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Psychopharmacological Treatment of Geriatric Disorders

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  • 1. Organization of inpatient care for Geriatric Mental Health Care SHIV GAUTAM MD(psych), DPM, FAMS Sr.Professor, HOD & Supdt. Psychiatric Centre Jaipur Addl.Principal SMS Medical College Jaipur
  • 2. Aging Physiology
    • Individuals become more dissimilar as they grow.
    • Abrupt decline in any system is always due to disease and not to normal aging.
    • Normal aging can be attenuated by modification of risk factors.
    • In the absence of disease decline in homeostatic reserve causes no symptoms and imposes few restrictions in activities of daily living regardless of age.
  • 3. Aging Pathology
    • Multiple Pathology
      • Cataracts, deafness, degenerative joint diseases, like osteoarthritis or osteoporosis, varicose veins are all conditions which are likely to develop slowly and to progress.
      • Cancer, pernicious anaemia, thyrotoxicosis, myxoedema common due to deterioration of immune mechanisms.
      • Obesity, diabetes, depression and dementia frequently seen
  • 4. Under reporting of illness
    • Callous Attitude Towards Health
    • Attitude of the Relatives
  • 5. Barriers to Obtaining Proper History
    • Mental Confusion
    • Deafness
    • Concentration
    • Co-operation
    • Idiosyncrasis
  • 6. Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders
    • Cerebrovascular Diseases
    • Depressive and other Psychiatric Disorders
    • Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
    • Neurodegenerative Disorders
    • Infections of the Central Nervous System, Sleep Disorders and Coma.
  • 7. Laboratory Evaluation and Other Investigations
    • Routine Haematological Tests -
    • Complete Blood cell count Platelets count
    • Prothrombin time Serum Electrolytes
    • Blood glucose level Renal Panel
    • Hepatic Panel
    • Routine Diagnostic Tests -
    • Lipid Profile, Blood sugar fasting, Electrocardiogram, Chest radiograph ,
    • Optional – EEG, CT Scan, MRI
  • 8. Facilities for an inpatients Geriatric Mental Health Care
    • Entrance with ramp and wheel chair
    • Adequate OPD space with waiting facilities
    • Consultation chambers for mental health team (Psychiatrists, Clinical Psychologist, Psychiatric Social worker)
    • Nursing Station and Drug dispensing
    • Inpatient wards with attendant facility
    • Semi ICU
    • Lab investigations facilities
    • Recreation room
    • Rehabilitation activities
    • Storage and Documentation space
    • Medical internist Gynaecologist
    • Ophthalmologist Orthopaedician
    • Physiotherapist Dietician
    • Yoga trainer
  • 10. Age related changes in the Central Nervous System
    • Gross brain atrophy
    • Ventricular enlargement
    • Selective regional neuronal loss
    • Remodeling of dendrite, axons & synapses
    • Appearance of intraneuronal lipofuschin
    • Selective regional decrease in neurotransmitter & neuropeptides.
  • 11. Contd...........
    • Selective modification of neurotransmitter metabolism
    • Possible dysregulation of gaseous neurotransmitter metabolism
    • Glucocorticoid neurotoxicity
    • Changes in receptors
    • Changes in neurotrophins
    • Changes in signal transduction
  • 12. … contd.
    • Impairment of calcium homeostasis
    • Possible changes in cell cycle regulations (eg, cyclins)
    • Possible changes in extra cellular matrix proteins (eg. Laminin, proteoglycans)
    • Possible regional decline in cerebral blood flow
    • Possible regional decline in metabolic rate
    • Appearance of senile plaque & neurofibrillary tangle
  • 13. PHARMACODYNAMICS AND AGING Neurotransmitter Pharmacodynamic changes with aging Dopaminergic system  Dopamine D 2 receptor in the striatum Cholinergic system  Choline acetyl transferase  Cholinergic cell numbers Contd...........
  • 14. Adrenargic system  cAMP production in response to beta-agonists  Beta – adrenoceptor number  Beta – receptor affinity  Alpha 2 – adrenoceptor responsiveness Gabaminergic system  Psychomotor performance in response to benzodiazepines ?  Post – synaptic receptor response to GABA. Contd...........
  • 16. Points to remember before prescribing medication in elderly Magnitude of effect (clinical response) = Pharmacodynamics x Pharmacokinetics x biological variance
      • In elderly medical complication of pharmacotherapy alone constitute a highly significant treatable health problem.
      • Adverse reaction to drugs of all types is seven times higher in those aged 70 to 79 years, than in those 20 to 29 years old.
      • Non compliance with therapy is a major problem for psychiatric patients, and this dilemma is exacerbated with age.
      • Age related health problems combines with physiological changes to increase the probability of adverse effect from medication which in turn increase the likelihood of non compliance.
      • Complexities of medication regimens are further complicated by communication difficulties arising from impaired hearing, cognitive impairment, language & cultural difficulties.
  • 17. Psychopharmacological Treatment of Geriatric Disorders The psychiatrist of an 87 year old patient suffering from heart disease, arthritis and depression must ask a number of questions to himself. Q. What is the best treatment - Pharmacotherapy? Psychotherapy? E.C.T.? Q. If pharmacotherapy, what is the most appropriate drug? Q. Balancing the adverse effect and efficacy. What is the best dosage? Q. How soon will the patient’s symptom decrease? Q. If the drug is effective. How long will the treatment last? Q. If the drug is ineffective how long should the wait before changing the treatment?
  • 18. GERIATRIC MANIA Risk of Mania decline in late life, nonetheless mania and hypomania affect 5-10% of psychiatric patients.
      • Established mood stabilizers
      • Lithium salts
      • Valproate
      • Carbamazepine
      • Calcium channel blockers
      • E.C.T.
      • Putative Mood stabilizes"
      • L. Thyroxine
      • Phosphatidyl choline
      • Progesterone
      • Clozapine,
      • Olanzapine
      • Magnesium salt
      • Newer Anticonvulsants
      • Lamotrigine,
      • Gabapentin
      • Topiramate,
      • Tigabine
      • Omega 3 fatty acid
  • 19. Antidepressants in old age depression
    • Cumulative incidence of depression in people aged upto 70 years is 26.95% for men & 42.5% for women, still most of the drug trials exclude elderly subjects.
    • In addition, most of the drug trials also exclude subjects with medical comorbidity, which is a rule rather than exception. Hence the results of drug trials done in young adults can't be generalized to elderly.
  • 20. … Antidepressants in old age depression contd.
    • Prior to 1995, there were occasional studies which evaluated the use of antidepressants in elderly. But fortunately in the last 10 years many studies have evaluated the use of antidepressants in the elderly.
    • These studies can be broadly classified as:
        • Noncomparative studies
        • comparative studies using either placebo or another antidepressant or both and
        • meta-analyses of the above studies.
  • 21. Antidepressant Drugs and Dosages Preferred for Use in the Elderly
  • 22. Cardiovascular      Renal      Diabetes      Hepatic  ?  Hematological   Thyroid    Arthritis  Infectious disorders  Metabolic  Disorders Lithium CBZ VPA Anticonvulsants in Depression with medical comorbidity
  • 23. Psychotic agitation in the elderly with mania
    • Initial treatment
    • Haloperidol 0.25 to 0.5 mg IM or PO
    • After one hour, administer lorazepam 0.5mg IM or PO
    • Stabilization
    • Repeat alternating doses every hour until calm
    • Monitor carefully to avoid over sedation
    • Alternative regimen if extra pyramidal symptoms develop
    • Atypical antipsychitic riseperidone (0.5mg), or olanzapine (2.5 - 5 mg)
    • Avoid chlorpromazine and thioridazine due to their anticholinergic and hypotensive side effects.
    • Chronic medication
    • Daily dose of medication is determined by adding the total dose of each medication required to calm the patient and dividing it equally throughout the day.
  • 24. Adjunctive antipsychotic medication
    • Risperidone
    • Daily divided doses of .5 to 3mg
    • Monitor patient carefully for orthostatic hypotension and EPS as dose is increased
    • Olanzapine
    • Daily doses of 2.5 to 10 mg /day’
    • Transient elevation in liver enzyme have been reported
    • Risepeidone plus olanzapine
    • Observe for increased agitation or other manic symptom because of breakthrough mania with risperidone.
    • Clozapine
    • Reserved for patients who are intolerant of risperidone and olanzapine,
    • Daily doses start at 12.5mg, increase to 50mg
    • If history of seizure disorder should be maintained on an anticonvulsant
    • Monitor for orthostatic hypotension and weekly complete blood count to assess for evidence of bone marrow toxicity
  • 27. Expert consensus guidelines
    • Formulatory decision should be based on cost when drug of comparable efficacy are available.
    • It is especially important to consider safety and tolerability along with efficacy and cost.
    • Avoid low and mid-potency conventional antipsychotics as well as clozapine & ziprasidone in elderly patients who have corrected QTc interval prolongation.
  • 28. … Expert consensus guidelines
    • Avoid low & mid potency conventional antipsychotics, clozapine and olanzapine in patients who have diabetes mellitus, dyslipedimia and or obesity.
    • Avoid ziprasidone, low and mid potency conventional antipsychotics and clozapine in patients who have a prolonged QTc interval or congestive heart failure.
    • Quetiapine is the first line recommendation for a patient with Parkinson’s disease , also consider low dose olanazapine or clozapine for patients with Parkinsons
    • Avoid high dose of risperidone in patients with Parkinson’s disease
  • 29. Management of Cognitive symptoms-Dementia
    • Cholinesterase inhibitors-mild to moderate dementia (Cummings et al., 2004).
      • Prescription only for-
        • probable Alzheimer’s disease
        • duration of illness > 6months
        • MMSE > 10
          • 3 phase response evaluation-
        • Early (2 wk)-assess tolerance & side effects
        • Late (3 mth)-assess cognition
        • Continued (6 mth)- assess disease state
  • 30. … Management of Cognitive symptoms contd.
      • Stop treatment if-
        • Early evaluation-poor tolerance or compliance
        • Deterioration continues at pretreatment rate after 3-6 month of medication
        • On maintenance doses, accelerated deterioration
  • 31. Drugs useful for reducing the signs of dementia Drug Dose Donepezil 5-10 mg daily Rivastigmine 1.5-6 mg b.i.d. Galantamine 4-12 mg b.i.d. Memantine 5-20 mg daily
  • 32. Thank you