The Ministry of Education aims to help our students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents
and realise their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life.
b. Agency of education
IDP Education - Singapore
4th Floor, Regional Language Centre
30 Orange Grove Road, Singapore, 258352
AS Edu Centre Pty Ltd - Singapore Blk 809, French Road, #03-182, Singapore, 200809
Jack Study Abroad - Singapore
#12-05 Park Mall (Next to Dhoby Ghaut Station), Singapore,
AUG (AusEd UniEd) - Singapore
7 Maxwell Road, #04-09 Annex B
Ministry of National Development Complex, Singapore, 69111
Australia Migration Agency - Singapore 6 Battery Road #38-03, Singapore, 049909, Singapore
Educational Link Consultants - Singapore
545 ORCHARD ROAD #06-04
FAR EAST SHOPPING CENTRE
SINGAPORE 238882, Singapore, 238882, Singapore
JM Education Counselling Centre - Singapore 91 Bencoolen Street #01 82 Sunshine Plaza, Singapore, 189652
One-Stop Student Service - Singapore
22, Jalan Hikayat
Singapore 769866, Singapore, 769866, Singapore
Adroit Foreign Education Link - Singapore
111 North Bridge Road
#08-28 Peninsula Plaza
, Singapore, 179098
iCORP Education - Singapore
24 Raffles Place
25 06 A Clifford Centre, Singapor
9 Penang Rd
#10-18 Park Mall, Singapore, 238459
c. Levels of education
e, Student-Teacher ratio
f. Problems of education
g. Compulsory education
Singapore has achieved almost universal education at the primary and the secondary levels through years of effort.
Today, children who are not enrolled in national schools form only a small percentage of the cohort. The Government is
however concerned that they are not being equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to be productive citizens in a
knowledge-based economy. Hence, the Committee on Compulsory Education in Singapore (CCES) was formed in
December 1999 to review whether compulsory education should be introduced in Singapore, and if so, the form and
duration it should take.
h. Important features
Downtown Core, Singapore
Currency Singapore dollar (SGD); Brunei Dollar(B$)
Fiscal year 1 April - 31 March
Trade organisations WTO, APEC, IOR-ARC, ASEAN
GDP $318.9 billion (2011 est. PPP)
GDP growth 0.3% (Q3 2012)
GDP per capita $62,100 (PPP, 2010 est.), $43,117 (nominal, 2010 est.)
GDP by sector Agriculture: 0%; industry: 26.6%;services: 73.4% (2011 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 5.2% (2011 est.)
below poverty line
Gini coefficient 47.3 (2011)
Labour force 3.237 million (2011 est.)
agriculture 0.1%, industry 19.6% 18%, services 80.3% (2011)
Unemployment 1.9% (2012 est.)
Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber
processing and rubber products, processed foodand beverages, ship repair, offshore platform
construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Letiracy rate – 92.5 %
K-12 Basis education program
b. gency of education
c. Levels of education
d. Population e. Student-Teacher ratio
f. Problem of education
g. Compulsory education
THE Federation of Associations of Private Schools and Administrators, the country’s largest association of private
schools, wants the two years of senior high school or Grades 11 and 12 of the K to 12 program placed under the
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education Skills and Development Authority (Tesda) instead
of the Department of Education (DepEd).
h. Important features
I. Letiracyrat – 92.6 %
XI. The teacher on his profession.
Professional characterestics of a teacher
A. Mastery of the subject matter – This refers to the subject the teacher should teach the subjects he/she knows
very well. It is needless to underscore the fact that the teacher must have a complete mastery of the subject
B. Mastery of the methods, approaches, and strategies- This refers to the blueprint of the procedure that the
teacher follows in teaching. The teacher however, does not need to master all the methods,
approaches,strategies and techniques found in the book. He she needs to master a few, each suitable to a
particular teaching situation. He/she can utilize the teaching approaches, methods, and strategies with almost
dexterity to be able to produce the best results. The teacher however provide varied learning experiences to
avoid boredom and monotomy and to maximize leaning amonn his/her studensts.
C. Mastery of the medium instruction- This enables the teacher to explain very clearly his/her points to his/her
students so that they understand him/her. If the medium of instruction in english, the teacher must have a good
vocavolary and mastery the rules of grammar of the language. He/she speaks well with acceptable
pronouncaition of words and uses correct grammar. The use of Taglish where English is the medium of
instruction should be avoided.
D. Mastery of the planning and organizing instructional materials and other resources- Planning is a very
important phase in classroom instruction. Good planning ensures the smooth and logical flow of learning
activities, thus, avoid waste but save time. Planning enables the teacher to accomplish the work he/she sets for
itself in the most effective way in the shortest time possible
E. Mastery of the educational philoshopies and psychology of learning- the teacher must have mastered the
principles and techniques that make children kearn better. he/she must know the factors that facilitate learning
such as learning by doing, motivating, reinforcing, and disciplining, dealing with individual deffirences,
developing critical thinking, making decision, self-direction, self-realince, and countless others to makes his/her
teaching very effective and enjoyable too.
F. Mastery in the formulating of goals and objectives- no one can teach without gaols and objectives. These are
the teacher's guide in teaching. While the teacher must know he/she instructional goals and objectives, he/she
must now also the goals and objectivesof his/her institution and those of the nation.
G. Mastery of classroom management, including discipline- The teacher is a manager and director of a learning
activities and he/she should see to it that class sessions are started and conducted smoothly and productively.
Learning devise are in proper places and manipulated properly; lighting and ventilation are attended to; seats
properly arranged and discipline is at its best.
F. Mastery of measurement and evaluation- Measurement and evaluation of students achievement is an
important task of a teacher. Besides having in mind the uses of the different teacher-made tests, he/she know
when to use and how to constract norm-referenced or criterion-referenced tests. He/she also knows how to
contrust the different teacher-made tests and thir uses. Importantly, he/she knows how to interpret tests results.
G. Mastery of the techniques of motivation- This ia an important aspect of teaching because unless the students
are interested in the lesson they do not pay attentiom and they do not learn. Their interest in the lesson should
be arroused and satisfied so that they will learn.
H. Mastery of art and questioning- Questioning is very important tool of teaching. It is in fact the heart of
teaching strategies. Paticipation of students to some extent depends on the question asked by the teacher.
There two major types of questions, namely: question that elicit funtual information and questions that develop
critical and analytical thinking. The more critical questions given, the more learning takes place. “To teach is to
J. Mastery of the basic of guidance and councelling- The teacher is always a guidance counsellor to certain
extent. Thruogh counselling, he/she gives students assistance to reach their personal gaols.
Personal chracterestics of a good teacher
1. Intelligence – A teacher hs to be intellegent because he/she is dealing with verbal materials and individuals
with varying levels of intelligences.
2. Puntuality – An effective teacher is always puntual and enthusiastic in his/her teaching. he/she goes to class
on time and dismisses it as scheduled.
3. Good physical and mental health – Taking all other things, an unhealthly teacher cannot do what a healthly
teacher can do. A teacher who is phisically or mental capable accomplishes what he/she ought to do. Thus, a
teacher must be at the speak of his/her can go about his/her business of teaching.
4. Loyalty and commitment – A taecher must be loyal and commited to his/her profession and to the institution
he/she serves. A teacher is cooperative, industriuos and kind-hearted and prepares any assignment given to
him.her with gladness and finesse.
5. Respect for the dignity of the individual – The teacher respect the dignity of any person he/she comes in
contact with especially his/her superiors, peers, and students, he/she recognize the individual worth of people
particularly his/her students.
6.Fair level of tolerance, firmness and impartiality – A teacher meets all kinds of classroom problems and
students, such as inattentiveness and students not doing well with their lessons. A teacher must maintain a fair
level of tolerance for them to be able to endure the ordeal and stress. he/she must remember that he/she cannot
make robots out of children, which sholud not be done anyway, but they shouldbe developed into well
disciplined, intelligent, law abiding, and productive citizens of the country.
7. Adaptability – A teacher can adjust hemself/himself to any teaching situation. If he/she can handle fast
learners, he/she can also handle slow learners in class. If he/she can handle tamed students, he/she can also
handle unruly students. If he/she can teach in the urban area, he/she can also teach in the rural area.
8. Alertness, resourcesfulness, creativity- a teacher must be alert, resourcesful, and creative in dealing with
critical teaching situations. he/she must be resourcesful and creative in locating modern learning materials.
he/she creates a situation that arouses student's interest. he/she can vary his/her technique, his/her adio-visual
materials. he/she injects a clean humor.
9. Appropriate grooming – A teacher must be well groomed to maintain his/her dignity in profession he/she
dresses modesty, neatly, and appraitely.
10. Christian outlook, missionary spirits- There is not much money in teaching compared lucrative occupations.
But it is very rich in service. Teaching is a mission. A teacher finds happiness and fufillment in giving his/her
selfless service to his/her
students. That is why teacher must develop christain outlook or missionary spirits to him/her job. The teacher is
most happy in rendering selfless service when he/she a missionary spirit. He/she is willing to make sacrifies,
always helpful to his/her students, always approachable, friendly and kind to the community.
11. Clean sense of humor- A teacher must hace a store of clean humorous tales and anecdotes to awaken
his/her students when they become sleepy and inattentive. His/ her humorous tales are relevant to his/ her
lesson. Clean humor is often a good means of manintaining the interests, attention, cheerfulness and
enthusiasm of studentions.
12. Good professional and human relatios – A teacher must have good human relations with his/her
students. he/she is cheerful and socializes with the students amd parents but still gain respect. He/she knows
the limits of socialization. He/she makes students understand that his/her orders are legitimate thus commands
obedience. He/she emphasizes to his/her students that gifts and favors are not to be equated with academic
grades or achievement.
13. Good moral and ethical character- One thing that a teacher should always try to keep high is her/his moral
ethical character. he/she must keep the social and spiritaul values that are accepted not only in his/her school
and his/her community. A teacher is usaully considered and expected to be a role model in character and he/she
must maintain that impression. he/she avoid committing acts that would tarnish his/her reputation because
his/her effeciency as a teacher is adversely affected by a bad reputation. he/she must be a person of honesty,
integrited, fairness, impartiality and trustworthiness.
14. Desire to grow professionally – A teacher must grow professionally while in service. Change is constantly
taking place and what the learned in school a few years ago maybe obsolete now. Hence, he/she must attend
educational conferences. Seminars, and workshops. he/she read modern books and joulnals in education and
durther his/her studies. he/she also joins educational associations.
15. Leadership and fellowship- If a teacher has a bright ideas and can sway people to his/her side of thinking,
he/she may assume the position of leadership among his/her peers. If he/she performs the role of a follower,
he/she must be cooperative and must legitimate orders from his/her superiors.
16. Love for children – If a teacher has a genuine love for children he/she will be happy in his/her job and he/she
becomes efficient. A teacher should treat his/her students as a good paent treats his/her children.
17. Observes the Code of Professional Ethics – The teaching profession has a code of ethics that explains the
relationship of a teacher to the state, to his/her superiors, to his/her peers, to his/her students and to the people
of the community.
a. The teacher inside the classroom
b. The teacher outside the classroom
c. The teacher in the community
XIII. Professionalization of teaching
Historical perspective of the Philippine educational system.
YEAR OFFICIAL NAME HEAD OF OFFICE LEGAL BASES
1863 Superior Commission of Chairman Educational Degree of 1863
1901- Department of Public General Act No. 74 of the philippine
1961 Instruction Superintendent Commission, Jan 21, 1901
1916- Department of Public Secretary Organic Act Law of 1916
1942 Instruction (Jones Law)
1942 Department of Education, Commissioner Renamed by the Japanese
1944 Health and public walfare Exec. Commission, June 11,
1944 Department of Education, Minister Renamed by Japanese
Health and Public Walfare Philippine Republic
same Department of public Secretary Renamed by Japanese
year Instruction Philippine Republic
1945- Department of Public Secretary Renamed by the
1946 Instruction and Information Government
1946- Department of Instruction Secretary Renamed by the
1947 Department of Education Secretary E.O. No. 94 October 1947
1975 (Recognization Act of 1947)
1975- Department of Education and Secretary Proc. No. 1081,
1978 Culture September 24, 1972
1978- Ministry of Education and Minister P.D. No. 1397, June 2, 1978
1984 Culture Minister Education Act of 1982
1984- Ministry of Education Culure Secretary E.O. No. 117 January 30, 1987
2001 Culture and Sports
2002- Department of Secretary R.A. no. 9155
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7722REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7722
AN ACT CREATING THE COMMISSION ON HIGHER EDUCATION, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR
AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
SEC. 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the “Higher Education Act of 1994”.
SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy. - The State shall protect, foster and promote the right of all citizens to affordable
quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to ensurethat education shall be accessible to
all.The State shall likewise ensure and protect academic freedom and shall promote its exercise and observance
for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of responsible
and effective leadership, the education of high-level and middle-level professionals, and the enrichment of
ourhistorical and cultural heritage. State-supported institutions of higher learning shall geartheirprograms to
national, regional or local development plans. Finally, all institutions of higher learning shall exemplify through
their physical and natural surroundings the dignity and beauty of, as well as their pride in, the intellectual and
SEC. 3. Creation of the Commission on Higher
Education. - In pursuance of the abovementioned policies, the Commission on Higher Education is hereby
created, hereinafter referred to as the Commission.The Commission shall be independent and separate from
the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and attached to the Office of the President for
administrative purposes only. Its coverage shall be both public and private institutions of higher education as well
as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions, public and private.
SEC. 4. Composition of the Commission. - The Commission shall be composed of five (5) full-time members.
During the transition period which begins upon approval of this Act, the President may appoint the Secretary of
Education, Culture and Sports as ex officio chairman of the Commission for a maximum period of one (1) year.
Thereafter, the President shall appoint a Chairman of the Commission and four (4) commissioners, who shall be
holders of earned doctorate(s), who have been actively engaged in higher education for at least ten (10) years,
and must not have been candidates for elective positions in the elections immediately preceding their
appointment. They shall be academicians known for their high degree of professionalism and integrity who have
distinguished themselves as authorities in their chosen fields of learning. The members of the Commission shall
belong to different academic specializations. In no case shall any and all of the Commissioners appoint
representatives to act on their behalf
SEC. 5. Term of Office. - The President shall appoint the full-time chairman and the commissioners for a term of
four (4) years, without prejudice to one reappointment. The terms of the initial appointees shall be on a
staggered basis: the full-time chairman shall hold office for a term of four (4) years, the next two (2)
commissioners for three (3) years, and the last two (2) commissioners for two (2) years. The commissioners
shall hold office until their successors shall have been appointed and qualified. Should a member of the
Commission fail to complete his term, his successor shall beappointed by the President of the Philippines but
only for the unexpired portion of the term.
SEC. 6. Rank and Emoluments. - The chairman and the commissioners shall have the rank of a Department
Secretary and Undersecretary, respectively. They shall receive the compensation and other emoluments
corresponding to those of a Department Secretary and Undersecretary, respectively, and shall be subject to the
SEC. 7. Board of Advisers. - There shall be constituted a Board of Advisers which shall meet with the
Commission at least once a year to assist it in aligning its policies and plans with the cultural, political and
socioeconomic development needs of the nation and with the demands of world-class scholarship.
The Board of Advisers shall be composed of the following:
a. the Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports, as chairman;b. the Director-General of the National Economic
and Development Authority, as co-chairman;
c. the Secretary of Science and Technology;
d. the Secretary of Trade and Industry;
e. the Secretary of Labor and Employment;
f. the President of the Federation of Accrediting Associations of the Philippines (FAAP); and
g. the President of the Fund for Assistance to Private Education (FAPE).
Two (2) additional members of the Board of Advisers may be appointed by the President upon recommendation
of the Commission.
SEC. 8. Powers and Functions of the Commission. - The Commission shall have the following powers and
a. formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on higher education and
b. formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities and programs on research;
c. recommend to the executive and legislative branches, priorities and grants on higher education and research;
d. set minimum standards for programs and institutions of higher learning recommended by panels of experts in
the field and subject to public hearing, and enforce the same;
e. monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and institutions of higher learning for appropriate
incentives as well as the imposition of sanctions such as, but not limited to, diminution or withdrawal of subsidy,
recommendation on the downgrading or withdrawal of accreditation, program termination or school closure;
f. identify, support and develop potential centers of excellence in program areas needed for the development
of world-class scholarship, nation building and national development;
g. recommend to the Department of Budget and Management the budgets of public institutions of higher learning
as well as general guidelines for the use of their income;
h. rationalize programs and institutions of higher learning and set standards, policies and guidelines for the
creation of new ones as well as the conversion or elevation of schools to institutions of higher learning, subject to
budgetary limitations and the number of institutions of higher learning in the province or region where creation,
conversion or elevation is sought to be made;
i. develop criteria for allocating additional resources such as research and program development grants,
scholarships, and other similar programs: Provided, That these shall not detract from the fiscal autonomy already
enjoyed by colleges and universities;j. direct or redirect purposive research by institutions of higher learning to
meet the needs of agro-industrialization and development;
k. devise and implement resource development schemes;
l. administer the Higher Education Development Fund, as described in Section 10 hereunder, which will promote
the purposes of higher education;
m. review the charters of institutions of higher learning and state universities and colleges including the
chairmanship and membership of their governing bodies and recommend appropriate measures as basis for
n. promulgate such rules and regulations and exercise such other powers and functions as may be necessary to
carry out effectively the purpose and objectives of this Act; and
o. perform such other functions as may be necessary for its effective operations and for the continued
enhancement, growth or development of higher education.
SEC. 9. The Secretariat. - The Commission shall organize a secretariat which shall be headed by an executive
officer, subject to the national compensation and position classification plan. It shall fix the secretariat’s staffing
pattern, determine the duties, qualifications, responsibilities and functions, as well as the compensation scheme
for the positions to be created upon the recommendation of the executive officer. It shall also prepare and
approve its budget.The Commission shall appoint the members of the staff upon the recommendation of the
SEC. 10. The Higher Education Development Fund. -
A Higher Education Development Fund, hereinafter referredto as the Fund, is hereby established
exclusively for thestrengthening of higher education in the entire country.
a. The Government’s contribution to the Fund shall be the
1. the amount of Five hundred million pesos (P500,000,000) as seed capital;
2. the amount of Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) for the initial operation of the Commission;
3. the equivalent of forty percent (40%) annual share on the total gross collections of the travel tax;
4. the equivalent of thirty percent (30%) share of the collections from the Professional Registration Fee;
5. the equivalent of one percent (1%) of the gross sales of the lotto operation of the Philippine
Charity Sweepstakes Office (PCSO).
b. Starting Fiscal Year 1995 and every year thereafter, government financing institutions identified and requested
by the Commission may contribute to the Fund an amount equivalent to not less than three percent (3%) but
c. The Fund shall have a private portion to be raised from donations, gifts, and other conveyances including
materials, equipment, properties and services by gratuitous title.
SEC. 11. Management and Administration of the Higher Education Development Fund. - The Fund shall be
administered by the Commission. For sound and judicious management of the Fund, the Commission shall
appoint a reputable government financial institution as portfolio manager of the Fund, subject to the following
As administrator of the Fund, the Commission shall prepare the necessary guidelines for its use, subject
to the following conditions:
a. No part of the seed capital of the Fund, including earnings thereof, shall be used to underwrite overhead
expenses for administration;
b. Unless otherwise stipulated by the private donor, only earnings of private contributions shall be used for
c.The Commission shall appoint and organize a separate staff, independent administratively and budgetarily
separate from the Commission Secretariat; and
d.The Fund shall be utilized equitably according to regions and programs.
SEC. 12. The Technical Panels. - The Commission shall reconstitute and/or organize technical panels for
different disciplines/program areas. They shall assist the Commission in setting standards and in program and
institution monitoring and evaluation. The technical panels shall be composed of senior specialists or
academicians to be appointed by the Commission.
SEC. 13. Guarantee of Academic Freedom. - Nothing in this Act shall be construed as limiting the academic
freedom of universities and colleges. In particular, no abridgment of curricular freedom of the individual
educational institutions by the Commission shall be made except for: (a) minimum unit requirements for specific
academic programs; (b) general education distribution requirements as may be determined by the Commission;
and (c) specific professional subjects as may be stipulated by the various licensing entities. No academic or
curricular restriction shall be made upon private educational institutions which are not required for chartered
state colleges and universities.
SEC. 14. Accreditation. - The Commission shall provide incentives to institutions of higher learning, public and
private, whose programs are accredited or whose needs are for accreditation purposes.
SEC. 15. Tax Exemptions. - Any donation, contribution, bequest, and grant which may be made to the
Commission shall constitute as allowable deduction from the income of the donor for income tax purposes and
shall be exempt from donor’s tax, subject to such conditions as provided under the National Internal Revenue
Code, as amended.
SEC. 16. Authority. - The Commission shall exercise such authority as may be deemed necessary within its
premises or areas of operation to effectively carry out its powers and functions and to attain its objectives:
Provided, That the Commission may seek the assistance of other government agencies for the proper
implementation of this Act.
SEC. 17. Appropriation. - The amount of Five hundred million pesos (P500,000,000) is hereby authorized to be
appropriated for the seed capital of the Fund. The additional amount of Fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) is
hereby authorized to be appropriated out of the funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated or out
of the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR) funds for the initial operation of the
Commission. The sum equivalent to the appropriations for the current year for the Bureau of Higher Education
and the degreegranting programs of the Bureau of Technical-Vocational Education, including those for higher
and tertiary education and degree granting vocational and technical programs of the Bureau of Technical
Vocational Education in the regional offices, as well as parts of the budgetary items under the DECS budget that
are concerned with higher and tertiary education and degree-granting vocational and technical programs such as
those for personal services, maintenance and other operating expenses and capital outlay, shall be transferred
to the Commission. Thereafter, the funds necessary shall be included in the General Appropriations Act.
SEC. 18. Transitory Provisions. - Such personnel, properties, assets and liabilities, functions and
responsibilities of the Bureau of Higher Education, including those for higher and tertiary education and degree-
granting vocational and technical programs in the regional offices, under the Department of Education, Culture
and Sports, and other government entities having functions similar to those of the Commission are hereby
transferred to the Commission.
The Commission shall have the authority to appoint its own personnel. All regular or permanent
employees transferred to the Commission shall not suffer any loss of seniority or rank or decrease in
emoluments. Personnel of the Bureau of Higher Education not otherwise transferred to the Commission shall be
reassigned by the DECS in any of its offices and bureaus: Provided, however, That, any employee who cannot
be accommodated shall be given all the benefits as may be provided under existing laws, rules and regulations.
Jurisdiction over DECS-supervised or chartered statesupported post-secondary degree-granting
vocational and technical programs and tertiary institutions shall be transferred to the Commission.
A transitory body is hereby created which shall be omposed of the Secretary of Education, Culture and
Sports (DECS), Chair of the Senate Committee on Education, Arts and Culture, Chair of the House Committee
on Education and Culture, a representative each of the Association of Christian Schools andColleges (ACSC),
the Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines (CEAP), the Philippine Association of Colleges and
Universities (PACU), the Philippine Association of Private Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAPSCU), the
Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC), and the Philippine Association of Private
Technical Institutions (PAPTI).
The transitory body shall facilitate the complete and full operation of the Commission which shall not be
later than three (3) months after the effectivity of this Act. It shall likewise, promulgate the rules and regulations
necessary to effectively implement the smooth and orderly transfer to the Commission. The transition period not
exceeding three (3) months shall commence from the approval of this Act.
SEC. 19. Repealing Clause. -All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations or parts
thereof which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.
SEC. 20. Separability Clause. - If any part or provision of this Act shall be held unconstitutional or invalid, other
provisions hereof which are not affected thereby shall continueto be in full force and effect.a
SEC. 21. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect upon its approval.
Approved, August 25, 1994
(SGD.) FIDEL V. RAMOS
President of the Philippines
[REPUBLIC ACT 7796]
AN ACT CREATING THE TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, PROVIDING FOR ITS
POWERS, STRUCTURE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
“SECTION 7. Composition of the TESDA Board. — The TESDA Board shall be composed of the following:
The Secretary of Labor and Employment Chairperson
Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Co-Chairperson
Secretary of Trade and Industry Co-Chairperson
Secretary of Agriculture Member
Secretary of Interior and Local Government Member
Director-General of the TESDA Secretariat Member
In addition, the President of the Philippines shall appoint the following members from the private sector: two (2)
representatives, from the employer/industry organization, one of whom shall be a woman; three (3) representatives, from
the labor sector, one of whom shall be a woman; and two (2) representatives of the national associations of private
technical-vocational education and training institutions, one of whom shall be a woman. As soon as all the members of the
private sector are appointed, they shall so organize themselves that the term of office of one-third (1/3) of their number
shall expire every year. The member from the private sector appointed thereafter
to fill vacancies caused by expiration of terms shall hold office for three (3) years.”
This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 1283 and House Bill No.12194 was finally passed by the Senate
and the House of Representatives on August 23,
Approved: August 25, 1994.
Republic Act 7796
RULES AND REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE TESDA ACT OF 1994
Pursuant to Section 36 of the TESDA Act of 1994, the TESDA Board hereby promulgates the Implementing Rules
and Regulations of the Act, as follows:
“SEC 2. Composition of the TESDA Board. — The TESDA Board is composed of the following:
The Secretary of Labor and Employment Chairperson
Secretary of Education, Culture and Sports Co-Chairperson
Secretary of Trade and Industry Co-Chairperson
Secretary of Agriculture Member
Secretary of Interior and Local Government Member
Director-General of the TESDA Secretariat Member
Private sector representatives appointed by the President:
a) Two (2) representatives from the employer/industry organization, one of whom shall be a woman;
b) Three (3) representatives from the labor sector, one of whom shall be a woman;
c) Two (2) representatives of the national associations of private technicalvocational education and
traininginstitutions, one of whom shall be a woman.”
Approved: August 25, 1994
(SCD.) FIDEL V. RAMOS
President of the Philippines
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9155
August 11, 2001
AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION, ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND
ACCOUNTABILITY, RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS AS THE DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
Be it enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:
Sec. 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as the "Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001."
Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect and promote the right of all citizens
to quality basic education and to make such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino children a free and
compulsory education in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include
alternative learning systems for out-of-school youth and adult learners. It shall be the goal of basic education to provide
them with the skills, knowledge and values they need to become caring, seIf-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens.
The school shall be the heart of the formal education system. It is where children learn. Schools shall have a single aim of
providing the best possible basic education for all learners.
Governance of basic education shall begin at the national level it is at the regions, divisions, schools and learning centers
herein referred to as the field offices - where the policy and principle for the governance of basic education shall be
translated into programs, projects and services developed, adapted and offered to fit local needs.
The State shall encourage local initiatives for improving the quality of basic education. The State shall ensure that the
values, needs and aspirations of a school community are reflected in the program of education for the children, out-of-
school youth and adult learners. Schools and learning centers shall be empowered to make decisions on what is best for
the learners they serve.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 3. Purposes and Objectives. - The purposes and objectives of this Act are:
(a) To provide the framework for the governance of basic education which shall set the general directions for educational
policies and standards and establish authority, accountability and responsibility for achieving higher learning
(b) To define the roles and responsibilities of and provide resources to, the field offices which shall implement educational
programs, projects and services in communities they serve;cralaw
(c) To make schools and learning centers the most important vehicle for the teaching and learning of national values and
for developing in the Filipino learners love of country and pride in its rich heritage;cralaw
(d) To ensure that schools and learning centers receive the kind of focused attention they deserve and that educational
programs, projects and services take into account the interests of all members of the community;cralaw
(e) To enable the schools and learning centers to reflect the values of the community by allowing teachers/learning
facilitators and other staff to have the flexibility to serve the needs of all learners;cralaw
(f) To encourage local initiatives for the improvement of schools and learning centers and to provide the means by which
these improvements may be achieved and sustained; and
(g) To establish schools and learning centers as facilities where schoolchildren are able to learn a range of core
competencies prescribed for elementary and high school education programs or where the out-of-school youth and adult
learners are provided alternative learning programs and receive accreditation for at least the equivalent of a high school
education.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 4. Definition of Terms.- For purposes of this Act, the terms or phrases used shall mean or be understood as follows:
(a) Alternative Learning System -is a parallel learning system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal
education instruction. It encompasses both the nonformal and informal sources of knowledge and skills;cralaw
(b) Basic Education - is the education intended to meet basic learning needs which lays the foundation on which
subsequent learning can be based. It encompasses early childhood, elementary and high school education as well as
alternative learning systems four out-of-school youth and adult learners and includes education for those with special
(c) Cluster of Schools - is a group of schools which are geographically contiguous and brought together to improve the
(d) Formal Education - is the systematic and deliberate process of hierarchically structured and sequential learning
corresponding to the general concept of elementary and secondary level of schooling. At the end of each level, the learner
needs a certification in order to enter or advance to the next level;cralaw
(e) Informal Education - is a lifelong process of learning by which every person acquires and accumulates knowledge,
skills, attitudes and insights from daily experiences at home, at work, at play and from life itself;cralaw
(f) Integrated School. - is a school that offers a complete basic education in one school site and has unified instructional
(g) Learner - is any individual seeking basic literacy skills and functional life skills or support services for the improvement
of the quality of his/her life;cralaw
(h) Learning Center - is a physical space to house learning resources and facilities of a learning program for out-of-school
youth and adults. It is a venue for face-to-face learning and activities and other learning opportunities for community
development and improvement of the people's quality of life;cralaw
(I) Learning Facilitator - is the key learning support person who is responsible for supervising/facilitating the learning
process and activities of the learner;cralaw
(j) Non-Formal Education - is any organized, systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal
system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population;cralaw
(k) Quality Education - is the appropriateness, relevance and excellence of the education given to meet the needs and
aspirations of an individual and society;cralaw
(I) .School - is an educational institution, private and public, undertaking educational operation with a specific age-group
of pupils or students pursuing defined studies at defined levels, receiving instruction from teachers, usually located in a
building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber site; and
(m).School Head - is a person responsible for the administrative and instructional supervision of the school or cluster of
GOVERNANCE OF BASIC EDUCATION
Sec. 5. Principles of Shared Governance. - (a) Shared governance is a principle which recognizes that every unit in the
education bureaucracy has a particular role, task and responsibility inherent in the office and for which it is principally
accountable for outcomes;cralaw
(b) The process of democratic consultation shall be observed in the decision-making process at appropriate levels.
Feedback mechanisms shall be established to ensure coordination and open communication of the central office with the
regional, division and school levels;cralaw
(c) The principles of accountability and transparency shall be operationalized in the performance of functions and
responsibilities at all levels; and
(d) The communication channels of field offices shall be strengthened to facilitate flow of information and expand linkages
with other government agencies, local government units and nongovernmental organizations for effective
governance.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 6. Governance. - The Department of Education, Culture and Sports shall henceforth be called the Department of
Education. It shall be vested with authority, accountability and responsibility for ensuring access to, promoting equity in,
and improving the quality of basic education. Arts, culture and sports shall be as provided for in Sections 8 and 9
hereof.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 7. Powers, Duties and Functions. - The Secretary of the Department of Education shall exercise overall authority and
supervision over the operations of the Department.
A. National Level In addition to his/her powers under existing laws, the Secretary of Education shall have authority,
accountability and responsibility for the following:
(1) Formulating national educational policies;cralaw
(2) Formulating a national basic education plan;cralaw
(3) Promulgating national educational Standards;cralaw
(4) Monitoring and assessing national learning outcomes;cralaw
(5) Undertaking national educational research and studies;cralaw
(6) Enhancing the employment status, professional competence, welfare and working conditions of all
personnel of the Department; and
(7) Enhancing the total development of learners through local and national programs and/or projects.
The Secretary of Education shall be assisted by not more than four (4) undersecretaries and not more than four (4)
assistant secretaries whose assignments, duties and responsibilities shall be governed by law. There shall be at least one
undersecretary and one assistant secretary who shall be career executive service officers chosen from among the staff of
B. Regional Level
There shall be as many regional offices as may be provided by law. Each regional office shall have a director, an assistant
director and an office staff for program promotion and support, planning, administrative and fiscal services.
Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards, the regional director shall have authority,
accountability and responsibility for the following:
(1) Defining a regional educational policy framework which reflects the values, needs and expectations of the communities
(2) Developing a regional basic education plan;cralaw
(3) Developing regional educational standards with a view towards bench-marking for international
(4) Monitoring, evaluating and assessing regional learning outcomes;cralaw
(5) Undertaking research projects and developing and managing region wide projects which may be funded
through official development assistance and/or or other finding agencies;cralaw
(6) Ensuring strict compliance with prescribed national criteria for the recruitment, selection and training of
all staff in the region and divisions.
(7) Formulating, in coordination with the regional development council, the budget to support the regional
educational plan which shall take into account the educational plans of the divisions and districts;cralaw
(8) Determining the organization component of the divisions and districts and approving the proposed
staffing pattern of all employees in the divisions and districts;cralaw
(9) Hiring, placing and evaluating all employees in the regional office, except for the position of assistant
(10) Evaluating all schools division superintendents and assistant division superintendents in the
(II) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of
the regional office, including professional staff development.;cralaw
(12) Managing the database and management information system of the region;cralaw
(13) Approving the establishment of public and private elementary and high schools and learning centers;
(14) Preforming such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
C. Division Level
A division shall consist of a province or a city which shall have a schools division superintendent, at least one assistant
schools division superintendent and an office staff for programs promotion, planning, administrative, fiscal, legal, ancillary
and other support services.
Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards the schools division superintendents shall have
authority, accountability and responsibility for the following:
(1) Developing and implementing division education development plans;cralaw
(2) Planning and managing the effective and efficient use of all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of
the division, including professional staff development;cralaw
(3) Hiring, placing and evaluating all division supervisors and schools district supervisors as well as all
employees in the division, both teaching and non-teaching personnel, including school heads, except for the
assistant division superintendent;cralaw
(4) Monitoring the utilization of funds provided by the national government and the local government units
to the schools and learning centers;cralaw
(5) Ensuring compliance of quality standards for basic education programs and for this purpose
strengthening the role of division supervisors as subject area specialists;cralaw
(6) Promoting awareness of and adherence by all schools and learning centers to accreditation standards
prescribed by the Secretary of Education;cralaw
(7) Supervising the operations of all public and private elementary, secondary and integrated schools, and
learning centers; and
(8) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.
D. Schools District Level
Upon the recommendation of the schools division superintendents, the regional director may establish additional schools
district within a schools division. School districts already existing at tile time of the passage of the law shall be maintained.
A schools district shall have a schools district supervisor and an office staff for program promotion.
The schools district supervisor shall be responsible for:
(1) Providing professional and instructional advice and support to the school heads and teachers/facilitators of schools and
learning centers in the district or cluster thereof;cralaw
(2) Curricula supervision; and
(3) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary
E. School Level
There shall be a school head for all public elementary schools and public high schools or a cluster thereof. The
establishment of integrated schools from existing public elementary and public high schools shall be encouraged.
The school head, who may be assisted by an assistant school head, shall be both an instructional leader and administrative
manager. The school head shall form a them with the school teachers/learning facilitators for delivery of quality
educational programs, projects and services. A core of nonteaching staff shall handle the school's administrative, fiscal and
Consistent with the national educational policies, plans and standards, the school heads shall have authority, accountability
and responsibility for the following:
(1) Setting the mission, vision, goals and objectives of the school;cralaw
(2) Creating an environment within the school that is conducive to teaching and learning;cralaw
(3) Implementing the school curriculum and being accountable for higher learning outcomes;cralaw
(4) Developing the school education program and school improvement plan;cralaw
(5) Offering educational programs, projects and services which provide equitable opportunities for all
learners in the community;cralaw
(6) Introducing new and innovative modes of instruction to achieve higher learning outcomes;cralaw
(7) Administering and managing all personnel, physical and fiscal resources of the school;cralaw
(8) Recommending the staffing complement of the school based on its needs;cralaw
(9) Encouraging staff development;cralaw
(10) Establishing school and community networks and encouraging the active participation of teachers
organizations, nonacademic personnel of public schools, and parents-teachers-community
(11) Accepting donations, gifts, bequests and grants for the purpose of upgrading teachers' learning
facilitators' competencies, improving ad expanding school facilities and providing instructional materials and
equipment. Such donations or grants must be reported to the appropriate district supervisors and division
(12) Performing such other functions as may be assigned by proper authorities.nroblesvirtuallawlibrary
The Secretary of Education shall create a promotions board, at the appropriate levels, which shall formulate and
implement a system of promotion for schools decision supervisors, schools district supervisors, and school heads.
Promotion of school heads shall be based on educational qualification, merit and performance rather than on the number
of teachers/learning facilitators and learners in the school.
The qualifications, salary grade, status of employment and welfare and benefits of school heads shall be the same for
public elementary, secondary and integrated schools.
No appointment to the positions of regional directors, assistant regional directors, schools division superintendents and
assistant schools division superintendents shall be made unless file appointee is a career executive service officer who
preferably shall have risen from the ranks.
TRANSFER OF CULTURAL AGENCIES
Sec. 8. Cultural Agencies. - The Komisyon ng Wikang Pilipino, National Historical Institute, Records Management and
Archives Office and the National Library shall now be administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and
the Arts (NCCA) and no loner with the Department of Education. The program for school arts and culture shall remain part
of the school curriculum.
ABOLITION OF THE BUREAU OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SCHOOL SPORTS
Sec. 9. Abolition of BPESS. - All functions, programs and activities of the Department of Education related to sports
competition shall be transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC). The program for school sports and physical
fitness shall remain part of the basic education curriculum.
The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) is hereby abolished. The personnel of the BPESS, presently
detailed with the PSC, are hereby transferred to the PSC without loss of rank, including the plantilla positions they occupy.
All other BPESS personnel shall be retained by the Department.
SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE OF OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
Sec. 10. The Secretary of Education and the Secretary of Budget and Management shall, within ninety (90) days from the
approval of this Act, jointly promulgate the guidelines on the allocation, distribution and utilization of resources provided
by thenational government for the field offices, taking into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the
The Secretary of the Department of Education shall ensure that resources appropriated for the field offices are adequate
and that resources for school personnel, school desks and textbooks and other instructional materials intended are
allocated directly and released immediately by the Department of Budget and Management to said offices.chanrobles
Sec. 11. The Secretary of the Department of Education, subject to civil service laws and regulations, shall issue
appropriate personnel policy rules and regulations that will best meet the requirements of the teaching profession taking
into consideration the uniqueness of the working conditions of the teaching service.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 12. The Commission on Audit, in the issuance of audit rules and regulations that will govern the utilization of all
resources as well as the liquidation, recording and reporting thereof, shall take into account the different characteristics
and distinct features of the department's field offices, its organizational set up as well as the nature of the operations of
schools and learning centers.
Sec. 13. Governance in the ARMM; - The Regional Education Secretary for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
(ARMM) shall exercise similar governance authority over the divisions, districts, schools and learning centers in the region
as may be provided in the Organic Act. without prejudice to the provisions of Republic Act No. 9054, entitled "An Act to
Strengthen and Expand tile Organic Act for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Amending for the Purpose
Republic Act No.6734, entitled' An Act Providing for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, as amended"'.chanrobles
Sec. 14. Rules and Regulations. - The Secretary of Education shall promulgate the implementing rules and regulations
within ninety (90) days after the approval of this Act: Provided, That the Secretary of Education shall fully implement the
principle of shared governance within two (2) years after the approval of this Act.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 15. Separability Clause. - If for any reason, any portion or provision of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional,
other parts or provisions hereof which are not affected thereby shall continue to be in full force and effect.chanrobles
Sec. 16 Repealing Clause. - All laws, decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations, part or parts thereof, inconsistent
with the provisions of this Act, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.chanrobles virtualaw library
Sec. 17. Effectivity Clause. - This Act. shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in at least two (2)
newspapers of general circulation
FRANKLIN M. DRILON
President of the Senate
OSCAR G. YARES
Secretary of the Senate
ROBERTO P. NAZARENO
House of Representatives
Approved:August 11, 2001
President of the Philippines
[EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 356, September 14, 2004]
RENAMING THE BUREAU OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION TO BUREAU OFALTERNATIVE LEARNING
WHEREAS, it is a declared State policy, "to protect and promote the right of all citizen to quality basic education and to
promote the right of all citizens to quality basic education and such education accessible to all by providing all Filipino
children in the elementary level and free education in the high school level. Such education shall also include alternative
learning system for out-of school youth and adult learners." (Section 2 of PA. 9155, The Governance of Basic Education Act
WHEREAS, Section 12.1 Rules XII of R.A. 9155 stipulates that "the alternative Learning System is a parallel learning
system to provide a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction, encompassing both the non-formal and
informal sources of knowledge and skills";
WHEREAS, the Department of Education, through the Bureau of Non-formal Education is mandated to ensure that all
learning needs of marginalized learners are addressed;
WHEREAS, one of the most important initiatives in Non-formal Education in the Philippines in the last 10 Sears is the
Alternative Learning System (ALS, which is a major component of basic education with a clearly defined role within the
overall educational goals;
WHEREAS, the ALS will respond to the need of a more systematic and flexible approach in reaching to all types of
learners outside the school system; NOW, THEREFORE, I, GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO, President of the
Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law, do hereby order:
SECTION 1. The Bureau of Non-formal Education is hereby renamed to Bureau of alternative Learning System (BALS).
SEC. 2 The Bureau of Alternative Learning System shall have the following functions:
a. Address the learning needs of the marginalized groups of the population including the deprived, depressed and
b. Coordinate with various agencies for skills development to enhance and ensure continuing employability,
efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness in the labor market;
c. Ensure the expansion of access to educational opportunities for citizens of different interests, capabilities
demographic characteristics and socio-economic origins and status; and
d. Promote certification and accreditation of alternative learning programs both formal and informal in nature for
SEC. 3. Funds necessary to carry out the provisions of this Executive Order shall be taken from the present funds available
in the Department of Education and shall thereafter be included in the General Appropriations Act.
SEC. 4. All orders, issuances, rules and regulations, or parts thereof inconsistent with this Executive Order are hereby
repealed or modified accordingly.
SEC. 5. This Executive Order shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette,
DONE in the City of Manila this 13th day of September in the year of Our Lord, two thousand and four.
(SGD.) GLORIA MACAPAGALARROYO
By the President
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 6-A September 29, 1972
AUTHORIZING THE UNDERTAKING OF EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, PROVIDING FOR
THE MECHANICS OF IMPLEMENTATION AND FINANCING THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the
Constitution as Commander-in-Chief of all the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and pursuant to Proclamation
No. 1081 dated September 21, 1972, and General Order No. 1 dated September 22, 1972, do hereby decree,
order and make as part of the law of the land the following measures:
Section 1. Title. - This Decree shall be known as the "Educational Development Decree of 1972."
Section 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby declared to be the policy of the government to ensure, within the
context of a free and democratic system maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of
the following national development goals:
(a) To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress;
(b) To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits
of such growth; and
(c) To strengthen national consciousness and promote desirable cultural values in a changing world.
Section 3. Statement of Objectives. - To this end, the educational system aims to:
(a) Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individual, in the peculiar ecology of his
own society, to (1) attain his potential as a human being; (2) enhance the range and quality of individual
and group participation in the basic functions of society; and (3) acquire the essential educational
foundation for his development into a productive and versatile citizen:
(b) Train the nation's manpower in the middle level skill required for national development;
(c) Develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge
through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life; and
(d) Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational
planning and evaluation.
Section 4. Guiding Principles of the Ten-Year Program. - In order to lay the foundation and to advance the
attainment of these objectives, a ten-year national education development program shall be formulated based on
(a) Improvement of curricular programs and quality of instruction of all levels by way of upgrading
physical faculties, adoption of cost-saving instructional technology, and training and re-training of
teachers and administrators;
(b) Upgrading of academic standards through accreditation schemes, admissions testing and guidance
(c) Democratization of access to educational opportunities through the provision of financial assistance
to deserving students, skills training programs for out-of-school youth and continuing education program
for non-literate adults;
(d) Restructuring of higher education to become more responsive to national development needs
through a planned system of incentives and assistance to both public and private colleges and
universities and synchronization of curricular programs, staffing patterns and institutional development
(e) Expansion of existing programs and establishment of new ones designed to train middle-level
technical and agricultural manpower; and
(f) Instituting reform in the educational financing system to facilitate the shift of funding responsibility for
elementary and secondary education from the national to the local government, thereby increasing
government participation in higher education.
Section 5. Educational Development Projects. - The above-stated objectives shall be attained through the
undertaking of the following educational development projects:
(a) Management study of the Department of Education and Culture and institution of administrative
(b) Establishment and/or operation or improvement of secondary schools which may include provision
for extension services, facilities and equipment to allow the use of expanded and improved curriculum;
(c) Establishment and/or operation, upgrading or improvement of technical institutes, skills training
centers, and other non-formal training programs and projects for the out-of-school youth and the
unemployed in collaboration with the programs of the National Manpower and Youth Council;
(d) Curriculum and staff development including mathematics and science teaching;
(e) Expansion of agricultural secondary and higher education programs and extension activities which
may include radio broadcasting and rural training services, and the provision of facilities therefor
including seed capital and revolving funds;
(f) Design, utilization and improvement of instructional technology and development/production of
textbooks and other instructional materials; and
(g) Assistance and incentives, including loans and grants, toward the planned development and
improvement of programs and facilities in both public and private universities, colleges and schools.
In addition, other educational development projects necessary pursuant to the objectives of this Decree are
likewise to be undertaken: Provided, That for such projects to qualify under this Decree, the same must be
consistent with the principles enunciated in Section 4 hereof, supported by sufficient studies, data and plans of
operation and implementation, endorsed by the National Board of Education to, and approved by an Education
Special Committee, hereinafter provided, to form part of the educational development program.
Section 6. Working Arrangements. - For the attainment of the objectives of this Decree, an Education Special
Committee, composed of the Secretary of Education and Culture as Chairman and the Secretary of Finance and
the Commissioner of the Budget as members, if hereby created which shall:
(a) Approve and evaluate the specific projects, endorsed to it by the National Board of Education, to be
financed out of the resources provided for in this Decree; and
(b) Administer the Educational Institutions Development Fund as hereinafter provided, except that the
resources accruing into the Fund shall be managed by reputable fund managers or financial institutions.
The National Board of Education, as reorganized pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1 dated September 24,
1972, shall, in addition to its functions, perform the following:
(a) Formulate education objectives and policies consistent with those enunciated in Section 2 hereof;
(b) Provide policy guidelines in the administration of the assistance and incentive programs provided for
in Section 5(g) hereof, which shall include a system of educational priorities consistent with national,
regional and/or local requirements for education and skills training, and such other procedures and
requirements as will ensure the continual upgrading of the quality of education, the rationalization and
institutional growth, and the democratization of access to education.
In the discharge of its functions, the National Board of Education shall be assisted by an office of planning and
research known as Planning Service in the Department of Education and Culture.
A project unit to be known as the Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force is hereby
established under the Office of the Secretary of Education and Culture to be headed by a Director and be
composed of technical staff members and such consultants as are necessary. Its functions are:
(a) To supervise and implement foreign-assisted development projects; and
(b) To implement such other development projects as may be assigned to it by the Secretary of
Education and Culture.
Where the project involves an office, agency or instrumentality of the government other than the Department of
Education and Culture, appropriate working arrangements shall be established by the Educational Department
Projects Implementing Task Force and the office, agency or instrumentality concerned, including the turn over of
the project upon its completion to such office, agency or instrumentality to be integrated with and be part of the
regular activities thereof.
Section 7. Authority to Borrow. - The President of the Philippines, in behalf of the Republic of the Philippines,
may contract loans, credits or indebtedness with any foreign source or lender, under such terms and conditions
as may be agreed upon, any provision of law, including Republic Act Numbered Forty-eight hundred and sixty as
amended by Republic Act Numbered Sixty-one hundred and forty-two, Act Numbered Forty-two hundred and
thirty nine, Commonwealth Act Numbered one hundred thirty-eight, Commonwealth Act Numbered Five Hundred
forty-one, Republic Act Numbered Nine hundred twelve, Republic Act Numbered Fifty-one hundred eighty-three,
and other related laws to the contrary notwithstanding, for a total amount not exceeding one hundred million
United States dollars or the equivalent thereof in other currencies, as may be necessary to meet the direct and
indirect foreign exchange requirements of the projects authorized under this Decree, to cover the costs of
feasibility studies, equipment, machineries, supplies, construction, installation and related services of any such
projects: Provided, That the loans, credit or indebtedness authorized herein shall be incurred on terms of
payment of not less that ten (10) years.
Section 8. Utilization of Proceeds. - The proceeds of such loans, credits or indebtedness, as well as the
appropriations under Section 9 hereof, shall be used exclusively for financing the educational development
projects authorized under this Decree: Provided, That for the purpose of ensuring continued assistance to the
planned development and improvement of programs and facilities in both public and private universities, colleges
and schools, there is hereby authorized to be established an Educational Institutions Development Fund in an
amount of not less that ten million pesos ( 10,000,000), Philippine currency, annually for a period of ten (10)
years. The said Fund shall be administered as a separate fund, and lending or relending operations to private
universities, colleges and schools shall be subject to the rules and regulations to be promulgated by the National
Board of Education with the approval of the Secretary of Finance.
Cities, provinces and municipalities may undertake educational development projects pursuant to the objectives
of this Decree and are hereby authorized to avail themselves of proceeds of loans, credits or indebtedness
herein authorized as well as the appropriations under Section 9 hereof and receive financial assistance subject
to such conditions as may be provided for and/or promulgated by the National Board of Education pursuant to
Section 9. Appropriations. - In addition to the proceeds of the loans, credits or indebtedness mentioned in
Section 7 hereof, there is hereby appropriated for the projects authorized herein the sum of five hundred million
pesos (P500,000,000) out of the funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated which shall be
programmed and released in the following manner: fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) for Fiscal Year 1972-73 and
fifty million pesos (P50,000,000) annually thereafter until June thirty, nineteen hundred eighty-two: Provided,
That notwithstanding the said schedule, releases in a given year shall be adjusted in accordance with the actual
requirements of the projects being implemented during the fiscal year: Provided, further, That should there be
any surplus in the annual appropriations herein provided, the same shall accrue to the Educational Special
Account herein created in the General Fund which shall be made available to finance the projects during the
subsequent fiscal years.
Section 10. Creation of Educational Special Account. - There is hereby established in the National Treasury an
Educational Special Account to meet the appropriations herein provided, which shall be constituted from the
(a) Proceeds form bond issues as provided for under Section 11 of this Decree;
(b) Twenty million pesos (P20,000,000) annually from the share of the National Government in the
Special Education Fund under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four hundred forty-seven as provided in
Section 12 hereof;
(c) Fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000) from the Special Science Fund for Fiscal Year 1972-73, and fifty
percentum (50%), annually thereafter until June 30, 1982, of the total annual receipts from the taxes
provided for under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four hundred and forty-eight, as provided in Section 13
(d) Future savings of the Department of Education and Culture that may result from the implementation
of reforms consequent to management study, as provided in Section 14 hereof; and
(e) Augmentations from the General Funds which are hereby authorized in cases where the above
sources are not sufficient to cover expenditures required in any year, as provided in Section 15 of this
The Department of Education and Culture is hereby authorized to receive and spend or utilize donations and/or
bequests made in pursuance of the purposes and for projects enunciated in this Decree which donations and/or
bequests shall be exempt from the payment of gift taxes.
Section 11. Bond Issues. - The Secretary of Finance may issue and sell bonds not exceeding twenty million
pesos annually under the authority of Republic Act Numbered Four thousand eight hundred sixty-one, any
provision of law to the contrary, notwithstanding.
Section 12. Portions of the Special Education Fund. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding,
effective July 1, 1972, until June 30, 1982, twenty million pesos (P20,000,000) of the annual share of the
National Government from the Special Education Fund provided for under Republic Act Numbered Fifty-four
hundred and forty-seven shall accrue to the Educational Special Account herein provided. Thereafter, the said
share shall accrue to the General Fund.
In this connection, the shares of the local governments from the said Fund may be used by them to finance such
projects as may be established in their locality under the authority of this Decree regardless of any restriction
Section 13. Portion of Special Science Fund. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, effective
upon approval of this Decree, fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000) of the Special Science Fund established under
Republic Act Numbered fifty-four-hundred and forty-eight as amended as hereby transferred to the Educational
Special Account herein provided. Starting July 1,1972, until June 30, 1982, fifty per centum (50%) of the total
collections from the taxes imposed under Republic Act Numbered fifty-four hundred and forty-eight as amended
shall accrued to the Educational Special Account. Thereafter, said portion shall accrue to the General Fund.
Section 14. Future Savings. - Such amount of savings resulting from the implementation of reforms consequent
to the management study authorized under Section 5 as may be necessary to prosecute the projects under this
Decree shall accrue to the Educational Special Account.
Section 15. Augmentation from General Fund. - In cases where funds from sources specified in Section 10 (a),
(b), (c) and (d) are not sufficient to meet the requirements in any fiscal year, such amounts as are necessary to
meet such requirements are hereby appropriated out of the funds in the General Funds not otherwise
appropriated, and transferred to the Educational Special Account.
Section 16. Tax Exemption. - The loans, credits or indebtedness incurred pursuant to this Decree, the payment
of the principal, interests and other charges thereon, the earnings of the fund created under Section 8, as well as
the importation of articles, materials, equipment, machineries and supplies, including all building materials by the
Department of Education and Culture or other offices, agencies or instrumentalities of the government and by
private or chartered entities authorized by Education Special Committee to undertake the projects authorized in
this Act shall be exempt from all taxes, duties, fees, imposts, other charges and restrictions, including import
restrictions, imposed by the Republic of the Philippines or any of its agencies or political subdivisions. The
Secretary of Finance shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary for the purpose.
Section 17. Additional Appropriations. - There is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the
National Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to pay the principal, interests
and other charges on the loans, credits or indebtedness incurred under the authority of this Decree as and when
they become due.
Section 18. Repealing Clause. - All laws, executive orders, rules or regulations or parts thereof which are
inconsistent with this Decree are hereby repealed and/or modified accordingly.
Section 19. Effectivity. - This Decree shall take effect immediately.
Done in the City of Manila, this 29th day of September, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy
(SGD) FERDINAND E. MARCOS By the presedent
Presedent (SGD) ROBETO V.
BATAS PAMBANSA BLG. 232 September 11, 1982
AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OFAN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF
I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
Section 1. Title - This Act shall be known as the "Education Act of 1982."
Section 2. Coverage - This Act shall apply to and govern both formal and non-formal systems in public and private schools
in all levels of the entire educational system.
Declaration of Basic State Policy and Objectives
Section 3. Declaration of Basic Policy - It is the policy of the State to established and maintain a complete, adequate and
integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. Toward this end, the government shall ensure,
within the context of a free and democratic system, maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of
the following national developmental goals:
1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress;
2. To ensure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such
3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable
cultural, moral and spiritual values in a changing world.
The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education, regardless of sex, age, creed, socio-
economic status, physical and mental conditions, racial or ethnic origin, political or other affiliation. The State shall
therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all
The state shall promote the right of the nation's cultural communities in the exercise of their right to develop themselves
within the context of their cultures, customs, traditions, interest and belief, and recognizes education as an instrument for
their maximum participation in national development and in ensuring their involvement in achieving national unity.
Section 4. Declaration of Objectives - The educational system aim to:
1. Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individuals in the peculiar ecology of his own society,
(a) attain his potentials as a human being;
(b) enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society;
(c) acquire the essential educational foundation of his development into a productive and versatile citizen;
2. Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills for national development;
3. Develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation in the advancement of knowledge for
improving the quality of human life; and
4. Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions of the nation through a system of educational planning
Towards the realization of these objectives, and pursuant to the Constitution, all educational institutions shall aim to
inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific,
technological, and vocational efficiency.
Furthermore, the educational system shall reach out to educationally deprived communities, in order to give meaningful
reality to their membership in the national society, to enrich their civic participation in the community and national life, and
to unify all Filipinos into a free and just nation.
II. THE EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
Section 5. Declaration of Policy and Objectives - It is likewise declared government policy to foster, at all times, a spirit of
shared purposes and cooperation among the members and elements of the educational community, and between the
community and other sectors of society, in the realization that only in such an atmosphere can be true goals and objectives
of education be fulfilled.
Moreover, the State shall:
1. Aid and support the natural right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth through the educational system.
2. Promote and safeguard the welfare and interest of the students by defining their rights and obligations, according
them privileges, and encouraging the establishment of sound relationships between them and the other members of
the school community.
3. Promote the social economic status of all school personnel, uphold their rights, define their obligations, and
improve their living and working conditions and career prospects.
4. Extend support to promote the viability of those institutions through which parents, students and school
personnel seek to attain their educational goals.
Section 6. Definition and Coverage - "Educational community" refers to those persons or groups of persons as such or
associated in institutions involved in organized teaching and learning systems.
The members and elements of the educational community are:
1. "Parents" or guardians or the head of the institution or foster home which has custody of the pupil or student.
2. "Students," or those enrolled in and who regularly attend and educational institution of secondary or higher level
of a person engaged in formal study. "Pupils," are those who regularly attend a school of elementary level under the
supervision and tutelage of a teacher.
3 "School personnel," or all persons working for an educational institution, which includes the following:
a. "Teaching or academic staff," or all persons engaged in actual teaching and/or research assignments,
either on full-time or part-time basis, in all levels of the educational system.
b. "School administrators," or all persons occupying policy implementing positions having to do with the
functions of the school in all levels.
c. "Academic non-teaching personnel," or those persons holding some academic qualifications and
performing academic functions directly supportive of teaching, such as registrars, librarians, research
assistants, research aides, and similar staff.
d. "Non-academic personnel," or all other school personnel not falling under the definition and coverage
of teaching and academic staff, school administrators and academic non-teaching personnel.
4. "Schools," or institutions recognized by the State which undertake educational operations.
Section 7. Community Participation. - Every educational institution shall provide for the establishment of appropriate
bodies through which the members of the educational community may discuss relevant issues, and communicate
information and suggestions for assistance and support of the school and for the promotion of their common interest.
Representatives from each subgroup of the educational community shall sit and participate in these bodies, the rules and
procedures of which must be approved by them and duly published.
Section 8. Rights of Parents - In addition to other rights under existing laws, all parents who have children enrolled in a
school have the following rights:
1. The right to organize by themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for the discussion
of matters relating to the total school program, and for ensuring the full cooperation of parents and teachers in the
formulation and efficient implementation of such programs.
2. The right to access to any official record directly relating to the children who are under their parental
Section 9. Right of Students in School - In addition to other rights, and subject to the limitation prescribed by law and
regulations, and student and pupils in all schools shall enjoy the following rights:
1. The right to receive, primarily through competent instruction, relevant quality education in line with national
goals and conducive to their full development as person with human dignity.
2. The right to freely chose their field of study subject to existing curricula and to continue their course therein up
to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency, or violation of disciplinary regulations.
3. The right to school guidance and counseling services for decisions and selecting the alternatives in fields of work
suited to his potentialities.
4. The right of access to his own school records, the confidentiality of which the school shall maintain and
5. The right to the issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials and
other similar documents within thirty days from request.
6. The right to publish a student newspaper and similar publications, as well as the right to invite resource persons
during assemblies, symposia and other activities of similar nature.
7. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions, and to effective channels of communication with
appropriate academic channels and administrative bodies of the school or institution.
8. The right to form, establish, join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school to foster
their intellectual, cultural, spiritual and physical growth and development, or to form, establish, join and maintain
organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law.
9. The right to be free from involuntary contributions, except those approved by their own he organizations or
Section 10. Rights of all School Personnel - In addition to other rights provided for by law, the following rights shall be
enjoyed by all school personnel:
1. The right to free expression of opinion and suggestions, and to effective channels of communication with
appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institution.
2. The right to be provided with free legal service by the appropriate government office in the case of public school
personnel, and through the school authorities concerned in the case of private school personnel, when charged in an
administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings by parties other than the school or regulatory authorities
concerned for actions committed directly in the lawful discharge of professional duties and/or in defense of school
3. The right to establish, join and maintain labor organizations and/or professional and self-regulating organizations
of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interests.
4. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations.
Section 11. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff - Further to the rights mentioned in the
preceding Section, every member of the teaching or academic staff shall enjoy the following rights and/or privileges:
1. The right to be free from compulsory assignments not related to their duties as defined in their appointments or
employment contracts, unless compensated therefor, conformably to existing law.
2. The right to intellectual property consistent with applicable laws.
3. Teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and
shall, therefore, be accorded due respect and protection.
4. Teachers shall be accorded the opportunity to choose alternative career lines either in school administration, in
classroom teaching, or others, for purposes of career advancement.
Section 12. Special Rights of School Administration - School administrators shall, in accordance with existing laws,
regulations and policies of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, be accorded sufficient administrative discretion
necessary for the efficient and effective performance of their functions.
School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the discharge of lawful duties and responsibilities, and
shall therefore be accorded due respect and protection.
Section 13. Rights of Schools - In addition to other rights provided for by law, schools shall enjoy the following:
1. The right of their governing boards or lawful authorities to provide for the proper governance of the school and
to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems.
2. The right for institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study,
who may teach, and what shall be subjects of the study and research.
Duties and Obligations
Section 14. Duties of Parents. - In addition to those provided for under existing laws, all parents shall have the following
duties and obligations:
1. Parents, individually or collectively, through the school systems, shall help carry out the educational objectives
in accordance with national goals.
2. Parents shall be obliged to enable their children to obtain elementary education and shall strive to enable them to
obtain secondary and higher education in the pursuance of the right formation of the youth.
3. Parents shall cooperate with the school in the implementation of the school program curricular and co-curricular.
Section 15. Duties and Responsibilities of Students - In addition to those provided for under existing laws, every student
1. Exert his utmost to develop his potentialities for service, particularly by undergoing an education suited to his
abilities, in order that he may become an asset to his family and to society.
2. Uphold the academic integrity of the school, endeavor to achieve academic excellence and abide by the rules and
regulations governing his academic responsibilities and moral integrity.
3. Promote and maintain the peace and tranquility of the school by observing the rules and discipline, and by
exerting efforts to attain harmonious relationships with fellow students, the teaching and academic staff and other
4. Participate actively in civic affairs and in the promotion of the general welfare, particularly in the social,
economic and cultural development of his community and in the attainment of a just, compassionate and orderly
5. Exercise his rights responsibly in the knowledge that he is answerable for any infringement or violation of the
public welfare and of the rights of others.
Section 16. Teacher's Obligations - Every teacher shall:
1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and
objectives of the school.
2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives in pursuance of national
development goals within the limits of available school resources.
3. Render regular reports on performance of each student and to the latter and the latter's parents and guardians
with specific suggestions for improvement.
4. Assume the responsibility to maintain and sustain his professional growth and advancement and maintain
professionalism in his behavior at all times.
5. Refrain from making deductions in students' scholastic rating for acts that are clearly not manifestations of poor
6. Participate as an agent of constructive social, economic, moral, intellectual, cultural and political change in his
school and the community within the context of national policies.
Section 17. School Administrators' Obligations - Every school administrator shall:
1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals and
objectives of the school.
2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school.
3. Develop and maintain a healthy school atmosphere conducive to the promotion and preservation of academic
freedom and effective teaching and learning, and to harmonious and progressive school-personnel relationship.
4. Assume and maintain professional behavior in his work and in dealing with students, teachers, academic non-
teaching personnel, administrative staff, and parents or guardians.
5. Render adequate reports to teachers, academic non-teaching personnel and non-academic staff on their actual
performance in relation to their expected performance and counsel them on ways of improving the same.
6. Observe due process, fairness, promptness, privacy, constructiveness and consistency in disciplining his teachers
and other personnel.
7. Maintain adequate records and submit required reports to the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.
Section 18. Obligations of Academic Non-Teaching Personnel - Academic non-teaching personnel shall:
1. Improve himself professionally be keeping abreast of the latest trends and techniques in his profession.
2. Assume, promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning.
3. Promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning.
III. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS
Section 19. Declaration of Policy. - The State recognizes that formal education, or the school system, in society's primary
learning system, and therefore the main instrument for the achievement of the country's educational goals and objectives.
Section 20. Definition - "Formal Educational" refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded learning
organized and provided by the formal school system and for which certification is required in order for the learner to
progress through the grades or move to higher levels. Formal education shall correspond to the following levels:
1. Elementary Education. - the first stage of compulsory, formal education primarily concerned with providing
basic education and usually corresponding to six or seven grades, including pre-school programs.
2. Secondary Education. - the state of formal education following the elementary level concerned primarily with
continuing basic education and expanding it to include the learning of employable gainful skills, usually
corresponding to four years of high school.
3. Tertiary Education. - post secondary schooling is higher education leading to a degree in a specific profession or
Section 21. Objectives of Elementary Education - The objectives of elementary education are:
1. To provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and
necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu;
2. To provide learning experiences which increase the child's awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in
and just demands of society and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement;
3. To promote and intensify the child's knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to
which he belongs; and
4. To promote work experiences which develop the child's orientation to the world of work and creativity and
prepare himself to engage in honest and gainful work.
Section 22. Objectives of Secondary Education. - The objectives of secondary education are:
1. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and
2. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for
productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.
Section 23. Objective of Tertiary Education. - The objectives of tertiary education are:
1. To provide a general education program that will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral
integrity and spiritual vigor;
2. To train the nation's manpower in the skills required for national development;
3. To develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and
4. To advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life
and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions.
Non-Education and Specialized Educational Services
Section 24. Specialized Educational Service - The State further recognizes its responsibility to provide, within the context
of the formal education system, services to meet special needs of certain clientele. These specific types, which shall be
guided by the basic policies of the State embodied in the General Provisions of this Act, include:
1. "Work Education," or "Practical Arts," as a program of basic education which aims to develop the right attitudes
towards work; and "technical-vocational education," post-secondary but non-degree programs leading to one, two,
or three year certificates in preparation for a group of middle-level occupations.
2. "Special Education," the education of persons who are physically, mentally, emotionally, socially, or culturally
different from the so-called "normal" individuals that they require modification of school practices/services to
develop them to their maximum capacity; and
3. "Non-formal Education," any organized school-based educational activities undertaken by the Ministry of
Education, Culture and Sports and other agencies aimed at attaining specific learning objectives for a particular
clientele, especially the illiterates and the out-of-school youth and adults, distinct from and outside the regular
offerings of the formal school system.
The objectives of non-formal education are as follows:
a. To eradicate illiteracy and raise the level of functional literacy of the population;
b. To provide unemployed and underemployed youth and adults with appropriate vocational/technical
skills to enable them to become more productive and effective citizens; and
c. To develop among the clientele of non-formal education proper values and attitudes necessary for
personal, community and national development.
Establishment of Schools
Section 25. Establishment of Schools - All schools shall be established in accordance with law. The establishment of new
national schools and the conversion of existing schools from elementary to national secondary or tertiary schools shall be by
law: Provided, That any private school proposed to be established must incorporate as an non-stock educational corporation
in accordance with the provisions of the Corporation Code of the Philippines. This requirement to incorporate may be
waived in the case of family-administered pre-school institutions.
Government assistance to such schools for educational programs shall be used exclusively for that purpose.
Section 26. Definition of Terms - The terms used in this Chapter are defined as follows:
1. "Schools" are duly established institutions of learning or educational institutions.
2. "Public Schools" are educational institutions established and administered by the government.
3. "Private Schools" are educational institutions maintained and administered by private individuals or groups.
Section 27. Recognition of Schools- The educational operations of schools shall be subject to their prior authorization of the
government, and shall be affected by recognition. In the case of government operated schools, whether local, regional, or
national, recognition of educational programs and/or operations shall be deemed granted simultaneously with establishment.
In all other case the rules and regulations governing recognition shall be prescribed and enforced by the Ministry of