Steve Astringer Kate Curran Shanhe Lu Christina Morelli Kyle Sargis
Situational Leadership Theory Model Proposed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard Theory states that leaders should adjust their leadership style depending on the readiness of the followers Mangers should be flexible in choosing a leadership behavior style and be sensitive to the readiness level of their employees Readiness- extent to which a follower possesses the ability and willingness to complete a task
Situational Leadership Theory Model High readiness: high ability, skills, and willingness to work Low readiness: low ability, training, and willingness Both require a different leadership style Appropriate style is found by cross-referencing follower readiness (high-low) with 1 of 4 leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, delegating
How the Situational Leadership Model Works Leadership styles- relationship behavior plus task behavior Relationship behavior: extent which leaders maintain personal relationships with followers Task behavior: extent which leaders organize and explain the role of their followers
Four Leadership Styles Telling: guiding and directing of performance Works best for followers with low level of readiness Selling: explaining decisions and persuading others to follow a course of action Works best for followers who are unable but willing to assume task responsibility
Four Leadership Styles Delegating: providing subordinates with little support or direction Works best for followers who have a high level of readiness, both able and willing to perform tasks Participating: encouraging followers to solve problems on their own Works best for followers whose readiness is in the moderate to high range
Does the Hersy-Blanchard Model Work? Model is widely used as a training tool Isn’t strongly supported by scientific research Studies done where leadership effectiveness wasn’t attributed to the predicted interaction between follower readiness and leadership style Mangers should exercise discretion when using this model
Quiz What are the four leadership styles? What’s the name of the theory that Hersey and Blanchard created? What are the two things the model suggest managers should be? As a manager you need to have an understanding of the ______ of your followers. True or False: The Situational leadership model is widely used as a training tool and strongly supported by scientific research.
Trait Theory of Leadership An early approach to explain leadership. Trait theories focus on identifying characterstics to distinguish leaders from followers. Attempted to uncover the leader behaviors that resulted in higher work group performance.
Trait Theory continued Trait theory is the successor to what was called the “Great Man” theory of leadership. Trait theorists believe that leadership traits were not innate but could be developed through experience and learning. These leader traits are physical or personality characteristics that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
Leadership Prototypes A leadership prototype is a mental representation of the traits an behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders. People tend to perceive others as leaders when they display traits that are consistent with these prototypes. Results have demonstrated that these traits include intelligence, masculinity and dominance. However, these prototypes are culturally based, therefore they change and are not uniform from nation to nation.
Stogdill’s and Mann’s Findings Robert Stogdill in 1948 and Richard Mann in 1959 sought to understand the impact of leadership traits. Stogdill deduced that there were five traits that differentiated leaders from followers: Intelligence Dominance Self-confidence Level of energy Task-relevant knowledge
Stogdill’s and Mann’s Findings continued Mann identified seven categories of personality traits and summarized that intelligence was the best predictor of leadership. Both Mann and Stogdill’s work was not proven to be entirely true. The overall pattern of findings suggested that these traits were not able to accurately predict who became leaders and who remained as followers.
Kouzes and Posner’s Research James Kouzes and Barry Posner also attempted to identify the most important leadership qualities. They surveyed over 20,000 people around the world with the question, “What values (personal traits or characteristics) do you look for and admire in your superiors?” The top four answers included Honesty Forward-looking Inspiring Competent
Kouzes and Posner’s Research continued Kouzes and Posner concluded that these traits constituted a leaders credibility. Therefore, employees would like their superiors to be credible and have a sense of direction as to where they are leading the company. Leaders who possess these qualities will often encourage and reinforce integrity at work, resulting in more honesty with employees and external constituents.
Gender and Leadership Increase women workforce Women leaders use more participative style Men use more directive style Women scored a more effective grade
Goleman’s Research on Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Definition: It is the ability to manage oneself and one’s relationship in mature and constructive ways. Components: Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, and Social skill. Is emotional intelligence significantly associated with leadership effectiveness? There’s not enough research published to substantiate Goleman’s this conclution. Political Intelligence A recently proposed leadership trait and represents an offshoot of emotional intelligence. Leaders use power and intimidation to push followers in the pursuit of an inspiring vision and challenging goals. They tend to be effective when faced with stagnant and change resistant situation.
Judge’s Research: Two meta-analysis on the subject of traits and leadership. 1. Big Five Personality Traits V.S. Leadership Emergence and Effectiveness. most consistently and positively Extraversion Big Five positively Conscientiousness Openness Agreeableness Neuroticism 2. Intelligence V.S. Leadership Effectiveness. Intelligence was modestly related to leadership effectiveness. Conclusion: Personality is more important than intelligence when selecting leaders.
Takeaways from Trait Theory
Organization may want to include personality and trait assessments into selection and promotion process.
Management development programs can be used to enhance employees leadership traits.
Behavioral Styles Theory
Introduction This phase of leadership began during World War II in efforts to develop better military leaders. Causes The trait theory was unable to explain leadership effectiveness The Human Relations movement
The Ohio State Studies Study derived from a list of behaviors exhibited by leaders Two dimensions of leader behavior Consideration Initiating Structure
Consideration Involves leader behavior associated with creating mutual respect or trust Focus on concern for Group members’ needs and desires
Initiating Structure Leader behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output.
Four Leadership Styles Low Structure, high consideration Less emphasis on structuring employee tasks while the leadership concentrates on satisfying employee needs and wants Low structure, low consideration The leader fails to provide necessary structure and demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants High structure, high consideration The leader provides a lot of guidance about how tasks can be completed while being highly considerate of employee needs and wants High structure, low consideration Primary emphasis is placed on structuring employee tasks while the leader demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants
University of Michigan Studies Goal: to identify behavioral differences between effective and ineffective leaders Results: Two different styles of leadership Employee centered Job centered
Conclusions Effective leaders: Have supportive or employee-centered relationships with employees Use group rather than individual methods of supervision Set high performance goals
Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory Leaders are born, not made Opposite of Trait Theory Leader behaviors can be systematically improved and developed No best style of leadership Depends on situation at hand There is a difference between how frequently and how effectively managers exhibit various leadership behaviors