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    Leadership[1] Leadership[1] Presentation Transcript

    • Steve Astringer
      Kate Curran
      Shanhe Lu
      Christina Morelli
      Kyle Sargis
    • Situational Leadership Theory Model
      Proposed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard
      Theory states that leaders should adjust their leadership style depending on the readiness of the followers
      Mangers should be flexible in choosing a leadership behavior style and be sensitive to the readiness level of their employees
      Readiness- extent to which a follower possesses the ability and willingness to complete a task
    • Situational Leadership Theory Model
      High readiness: high ability, skills, and willingness to work
      Low readiness: low ability, training, and willingness
      Both require a different leadership style
      Appropriate style is found by cross-referencing follower readiness (high-low) with 1 of 4 leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, delegating
    • How the Situational Leadership Model Works
      Leadership styles- relationship behavior plus task behavior
      Relationship behavior: extent which leaders maintain personal relationships with followers
      Task behavior: extent which leaders organize and explain the role of their followers
    • Four Leadership Styles
      Telling: guiding and directing of performance
      Works best for followers with low level of readiness
      Selling: explaining decisions and persuading others to follow a course of action
      Works best for followers who are unable but willing to assume task responsibility
    • Four Leadership Styles
      Delegating: providing subordinates with little support or direction
      Works best for followers who have a high level of readiness, both able and willing to perform tasks
      Participating: encouraging followers to solve problems on their own
      Works best for followers whose readiness is in the moderate to high range
    • Does the Hersy-Blanchard Model Work?
      Model is widely used as a training tool
      Isn’t strongly supported by scientific research
      Studies done where leadership effectiveness wasn’t attributed to the predicted interaction between follower readiness and leadership style
      Mangers should exercise discretion when using this model
    • Quiz
      What are the four leadership styles?
      What’s the name of the theory that Hersey and Blanchard created?
      What are the two things the model suggest managers should be?
      As a manager you need to have an understanding of the ______ of your followers.
      True or False: The Situational leadership model is widely used as a training tool and strongly supported by scientific research.
    • Trait Theory of Leadership
      An early approach to explain leadership.
      Trait theories focus on identifying characterstics to distinguish leaders from followers.
      Attempted to uncover the leader behaviors that resulted in higher work group performance.
    • Trait Theory continued
      Trait theory is the successor to what was called the “Great Man” theory of leadership.
      Trait theorists believe that leadership traits were not innate but could be developed through experience and learning.
      These leader traits are physical or personality characteristics that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers.
    • Leadership Prototypes
      A leadership prototype is a mental representation of the traits an behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders.
      People tend to perceive others as leaders when they display traits that are consistent with these prototypes.
      Results have demonstrated that these traits include intelligence, masculinity and dominance.
      However, these prototypes are culturally based, therefore they change and are not uniform from nation to nation.
    • Stogdill’s and Mann’s Findings
      Robert Stogdill in 1948 and Richard Mann in 1959 sought to understand the impact of leadership traits.
      Stogdill deduced that there were five traits that differentiated leaders from followers:
      Level of energy
      Task-relevant knowledge
    • Stogdill’s and Mann’s Findings continued
      Mann identified seven categories of personality traits and summarized that intelligence was the best predictor of leadership.
      Both Mann and Stogdill’s work was not proven to be entirely true. The overall pattern of findings suggested that these traits were not able to accurately predict who became leaders and who remained as followers.
    • Kouzes and Posner’s Research
      James Kouzes and Barry Posner also attempted to identify the most important leadership qualities.
      They surveyed over 20,000 people around the world with the question, “What values (personal traits or characteristics) do you look for and admire in your superiors?”
      The top four answers included
    • Kouzes and Posner’s Research continued
      Kouzes and Posner concluded that these traits constituted a leaders credibility.
      Therefore, employees would like their superiors to be credible and have a sense of direction as to where they are leading the company.
      Leaders who possess these qualities will often encourage and reinforce integrity at work, resulting in more honesty with employees and external constituents.
    • Traits of Poor Leaders
      Incompetent- __________________________
      Rigid- ________________________________
      Intemperate- __________________________
      Callous- ______________________________
      Corrupt- ______________________________
      Insular- _______________________________
    • Gender and Leadership
      Increase women workforce
      Women leaders use more participative style
      Men use more directive style
      Women scored a more effective grade
    • Goleman’s Research on Emotional Intelligence
      Emotional Intelligence
      It is the ability to manage oneself and one’s relationship in mature and constructive ways.
      Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, and Social skill.
      Is emotional intelligence significantly associated with leadership effectiveness?
      There’s not enough research published to substantiate Goleman’s this conclution.
      Political Intelligence
       A recently proposed leadership trait and represents an offshoot of emotional intelligence.
       Leaders use power and intimidation to push followers in the pursuit of an inspiring vision and challenging goals. They tend to be effective when faced with stagnant and change resistant situation.
    • Judge’s Research:
      Two meta-analysis on the subject of traits and leadership.
      1. Big Five Personality Traits V.S. Leadership Emergence and Effectiveness.
      most consistently and positively
      Big Five
      2. Intelligence V.S. Leadership Effectiveness.
      Intelligence was modestly related to leadership effectiveness.
      Personality is more important than intelligence when selecting leaders.
    • Takeaways from Trait Theory
      • Organization may want to include personality and trait assessments into selection and promotion process.
      • Management development programs can be used to enhance employees leadership traits.
    • Behavioral Styles Theory
    • Introduction
      This phase of leadership began during World War II in efforts to develop better military leaders.
      The trait theory was unable to explain leadership effectiveness
      The Human Relations movement
    • The Ohio State Studies
      Study derived from a list of behaviors exhibited by leaders
      Two dimensions of leader behavior
      Initiating Structure
    • Consideration
      Involves leader behavior associated with creating mutual respect or trust
      Focus on concern for Group members’ needs and desires
    • Initiating Structure
      Leader behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output.
    • Four Leadership Styles
      Low Structure, high consideration
      Less emphasis on structuring employee tasks while the leadership concentrates on satisfying employee needs and wants
      Low structure, low consideration
      The leader fails to provide necessary structure and demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants
      High structure, high consideration
      The leader provides a lot of guidance about how tasks can be completed while being highly considerate of employee needs and wants
      High structure, low consideration
      Primary emphasis is placed on structuring employee tasks while the leader demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants
    • University of Michigan Studies
      Goal: to identify behavioral differences between effective and ineffective leaders
      Results: Two different styles of leadership
      Employee centered
      Job centered
    • Conclusions
      Effective leaders:
      Have supportive or employee-centered relationships with employees
      Use group rather than individual methods of supervision
      Set high performance goals
    • Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory
      Leaders are born, not made
      Opposite of Trait Theory
      Leader behaviors can be systematically improved and developed
      No best style of leadership
      Depends on situation at hand
      There is a difference between how frequently and how effectively managers exhibit various leadership behaviors
    • Leadership