 22, 1972, do hereby decree, order and make as part of the law of the land the following measures: Section 1. Title. - This Decree shall be known as the "Educational Development Decree of 1972." Section 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby declared to be the policy of the government to ensure, within the context of a free and democratic system maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of the following national development goals: (a) To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress; (b) To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and (c) To strengthen national consciousness and promote desirable cultural values in a changing world. Section 3. Statement of Objectives. - To this end, the educational system aims to: (a) Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individual, in the peculiar ecology of his own society, to (1) attain his potential as a human being; (2) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society; and (3) acquire the essential educational foundation for his development into a productive and versatile citizen: (b) Train the nation's manpower in the middle level skill required for national development; (c) Develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life; and (d) Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational planning and evaluation. Section 4. Guiding Principles of the Ten-Year Program. - In order to lay the foundation and to advance the attainment of these objectives, a ten-year national education development program shall be formulated based on the following: (a) Improvement of curricular programs and quality of instruction of all levels by way of upgrading physical faculties, adoption of cost-saving instructional technology, and training and re-training of teachers and administrators; (b) Upgrading of academic standards through accreditation schemes, admissions testing and guidance counselling; (c) Democratization of access to educational opportunities through the provision of financial assistance to deserving students, skills training programs for out-of-school youth and continuing education program for non-literate adults; (d) Restructuring of higher education to become more responsive to national development needs through a planned system of incentives and assistance to both public and private colleges and universities and synchronization of curricular programs, staffing patterns and institutional development activities; (e) Expansion of existing programs and establishment of new ones designed to train middle-level technical and agricultural manpower; and (f) Instituting reform in the educational financing system to facilitate the shift of funding responsibility for elementary and secondary education from the national to the local government, thereby increasing government participation in higher education. Section 5. Educational Development Projects. - The above-stated objectives shall be attained through the
    • undertaking of the following educational development projects: (a) Management study of the Department of Education and Culture and institution of administrative improvements therein; (b) Establishment and/or operation or improvement of secondary schools which may include provision for extension services, facilities and equipment to allow the use of expanded and improved curriculum; (c) Establishment and/or operation, upgrading or improvement of technical institutes, skills training centers, and other non-formal training programs and projects for the out-of-school youth and the unemployed in collaboration with the programs of the National Manpower and Youth Council; (d) Curriculum and staff development including mathematics and science teaching; (e) Expansion of agricultural secondary and higher education programs and extension activities which may include radio broadcasting and rural training services, and the provision of facilities therefor including seed capital and revolving funds; (f) Design, utilization and improvement of instructional technology and development/production of textbooks and other instructional materials; and (g) Assistance and incentives, including loans and grants, toward the planned development and improvement of programs and facilities in both public and private universities, colleges and schools. In addition, other educational development projects necessary pursuant to the objectives of this Decree are likewise to be undertaken: Provided, That for such projects to qualify under this Decree, the same must be consistent with the principles enunciated in Section 4 hereof, supported by sufficient studies, data and plans of operation and implementation, endorsed by the National Board of Education to, and approved by an Education Special Committee, hereinafter provided, to form part of the educational development program. Section 6. Working Arrangements. - For the attainment of the objectives of this Decree, an Education Special Committee, composed of the Secretary of Education and Culture as Chairman and the Secretary of Finance and the Commissioner of the Budget as members, if hereby created which shall: (a) Approve and evaluate the specific projects, endorsed to it by the National Board of Education, to be financed out of the resources provided for in this Decree; and (b) Administer the Educational Institutions Development Fund as hereinafter provided, except that the resources accruing into the Fund shall be managed by reputable fund managers or financial institutions. The National Board of Education, as reorganized pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1 dated September 24, 1972, shall, in addition to its functions, perform the following: (a) Formulate education objectives and policies consistent with those enunciated in Section 2 hereof; and (b) Provide policy guidelines in the administration of the assistance and incentive programs provided for in Section 5(g) hereof, which shall include a system of educational priorities consistent with national, regional and/or local requirements for education and skills training, and such other procedures and requirements as will ensure the continual upgrading of the quality of education, the rationalization and institutional growth, and the democratization of access to education. In the discharge of its functions, the National Board of Education shall be assisted by an office of planning and research known as Planning Service in the Department of Education and Culture. A project unit to be known as the Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force is hereby established under the Office of the Secretary of Education and Culture to be headed by a Director and be composed of technical staff members and such consultants as are necessary. Its functions are: (a) To supervise and implement foreign-assisted development projects; and (b) To implement such other development projects as may be assigned to it by the Secretary of Education and Culture. Where the project involves an office, agency or instrumentality of the government other than the Department of Education and Culture, appropriate working arrangements shall be established by the Educational Department Projects Implementing Task Force and the office, agency or instrumentality concerned, including the turn over of the project upon its completion to such office, agency or instrumentality to be integrated with and be part of the
    • regular activities thereof. Section 7. Authority to Borrow. - The President of the Philippines, in behalf of the Republic of the Philippines, may contract loans, credits or indebtedness with any foreign source or lender, under such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon, any provision of law, including Republic Act Numbered Forty-eight hundred and sixty as amended by Republic Act Numbered Sixty-one hundred and forty-two, Act Numbered Forty-two hundred and thirty nine, Commonwealth Act Numbered one hundred thirty-eight, Commonwealth Act Numbered Five Hundred forty-one, Republic Act Numbered Nine hundred twelve, Republic Act Numbered Fifty-one hundred eighty-three, and other related laws to the contrary notwithstanding, for a total amount not exceeding one hundred million United States dollars or the equivalent thereof in other currencies, as may be necessary to meet the direct and indirect foreign exchange requirements of the projects authorized under this Decree, to cover the costs of feasibility studies, equipment, machineries, supplies, construction, installation and related services of any such projects: Provided, That the loans, credit or indebtedness authorized herein shall be incurred on terms of payment of not less that ten (10) years. Section 8. Utilization of Proceeds. - The proceeds of such loans, credits or indebtedness, as well as the appropriations under Section 9 hereof, shall be used exclusively for financing the educational development projects authorized under this Decree: Provided, That for the purpose of ensuring continued assistance to the planned development and improvement of programs and facilities in both public and private universities, colleges and schools, there is hereby authorized to be established an Educational Institutions Development Fund in an amount of not less that ten million pesos ( 10,000,000), Philippine currency, annually for a period of ten (10) years. The said Fund shall be administered as a separate fund, and lending or relending operations to private universities, colleges and schools shall be subject to the rules and regulations to be promulgated by the National Board of Education with the approval of the Secretary of Finance. Cities, provinces and municipalities may undertake educational development projects pursuant to the objectives of this Decree and are hereby authorized to avail themselves of proceeds of loans, credits or indebtedness herein authorized as well as the appropriations under Section 9 hereof and receive financial assistance subject to such conditions as may be provided for and/or promulgated by the National Board of Education pursuant to this Decree. Section 9. Appropriations. - In addition to the proceeds of the loans, credits or indebtedness mentioned in Section 7 hereof, there is hereby appropriated for the projects authorized herein the sum of five hundred million pesos (P500,000,000) out of the funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated which shall be programmed and released in the following manner: fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) for Fiscal Year 1972-73 and fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) annually thereafter until June thirty, nineteen hundred eighty-two: Provided, That notwithstanding the said schedule, releases in a given year shall be adjusted in accordance with the actual requirements of the projects being implemented during the fiscal year: Provided, further, That should there be any surplus in the annual appropriations herein provided, the same shall accrue to the Educational Special Account herein created in the General Fund which shall be made available to finance the projects during the subsequent fiscal years. Section 10. Creation of Educational Special Account. - There is hereby established in the National Treasury an Educational Special Account to meet the appropriations herein provided, which shall be constituted from the following sources: (a) Proceeds form bond issues as provided for under Section 11 of this Decree; (b) Twenty million pesos (P20,000,000) annually from the share of the National Government in the Special Education Fund under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four hundred forty-seven as provided in Section 12 hereof; (c) Fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000) from the Special Science Fund for Fiscal Year 1972-73, and fifty percentum (50%), annually thereafter until June 30, 1982, of the total annual receipts from the taxes provided for under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four hundred and forty-eight, as provided in Section 13 hereof; (d) Future savings of the Department of Education and Culture that may result from the implementation of reforms consequent to management study, as provided in Section 14 hereof; and (e) Augmentations from the General Funds which are hereby authorized in cases where the above sources are not sufficient to cover expenditures required in any year, as provided in Section 15 of this Act.
    • The Department of Education and Culture is hereby authorized to receive and spend or utilize donations and/or bequests made in pursuance of the purposes and for projects enunciated in this Decree which donations and/or bequests shall be exempt from the payment of gift taxes. Section 11. Bond Issues. - The Secretary of Finance may issue and sell bonds not exceeding twenty million pesos annually under the authority of Republic Act Numbered Four thousand eight hundred sixty-one, any provision of law to the contrary, notwithstanding. Section 12. Portions of the Special Education Fund. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, effective July 1, 1972, until June 30, 1982, twenty million pesos (P20,000,000) of the annual share of the National Government from the Special Education Fund provided for under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four hundred and forty-seven shall accrue to the Educational Special Account herein provided. Thereafter, the said share shall accrue to the General Fund. In this connection, the shares of the local governments from the said Fund may be used by them to finance such projects as may be established in their locality under the authority of this Decree regardless of any restriction imposed thereon. Section 13. Portion of Special Science Fund. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, effective upon approval of this Decree, fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000) of the Special Science Fund established under Republic Act Numbered fifty-four-hundred and forty-eight as amended as hereby transferred to the Educational Special Account herein provided. Starting July 1,1972, until June 30, 1982, fifty per centum (50%) of the total collections from the taxes imposed under Republic Act Numbered fifty-four hundred and forty-eight as amended shall accrued to the Educational Special Account. Thereafter, said portion shall accrue to the General Fund. Section 14. Future Savings. - Such amount of savings resulting from the implementation of reforms consequent to the management study authorized under Section 5 as may be necessary to prosecute the projects under this Decree shall accrue to the Educational Special Account. Section 15. Augmentation from General Fund. - In cases where funds from sources specified in Section 10 (a), (b), (c) and (d) are not sufficient to meet the requirements in any fiscal year, such amounts as are necessary to meet such requirements are hereby appropriated out of the funds in the General Funds not otherwise appropriated, and transferred to the Educational Special Account. Section 16. Tax Exemption. - The loans, credits or indebtedness incurred pursuant to this Decree, the payment of the principal, interests and other charges thereon, the earnings of the fund created under Section 8, as well as the importation of articles, materials, equipment, machineries and supplies, including all building materials by the Department of Education and Culture or other offices, agencies or instrumentalities of the government and by private or chartered entities authorized by Education Special Committee to undertake the projects authorized in this Act shall be exempt from all taxes, duties, fees, imposts, other charges and restrictions, including import restrictions, imposed by the Republic of the Philippines or any of its agencies or political subdivisions. The Secretary of Finance shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary for the purpose. Section 17. Additional Appropriations. - There is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to pay the principal, interests and other charges on the loans, credits or indebtedness incurred under the authority of this Decree as and when they become due. Section 18. Repealing Clause. - All laws, executive orders, rules or regulations or parts thereof which are inconsistent with this Decree are hereby repealed and/or modified accordingly. Section 19. Effectivity. - This Decree shall take effect immediately. Done in the City of Manila, this 29th day of September, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy two. (SGD) FERDINAND E. MARCOS By the presedent Presedent (SGD) ROBETO V. REYES Acting Executive Secretary
    • BATAS PAMBANSA BLG. 232 September 11, 1982 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OFAN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS CHAPTER 1 Preliminary Matters Section 1. Title - This Act shall be known as the "Education Act of 1982." Section 2. Coverage - This Act shall apply to and govern both formal and non-formal systems in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system. CHAPTER 2 Declaration of Basic State Policy and Objectives Section 3. Declaration of Basic Policy - It is the policy of the State to established and maintain a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. Toward this end, the government shall ensure, within the context of a free and democratic system, maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of the following national developmental goals: 1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress; 2. To ensure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and 3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a changing world. The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education, regardless of sex, age, creed, socio- economic status, physical and mental conditions, racial or ethnic origin, political or other affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all its citizens. The state shall promote the right of the nation's cultural communities in the exercise of their right to develop themselves within the context of their cultures, customs, traditions, interest and belief, and recognizes education as an instrument for their maximum participation in national development and in ensuring their involvement in achieving national unity. Section 4. Declaration of Objectives - The educational system aim to: 1. Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individuals in the peculiar ecology of his own society, to (a) attain his potentials as a human being; (b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society; and (c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development into a productive and versatile citizen; 2. Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills for national development; 3. Develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation in the advancement of knowledge for improving the quality of human life; and 4. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational planning and evaluation. Towards the realization of these objectives, and pursuant to the Constitution, all educational institutions shall aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency. Furthermore, the educational system shall reach out to educationally deprived communities, in order to give meaningful
    • reality to their membership in the national society, to enrich their civic participation in the community and national life, and to unify all Filipinos into a free and just nation. II. THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY CHAPTER 1 Preliminary Provisions Section 5. Declaration of Policy and Objectives - It is likewise declared government policy to foster, at all times, a spirit of shared purposes and cooperation among the members and elements of the educational community, and between the community and other sectors of society, in the realization that only in such an atmosphere can be true goals and objectives of education be fulfilled. Moreover, the State shall: 1. Aid and support the natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth through the educational system. 2. Promote and safeguard the welfare and interest of the students by defining their rights and obligations, according them privileges, and encouraging the establishment of sound relationships between them and the other members of the school community. 3. Promote the social economic status of all school personnel, uphold their rights, define their obligations, and improve their living and working conditions and career prospects. 4. Extend support to promote the viability of those institutions through which parents, students and school personnel seek to attain their educational goals. Section 6. Definition and Coverage - "Educational community" refers to those persons or groups of persons as such or associated in institutions involved in organized teaching and learning systems. The members and elements of the educational community are: 1. "Parents" or guardians or the head of the institution or foster home which has custody of the pupil or student. 2. "Students," or those enrolled in and who regularly attend and educational institution of secondary or higher level of a person engaged in formal study. "Pupils," are those who regularly attend a school of elementary level under the supervision and tutelage of a teacher. 3 "School personnel," or all persons working for an educational institution, which includes the following: a. "Teaching or academic staff," or all persons engaged in actual teaching and/or research assignments, either on full-time or part-time basis, in all levels of the educational system. b. "School administrators," or all persons occupying policy implementing positions having to do with the functions of the school in all levels. c. "Academic non-teaching personnel," or those persons holding some academic qualifications and performing academic functions directly supportive of teaching, such as registrars, librarians, research assistants, research aides, and similar staff. d. "Non-academic personnel," or all other school personnel not falling under the definition and coverage of teaching and academic staff, school administrators and academic non-teaching personnel. 4. "Schools," or institutions recognized by the State which undertake educational operations. Section 7. Community Participation. - Every educational institution shall provide for the establishment of appropriate bodies through which the members of the educational community may discuss relevant issues, and communicate information and suggestions for assistance and support of the school and for the promotion of their common interest. Representatives from each subgroup of the educational community shall sit and participate in these bodies, the rules and procedures of which must be approved by them and duly published. CHAPTER 2 Rights Section 8. Rights of Parents - In addition to other rights under existing laws, all parents who have children enrolled in a school have the following rights:
    • 1. The right to organize by themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for the discussion of matters relating to the total school program, and for ensuring the full cooperation of parents and teachers in the formulation and efficient implementation of such programs. 2. The right to access to any official record directly relating to the children who are under their parental responsibility. Section 9. Right of Students in School - In addition to other rights, and subject to the limitation prescribed by law and regulations, and student and pupils in all schools shall enjoy the following rights: 1. The right to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education in line with national goals and conducive to their full development as person with human dignity. 2. The right to freely chose their field of study subject to existing curricula and to continue their course therein up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency, or violation of disciplinary regulations. 3. The right to school guidance and counseling services for decisions and selecting the alternatives in fields of work suited to his potentialities. 4. The right of access to his own school records, the confidentiality of which the school shall maintain and preserve. 5. The right to the issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials and other similar documents within thirty days from request. 6. The right to publish a student newspaper and similar publications, as well as the right to invite resource persons during assemblies, symposia and other activities of similar nature. 7. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions, and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic channels and administrative bodies of the school or institution. 8. The right to form, establish, join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school to foster their intellectual, cultural, spiritual and physical growth and development, or to form, establish, join and maintain organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law. 9. The right to be free from involuntary contributions, except those approved by their own he organizations or societies. Section 10. Rights of all School Personnel - In addition to other rights provided for by law, the following rights shall be enjoyed by all school personnel: 1. The right to free expression of opinion and suggestions, and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institution. 2. The right to be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office in the case of public school personnel, and through the school authorities concerned in the case of private school personnel, when charged in an administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings by parties other than the school or regulatory authorities concerned for actions committed directly in the lawful discharge of professional duties and/or in defense of school policies. 3. The right to establish, join and maintain labor organizations and/or professional and self-regulating organizations of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interests. 4. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations. Section 11. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff - Further to the rights mentioned in the preceding Section, every member of the teaching or academic staff shall enjoy the following rights and/or privileges: 1. The right to be free from compulsory assignments not related to their duties as defined in their appointments or employment contracts, unless compensated therefor, conformably to existing law. 2. The right to intellectual property consistent with applicable laws. 3. Teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and shall, therefore, be accorded due respect and protection. 4. Teachers shall be accorded the opportunity to choose alternative career lines either in school administration, in classroom teaching, or others, for purposes of career advancement.
    • Section 12. Special Rights of School Administration - School administrators shall, in accordance with existing laws, regulations and policies of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, be accorded sufficient administrative discretion necessary for the efficient and effective performance of their functions. School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection. Section 13. Rights of Schools - In addition to other rights provided for by law, schools shall enjoy the following: 1. The right of their governing boards or lawful authorities to provide for the proper governance of the school and to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems. 2. The right for institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study, who may teach, and what shall be subjects of the study and research. CHAPTER 3 Duties and Obligations Section 14. Duties of Parents. - In addition to those provided for under existing laws, all parents shall have the following duties and obligations: 1. Parents, individually or collectively, through the school systems, shall help carry out the educational objectives in accordance with national goals. 2. Parents shall be obliged to enable their children to obtain elementary education and shall strive to enable them to obtain secondary and higher education in the pursuance of the right formation of the youth. 3. Parents shall cooperate with the school in the implementation of the school program curricular and co-curricular. Section 15. Duties and Responsibilities of Students - In addition to those provided for under existing laws, every student shall: 1. Exert his utmost to develop his potentialities for service, particularly by undergoing an education suited to his abilities, in order that he may become an asset to his family and to society. 2. Uphold the academic integrity of the school, endeavor to achieve academic excellence and abide by the rules and regulations governing his academic responsibilities and moral integrity. 3. Promote and maintain the peace and tranquility of the school by observing the rules and discipline, and by exerting efforts to attain harmonious relationships with fellow students, the teaching and academic staff and other school personnel. 4. Participate actively in civic affairs and in the promotion of the general welfare, particularly in the social, economic and cultural development of his community and in the attainment of a just, compassionate and orderly society. 5. Exercise his rights responsibly in the knowledge that he is answerable for any infringement or violation of the public welfare and of the rights of others. Section 16. Teacher's Obligations - Every teacher shall: 1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school. 2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives in pursuance of national development goals within the limits of available school resources. 3. Render regular reports on performance of each student and to the latter and the latter's parents and guardians with specific suggestions for improvement. 4. Assume the responsibility to maintain and sustain his professional growth and advancement and maintain professionalism in his behavior at all times. 5. Refrain from making deductions in students' scholastic rating for acts that are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship. 6. Participate as an agent of constructive social, economic, moral, intellectual, cultural and political change in his school and the community within the context of national policies.
    • Section 17. School Administrators' Obligations - Every school administrator shall: 1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals and objectives of the school. 2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school. 3. Develop and maintain a healthy school atmosphere conducive to the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning, and to harmonious and progressive school-personnel relationship. 4. Assume and maintain professional behavior in his work and in dealing with students, teachers, academic non- teaching personnel, administrative staff, and parents or guardians. 5. Render adequate reports to teachers, academic non-teaching personnel and non-academic staff on their actual performance in relation to their expected performance and counsel them on ways of improving the same. 6. Observe due process, fairness, promptness, privacy, constructiveness and consistency in disciplining his teachers and other personnel. 7. Maintain adequate records and submit required reports to the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Section 18. Obligations of Academic Non-Teaching Personnel - Academic non-teaching personnel shall: 1. Improve himself professionally be keeping abreast of the latest trends and techniques in his profession. 2. Assume, promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning. 3. Promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning. III. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS CHAPTER 1 Formal Education Section 19. Declaration of Policy. - The State recognizes that formal education, or the school system, in society's primary learning system, and therefore the main instrument for the achievement of the country's educational goals and objectives. Section 20. Definition - "Formal Educational" refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded learning organized and provided by the formal school system and for which certification is required in order for the learner to progress through the grades or move to higher levels. Formal education shall correspond to the following levels: 1. Elementary Education. - the first stage of compulsory, formal education primarily concerned with providing basic education and usually corresponding to six or seven grades, including pre-school programs. 2. Secondary Education. - the state of formal education following the elementary level concerned primarily with continuing basic education and expanding it to include the learning of employable gainful skills, usually corresponding to four years of high school. 3. Tertiary Education. - post secondary schooling is higher education leading to a degree in a specific profession or discipline. Section 21. Objectives of Elementary Education - The objectives of elementary education are: 1. To provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu; 2. To provide learning experiences which increase the child's awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement; 3. To promote and intensify the child's knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and 4. To promote work experiences which develop the child's orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself to engage in honest and gainful work. Section 22. Objectives of Secondary Education. - The objectives of secondary education are: 1. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and
    • 2. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling. Section 23. Objective of Tertiary Education. - The objectives of tertiary education are: 1. To provide a general education program that will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor; 2. To train the nation's manpower in the skills required for national development; 3. To develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and 4. To advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions. CHAPTER 2 Non-Education and Specialized Educational Services Section 24. Specialized Educational Service - The State further recognizes its responsibility to provide, within the context of the formal education system, services to meet special needs of certain clientele. These specific types, which shall be guided by the basic policies of the State embodied in the General Provisions of this Act, include: 1. "Work Education," or "Practical Arts," as a program of basic education which aims to develop the right attitudes towards work; and "technical-vocational education," post-secondary but non-degree programs leading to one, two, or three year certificates in preparation for a group of middle-level occupations. 2. "Special Education," the education of persons who are physically, mentally, emotionally, socially, or culturally different from the so-called "normal" individuals that they require modification of school practices/services to develop them to their maximum capacity; and 3. "Non-formal Education," any organized school-based educational activities undertaken by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and other agencies aimed at attaining specific learning objectives for a particular clientele, especially the illiterates and the out-of-school youth and adults, distinct from and outside the regular offerings of the formal school system. The objectives of non-formal education are as follows: a. To eradicate illiteracy and raise the level of functional literacy of the population; b. To provide unemployed and underemployed youth and adults with appropriate vocational/technical skills to enable them to become more productive and effective citizens; and c. To develop among the clientele of non-formal education proper values and attitudes necessary for personal, community and national development. CHAPTER 3 Establishment of Schools Section 25. Establishment of Schools - All schools shall be established in accordance with law. The establishment of new national schools and the conversion of existing schools from elementary to national secondary or tertiary schools shall be by law: Provided, That any private school proposed to be established must incorporate as an non-stock educational corporation in accordance with the provisions of the Corporation Code of the Philippines. This requirement to incorporate may be waived in the case of family-administered pre-school institutions. Government assistance to such schools for educational programs shall be used exclusively for that purpose. Section 26. Definition of Terms - The terms used in this Chapter are defined as follows: 1. "Schools" are duly established institutions of learning or educational institutions. 2. "Public Schools" are educational institutions established and administered by the government. 3. "Private Schools" are educational institutions maintained and administered by private individuals or groups. Section 27. Recognition of Schools- The educational operations of schools shall be subject to their prior authorization of the government, and shall be affected by recognition. In the case of government operated schools, whether local, regional, or national, recognition of educational programs and/or operations shall be deemed granted simultaneously with establishment. In all other case the rules and regulations governing recognition shall be prescribed and enforced by the Ministry of
    • Education, Culture and Sports defining therein who are qualified to apply, providing for a permit system, stating the conditions for the grant of recognition and for its cancellation and withdrawal, and providing for related matters. Section 28. Effects of Recognition; Punishable Violations - The issuance of a certificate of recognition to a school shall have the following effects: 1. It transforms the temporary permit to a permanent authority to operate; 2. It entitled the school or college to give the students who have completed the course for which recognition is granted, a certificate, title or diploma; and 3. It shall entitle the students who have graduated from said recognized course or courses to all the benefits and privileges enjoyed by graduates in similar courses of studies in all schools recognized by the government. Operation of schools and educational programs without authorization, and/or operation thereof in violation of the terms of recognition, are hereby declared punishable violations subject to the penalties provided in this Act. Section 29. Voluntary Accreditation - The Ministry shall encourage programs of voluntary accreditation for institution which desire to meet standards of quality over and above minimum required for State recognition. CHAPTER 4 Internal Organization of Schools Section 30. Organization of Schools - Each school shall establish such internal organization as will best enable it to carry out its academic and administrative functions, subject to limitations provided by law. Each school establish such arrangements for the peaceful settlement of disputes between or among the members of the educational community. Section 31. Governing Board - Every government college or university as a tertiary institution and every private school shall have a governing board pursuant to its charter or the Corporation Code of the Philippines, as the case may be. Section 32. Personnel Transactions - The terms and conditions of employment of personnel in government schools shall be governed by the Civil Service, budgetary and compensation laws and rules. In private schools, dispute arising from employer-employee relations shall fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Labor and Employment as provided for by law regulations: Provided, That in view of the special employment status of the teaching and academic non-teaching personnel, and their special roles in the advancement of knowledge, standards set or promulgated jointly by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and by the Ministry of Labor and Employment shall be applied by the Ministry of Labor and Employment: Provided, further, That every private school shall establish and implement an appropriate system within the school for the prompt and orderly settlement of provisions of Articles 262 and 263 of the Labor Code. CHAPTER 5 School Finance and Assistance Section 33. Declaration of Policy - It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State that the national government shall contribute to the financial support of educational programs pursuant to goals of education as declared in the Constitution. Towards this end, the government shall: 1. Adopt measures to broaden access to education through financial assistance and other forms of incentives to schools, teachers, pupils and students; and 2. Encourage and stimulate private support to education through, inter alia, fiscal and other assistance measures. A. FUNDING OF REPUBLIC SCHOOLS Section 34. National Funds - Public school shall continue to be funded from national funds: Provided, That local governments shall be encouraged to assume operation of local public schools on the basis of national fund participation and adequate revenue sources which may be assigned by the national government for the purpose. Section 35. Financial Aid Assistance to Public Secondary Schools - The national government shall extend financial aid and assistance to public secondary schools established and maintained by local governments, including barangay high schools. Section 36. Share of Local Government - Provinces, cities and municipalities and barangays shall appropriate funds in their annual budgets for the operation and maintenance of public secondary schools on the basis of national fund participation. Section 37. Special Education Fund - The proceeds of the Special Education Fund accruing to local governments shall be
    • used exclusively for the purposes enumerated in Section 1 of Republic Act No. 5447, and in accordance with rules and regulations issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and the Ministry of the Budget. Said proceeds shall be considered a local fund and shall be subject to Presidential Decrees No. 477, Presidential Decree No. 1375 and other applicable local budget laws and regulations. Section 38. Tuition and other School Fees - Secondary and post-secondary schools may charge tuition and other school fees, in order to improve facilities or to accommodate more students. Section 39. Income from other Sources - Government-supported educational institution may receive grants, legacies, donations and gifts for purposes allowed by existing laws. Furthermore, income generated from production activities and from auxiliary enterprises may be retained and used for schools concerned in accordance with rules and regulations jointly issued consistently with pertinent appropriation and budgetary laws by the Ministry of the Budget, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and the Commission on Audit. B. FUNDING OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS Section 40. Funding of Private Schools - Private schools may be funded from their capital investment or equity contributions, tuition fees and other school charges, grants, loans, subsidies, passive investment income and income from other sources. Section 41. Government Assistance - The government, in recognition of their complementary role in the educational system, may provide aid to the programs of private schools in the form of grants or scholarships, or loans from government financial institutions: Provided, That such programs meet certain defined educational requirements and standards and contribute to the attainment of national development goals. Section 42. Tuition and Other Fees - Each private school shall determine its rate of tuition and other school fees or charges. The rates and charges adopted by schools pursuant to this provision shall be collectible, and their application or use authorized, subject to rules and regulations promulgated by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Section 43. Income from Other Sources - Any private school duly recognized by the government, may receive any grant and legacy, donation, gift, bequest or devise from any individual, institution, corporation, foundation, trust of philanthropic organization, or research institution or organization as may be authorized by law. Furthermore, private schools are authorized to engage in any auxiliary enterprise to generate income primarily to finance their educational operations and/or to reduce the need to increase students' fees. Section 44. Institutional Funds - The proceeds from tuition fees and other school charges, as well as other income of schools, shall be treated as institutional funds. Schools may pool their institutional funds, in whole or in part, under joint management for the purpose of generating additional financial resources. C. INCENTIVES TO EDUCATION Section 45. Declaration of Policy - It is the policy of the State in the pursuit of its national education development goals to provide an incentive program to encourage the participation of the community in the development of the educational sector. Section 46. Relating to School Property - Real property, such as lands, buildings and other improvements thereon used actually, directly and exclusively for educational purposes shall be subject to the real property tax based on an assessment of fifteen per cent of the market value of such property: Provided, That all the proceeds from the payment thereof shall accrue to a special private education fund which shall be managed and disbursed by a local private school board which shall be constituted in each municipality or chartered city with private educational institutions with the mayor or his representative as chairman and not more than two representatives of the institutional taxpayers, and, likewise, not more than two residents of the municipality or chartered city who are alumni of any of the institutional taxpayers as members: Provided, further, That fifty percent of the additional one percent tax on real estate property provided for under Republic Act 5447, shall accrue to the special private education fund: Provided, finally, That in municipalities or chartered cities wherein the number of private institutions with individual enrollment of pupils and students over five thousand exceeds fifteen, the members of the private school board shall be increased to not more than fourteen members determined proportionately by the Minister of Education, Culture and Sports. The private school board shall adopt its own rules which shall enable it to finance the annual programs and projects of each institutional taxpayer for the following purposes; student-pupil scholarships; improvement of instructional, including laboratory, facilities and/or equipment; library books and periodicals acquisition; and extension service in the community, in that order of priority. Section 47. Relating to Gifts or Donations to Schools - All gifts or donation in favor of any school, college or university recognized by the Government shall not be subject to tax; Provided, That such gifts or donations shall be for improvement of classrooms and laboratory of library facilities, and shall not inure to the benefit of any officer, director, official, or owner
    • or owners of the school, or paid out as salary, adjustments or allowance of any form or nature whatsoever, except in support of faculty and/or professorial chairs. Section 48. Relating to Earnings from Established Scholarship Funds - All earnings from the investment of any duly established scholarship fund of any school recognized by the government, constituted from gifts to the school, and/or from contributions or other resources assigned to said fund by the school, if said earnings are actually used to fund additional scholarship grants to financially deserving students shall be exempt from tax until the scholarship fund is fully liquidated, when the outstanding balance thereof shall be subject to tax. Section 49. School Dispersal Program - All gains realized from the sale, disposition or transfer of property, real or personal, of any duly established private school, college or university, in pursuance of a school dispersal program of the government or of the educational institution as approved by the government, shall be considered exempt from tax if the total proceeds of the sale are reinvested in a new or existing duly established school, college, or university located in the dispersal site, within one (1) year from the date of such sale, transfer or disposition; otherwise, all taxes due on the gains realized from the transaction shall immediately become due and payable. Section 50. Conversion to Educational Foundations - An educational institution may convert itself into a non-stock, non- profit educational foundation, in accordance with the implementing rules to be issued jointly by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and the Ministry of Finance. In the case of stock corporations, if for any reason its corporate existence as an educational institution ceases and is not renewed, all its net assets after liquidation of the liabilities and other obligations may be conveyed and transferred to any non-profit educational institution or successor non-profit educational institution or to be used in such manner as in the judgment of said court will best accomplish the general purposes for which the dissolved organization was organized, or to the State. D. ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS Section 51. Government Assistance to Students - The government shall provide financial assistance to financially disadvantaged and deserving students. Such assistance may be in the form of State scholarships, grants-in-aid, assistance from the Educational Loan Fund, or subsidized tuition rates in State colleges and universities. All the above and similar assistance programs shall provide for reserve quotas for financially needed but academically qualified students from the national cultural communities. Section 52. Grant of Scholarship Pursuant to Existing Laws - Educational institutions shall be encouraged to grant scholarships to students pursuant to the provisions of existing laws and such scholarship measures as may hereafter be provided for by law. Section 53. Assistance from the Private Sector - The private sector, especially educational institutions, business and industry, shall be encouraged to grant financial assistance to students, especially those undertaking research in the fields of science and technology or in such projects as may be necessary within the context of national development. Approved: (GD) QUERUBE C. MAKALINTAL Speaker This act was passed by the Batasang on September 10, 1982. Sgd. EDGARDO E. TUMANGAN Deputy Secretary-General Approved: (SGD) FERDINAND E. MARCOS
    • The UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines was created on 26 May 1951 through Republic Act No. 621 as ammended by R.A. 892, R.A. 3489 and P.D. 223 which attaches the commission to the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA). It is headed by the DFA Secretary as Chairman. It has been mandated primarily to advise the Government of the Philippines on matters relating to UNESCO and appropriate ways and means by which educational , scientific and cultural developments could best benefit the country. It serves as a liaison body between the Government and UNESCO, and as such, has been contributing to the furtherance of UNESCO's major programmes and activities. Its creation was indicative of the coutry's strong endorsement of UNESCO's main goals of human and sustainable development and building a culture of peace through its fields of competence: education, science and technology , social and human sciences, culture and communications. Structure The Commission has 45 members appointed by the President of the Philippines. they are fully informed about the various programmes, projects and activities embodied in UNESCO's bienial programme and budget, as well as those contained in the Organization's Medium-Term Strategy. They participate actively in the monitoring of programmes, related projects and activities being undertaken within the country so that successes and failures in their implementation within the context of national development become the springboards for recommending the revision of existing programmes and the introduction of new ones considered more relevant and responsive to the changing needs of the country. The Commission has an Executive, Committee, Programme Area Committee and Sub-Committees necessary for the effective and efficient performance of its powers and duties as the public interes may require. The Executive Committee is headed by the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Commission with 9 elected members reprsenting the five areas of UNESCO competence. the commission's secretariat In the process of executing these functions, the Commission's Secretariatheaded by a Secretary-General appointed by the President, servers as the technical arm of the Commission in charge of ensuring that information from all sources within the country and from UNESCO are placed within reach of the Commission members. The mechanism for doing this through a network of working committees, one each in education, science and technology, social sciences, culture and communication. The committees, consisting of interested and competent men and women coming from the government and non-government agencies/institutions, are dynamically involved in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating projectsand action programmes within their respective areas. As a permanent Secretariat with sufficient authority and "financial means to carry out efficiently the functions specifiend in the Charter and to increase its participation in the activities of the Organization, " the Office has a personnel complement of fourteen (14), eleven of whom are regular and three are casual employees. financial resources In order to carry out the provisions of the law, an amount determined by the Naional Commission of the Philippines is presented to Congress for appropriation from the funds of the National Treasury upon recommendation by the Department of Budget and Management, and approval by Congress. current activities The Commission has taken on a more progressive and active thrust in its work based on the major programmes of UNESCO. The UNESCO work in the Philippines is implemented within the framework of the Organization or dovetailed with its broad programmes and at the same time, geared t the development programmes of the Philippine Government. In the area of education, the major thrust of UNESCO for the decade isTowards Lifelong Education for all with basic education as priority. The sciences in the service of development consist of integrating activities in the natural and human sciences. In science and technology, the focus is on the strengthening of international scientific programmes, and the science and technology potential of the country, while promoting and increasing women participation in
    • all programme activities in the basic as well as in the applied sciences. The programme thrusts of the Committee on Social and Human Sciencesare on women, education, tolerance and the building of a culture of peace and the promotion of UNESCO's programme on the Management of Social Transformation (MOST). In culture, the promotion of UNESCO projects in the enhancement of the cultural environment, the preservation and restoration of natural and historical heritages and the recognition, respect and protection of the cultural minorities, and creativity are main areas of concern. UNESCO's priorities in Communication continue to be the promotion of the free flow of ideas by word or image, freedom of the press, media pluralism and independence, and the development of community-based media to meet the needs of population groups living in the most disadvantaged rural and urban areas. Under the supervision of the Commission, the project TAMBULI which has set up 5 community merdia and training centers in selected areas in the country is now preparing to implement Phase II of the project which intends to establish 8 to 10 more community media centers and a Foundation for the sustainability of the project. Transdisciplinary projects include Environment and Population Education and the Culture Peace program, follow-up activities on the Beijing Conference on Women. representation in UNESCO paris The Commission is represented in the UNESCO headquarters in Paris by its permanent delegation to UNESCO headed by the permanent delegate. When the Philippines is elected a member of the Executive Board, its representative attends the meeting of the Board, the highest policy and decision making body of the Organization as representative of the country during a term of 4 years.
    • REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4670 June 18, 1966 THE MAGNA CARTA FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS I. DECLARATION OF POLICY COVERAGE Sec. 1. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act to promote and improve the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their terms of employment and career prospects in order that they may compare favorably with existing opportunities in other walks of life, attract and retain in the teaching profession more people with the proper qualifications, it being recognized that advance in education depends on the qualifications and ability of the teaching staff and that education is an essential factor in the economic growth of the nation as a productive investment of vital importance. Sec. 2. Title Definition. This Act shall be known as the "Magna Carta for Public School Teachers" and shall apply to all public school teachers except those in the professorial staff of state colleges and universities. As used in this Act, the term "teacher" shall mean all persons engaged in classroom teaching, in any level of instruction, on full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial arts or vocational instructors, and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools, colleges and universities operated by the Government or its political subdivisions; but shall not include school nurses, school physicians, school dentists, and other school employees. II. RECRUITMENT AND CAREER Sec. 3. Recruitment and Qualification. Recruitment policy with respect to the selection and appointment of teachers shall be clearly defined by the Department of Education: Provided, however, That effective upon the approval of this Act, the following shall constitute the minimum educational qualifications for teacher-applicants: (a) For teachers in the kindergarten and elementary grades, Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education (B.S.E.ED.); (b) For teachers of the secondary schools, Bachelor's degree in Education or its equivalent with a major and a minor; or a Bachelor's degree in Arts or Science with at least eighteen professional units in Education. (c) For teachers of secondary vocational and two years technical courses, Bachelor's degree in the field of specialization with at least eighteen professional units in education; (d) For teachers of courses on the collegiate level, other than vocational, master's degree with a specific area of specialization; Provided, further, That in the absence of applicants who possess the minimum educational qualifications as hereinabove provided, the school superintendent may appoint, under a temporary status, applicants who do not meet the minimum qualifications: Provided, further, That should teacher-applicants, whether they possess the minimum educational qualifications or not, be required to take competitive examinations, preference in making appointments shall be in the order of their respective ranks in said competitive examinations: And provided, finally, That the results of the examinations shall be made public and every applicant shall be furnished with his score and rank in said examinations. Sec. 4. Probationary Period. When recruitment takes place after adequate training and professional preparation in any school recognized by the Government, no probationary period preceding regular appointment shall be imposed if the teacher possesses the appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, however, That where, due to the exigencies of the service, it is necessary to employ as teacher a person who possesses the minimum educational qualifications herein above set forth but lacks the appropriate civil service eligibility, such person shall be appointed on a provisional status and shall undergo a period of probation for not less than one year from and after the date of his provisional appointment. Sec. 5. Tenure of Office. Stability on employment and security of tenure shall be assured the teachers as provided under existing laws. Subject to the provisions of Section three hereof, teachers appointed on a provisional status for lack of necessary civil service eligibility shall be extended permanent appointment for the position he is holding after having rendered at least ten years of continuous, efficient and faithful service in such position. Sec. 6. Consent for Transfer Transportation Expenses. Except for cause and as herein otherwise provided, no teacher shall be transferred without his consent from one station to another. Where the exigencies of the service require the transfer of a teacher from one station to another, such transfer may be effected by the school superintendent who shall previously notify the teacher concerned of the transfer and the reason or reasons therefor. If the teacher believes there is no justification for the transfer, he may appeal his case to the Director of Public Schools or the Director of Vocational Education, as the case may be. Pending his appeal and the decision thereon, his transfer shall be held in abeyance: Provided, however, That no transfers whatever shall be made three months before any local or national election. Necessary transfer expenses of the teacher and his family shall be paid for by the Government if his transfer is finally approved. Sec. 7. Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers. Within six months from the approval of this Act, the Secretary of Education shall formulate and prepare a Code of Professional Conduct for Public School Teachers. A copy of the Code shall be furnished each teacher: Provided, however, That where this is not possible by reason of inadequate fiscal resources of the Department of Education, at
    • least three copies of the same Code shall be deposited with the office of the school principal or head teacher where they may be accessible for use by the teachers. Sec. 8. Safeguards in Disciplinary Procedure. Every teacher shall enjoy equitable safeguards at each stage of any disciplinary procedure and shall have: a. the right to be informed, in writing, of the charges; b. the right to full access to the evidence in the case; c. the right to defend himself and to be defended by a representative of his choice and/or by his organization, adequate time being given to the teacher for the preparation of his defense; and d. the right to appeal to clearly designated authorities. No publicity shall be given to any disciplinary action being taken against a teacher during the pendency of his case. Sec. 9. Administrative Charges. Administrative charges against a teacher shall be heard initially by a committee composed of the corresponding School Superintendent of the Division or a duly authorized representative who should at least have the rank of a division supervisor, where the teacher belongs, as chairman, a representative of the local or, in its absence, any existing provincial or national teacher's organization and a supervisor of the Division, the last two to be designated by the Director of Public Schools. The committee shall submit its findings and recommendations to the Director of Public Schools within thirty days from the termination of the hearings:Provided, however, That where the school superintendent is the complainant or an interested party, all the members of the committee shall be appointed by the Secretary of Education. Sec. 10. No Discrimination. There shall be no discrimination whatsoever in entrance to the teaching profession, or during its exercise, or in the termination of services, based on other than professional consideration. Sec. 11. Married Teachers. Whenever possible, the proper authorities shall take all steps to enable married couples, both of whom are public school teachers, to be employed in the same locality. Sec. 12. Academic Freedom. Teachers shall enjoy academic freedom in the discharge of their professional duties, particularly with regard to teaching and classroom methods. III. HOURS OF WORK AND REMUNERATION Sec. 13. Teaching Hours. Any teacher engaged in actual classroom instruction shall not be required to render more than six hours of actual classroom teaching a day, which shall be so scheduled as to give him time for the preparation and correction of exercises and other work incidental to his normal teaching duties: Provided,however, That where the exigencies of the service so require, any teacher may be required to render more than six hours but not exceeding eight hours of actual classroom teaching a day upon payment of additional compensation at the same rate as his regular remuneration plus at least twenty-five per cent of his basic pay. Sec. 14. Additional Compensation. Notwithstanding any provision of existing law to the contrary, co-curricula and out of school activities and any other activities outside of what is defined as normal duties of any teacher shall be paid an additional compensation of at least twenty-five per cent of his regular remuneration after the teacher has completed at least six hours of actual classroom teaching a day. In the case of other teachers or school officials not engaged in actual classroom instruction, any work performed in excess of eight hours a day shall be paid an additional compensation of at least twenty-five per cent of their regular remuneration. The agencies utilizing the services of teachers shall pay the additional compensation required under this section. Education authorities shall refuse to allow the rendition of services of teachers for other government agencies without the assurance that the teachers shall be paid the remuneration provided for under this section. Sec. 15. Criteria for Salaries. Teacher's salaries shall correspond to the following criteria: (a) they shall compare favorably with those paid in other occupations requiring equivalent or similar qualifications, training and abilities; (b) they shall be such as to insure teachers a reasonable standard of life for themselves and their families; and (c) they shall be properly graded so as to recognize the fact that certain positions require higher qualifications and greater responsibility than others: Provided, however, That the general salary scale shall be such that the relation between the lowest and highest salaries paid in the profession will be of reasonable order. Narrowing of the salary scale shall be achieved by raising the lower end of the salary scales relative to the upper end. Sec. 16. Salary Scale. Salary scales of teachers shall provide for a gradual progression from a minimum to a maximum salary by means of regular increments, granted automatically after three years: Provided, That the efficiency rating of the teacher concerned is at least satisfactory. The progression from the minimum to the maximum of the salary scale shall not extend over a period of ten years. Sec. 17. Equality in Salary Scales. The salary scales of teachers whose salaries are appropriated by a city, municipal, municipal district, or provincial government, shall not be less than those provided for teachers of the National Government. Sec. 18. Cost of Living Allowance. Teacher's salaries shall, at the very least, keep pace with the rise in the cost of living by the payment of a cost-of-living allowance which shall automatically follow changes in a cost-of-living index. The Secretary of Education shall, in consultation with the proper government entities, recommend to Congress, at least annually, the appropriation of the necessary funds for
    • the cost-of-living allowances of teachers employed by the National Government. The determination of the cost-of-living allowances by the Secretary of Education shall, upon approval of the President of the Philippines, be binding on the city, municipal or provincial government, for the purposes of calculating the cost-of-living allowances of teachers under its employ. Sec. 19. Special Hardship Allowances. In areas in which teachers are exposed to hardship such as difficulty in commuting to the place of work or other hazards peculiar to the place of employment, as determined by the Secretary of Education, they shall be compensated special hardship allowances equivalent to at least twenty-five per cent of their monthly salary. Sec. 20. Salaries to be Paid in Legal Tender. Salaries of teachers shall be paid in legal tender of the Philippines or its equivalent in checks or treasury warrants. Provided, however, That such checks or treasury warrants shall be cashable in any national, provincial, city or municipal treasurer's office or any banking institutions operating under the laws of the Republic of the Philippines. Sec. 21. Deductions Prohibited. No person shall make any deduction whatsoever from the salaries of teachers except under specific authority of law authorizing such deductions: Provided, however, That upon written authority executed by the teacher concerned, (1) lawful dues and fees owing to the Philippine Public School Teachers Association, and (2) premiums properly due on insurance policies, shall be considered deductible. IV. HEALTH MEASURES AND INJURY BENEFITS Sec. 22. Medical Examination and Treatment. Compulsory medical examination shall be provided free of charge for all teachers before they take up teaching, and shall be repeated not less than once a year during the teacher's professional life. Where medical examination show that medical treatment and/or hospitalization is necessary, same shall be provided free by the government entity paying the salary of the teachers. In regions where there is scarcity of medical facilities, teachers may obtain elsewhere the necessary medical care with the right to be reimbursed for their traveling expenses by the government entity concerned in the first paragraph of this Section. Sec. 23. Compensation For Injuries. Teachers shall be protected against the consequences of employment injuries in accordance with existing laws. The effects of the physical and nervous strain on the teacher's health shall be recognized as a compensable occupational disease in accordance with existing laws. V. LEAVE AND RETIREMENT BENEFITS Sec. 24. Study Leave. In addition to the leave privileges now enjoyed by teachers in the public schools, they shall be entitled to study leave not exceeding one school year after seven years of service. Such leave shall be granted in accordance with a schedule set by the Department of Education. During the period of such leave, the teachers shall be entitled to at least sixty per cent of their monthly salary: Provided, however, That no teacher shall be allowed to accumulate more than one year study leave, unless he needs an additional semester to finish his thesis for a graduate study in education or allied courses: Provided, further, That no compensation shall be due the teacher after the first year of such leave. In all cases, the study leave period shall be counted for seniority and pension purposes. The compensation allowed for one year study leave as herein provided shall be subject to the condition that the teacher takes the regular study load and passes at least seventy-five per cent of his courses. Study leave of more than one year may be permitted by the Secretary of Education but without compensation. Sec. 25. Indefinite Leave. An indefinite sick leave of absence shall be granted to teachers when the nature of the illness demands a long treatment that will exceed one year at the least. Sec. 26. Salary Increase upon Retirement. Public school teachers having fulfilled the age and service requirements of the applicable retirement laws shall be given one range salary raise upon retirement, which shall be the basis of the computation of the lump sum of the retirement pay and the monthly benefits thereafter. VI. TEACHER'S ORGANIZATION Sec. 27. Freedom to Organize. Public school teachers shall have the right to freely and without previous authorization both to establish and to join organizations of their choosing, whether local or national to further and defend their interests. Sec. 28. Discrimination Against Teachers Prohibited. The rights established in the immediately preceding Section shall be exercised without any interference or coercion. It shall be unlawful for any person to commit any acts of discrimination against teachers which are calculated to (a) make the employment of a teacher subject to the condition that he shall not join an organization, or shall relinquish membership in an organization, (b) to cause the dismissal of or otherwise prejudice a teacher by reason of his membership in an organization or because of participation in organization activities outside school hours, or with the consent of the proper school authorities, within school hours, and (c) to prevent him from carrying out the duties laid upon him by his position in the organization, or to penalize him for an action undertaken in that capacity. Sec. 29. National Teacher's Organizations. National teachers' organizations shall be consulted in the formulation of national educational policies and professional standards, and in the formulation of national policies governing the social security of the teachers. VII. ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT Sec. 30. Rules and Regulations. The Secretary of Education shall formulate and prepare the necessary rules and regulations to implement the provisions of this Act. Rules and regulations issued pursuant to this Section shall take effect thirty days after publication in a
    • newspaper of general circulation and by such other means as the Secretary of Education deems reasonably sufficient to give interested parties general notice of such issuance. Sec. 31. Budgetary Estimates. The Secretary of Education shall submit to Congress annually the necessary budgetary estimates to implement the provisions of the Act concerning the benefits herein granted to public school teachers under the employ of the National Government. Sec. 32. Penal Provision. A person who shall willfully interfere with, restrain or coerce any teacher in the exercise of his rights guaranteed by this Act or who shall in any other manner commit any act to defeat any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred pesos nor more than one thousand pesos, or by imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. If the offender is a public official, the court shall order his dismissal from the Government service. Sec. 33. Repealing Clause. All Acts or parts of Acts, executive orders and their implementing rules inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly. Sec. 34. Separability Clause. If any provision of this Act is declared invalid, the remainder of this Act or any provisions not affected thereby shall remain in force and in effect. Sec. 35. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. Approved: June 18, 1966 UK singapore Us Australia China Phil japan MATRIX OF EDUCATIONA PHILOSOPHIES
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 No man who worships education has got the best out of education.... Without a gentle contempt for education no man's education is complete. ~G.K. Chesterton Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school. ~Albert Einstein Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity. ~Aristotle “A child miseducated is a child lost.” -- Former U.S. President John F. Kennedy “The important thing is not to stop questioning.”
    • -- Nobel Prize-winning, American scientist, Albert Einstein “Learning without thought is labor lost; thought without learning is perilous.” -- Chinese philosopher, Confucius Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other. John F. Kennedy “A thousand teachers, a thousand methods.” Chinese proverb “Education is improving the lives of others and for leaving your community and world better than you found it.” “Learning is a treasure which accompanies its owner everywhere.” Chinese Proverb “Learning is a kind of natural food for the mind.” Marcus Tullius Cicero,"