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Prions

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  • 2 Biochemistry: The troponin-complex is a 1:1:1 complex of three regulatory proteins ( TnT, TnI, TnC ) exclusively present in striated muscle that regulate the calcium-mediated interactions of actin and myosin. Despite the similar nomenclature the troponins are different proteins structurally not related with each other. There are tissue-specific isoforms of troponin T, I and C. Three different isoforms of troponin T and I are expressed in slow-twitch skeletal muscle, fast-twitch skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle, respectively. In contrast, troponin C has only two (a fast-twitch and a slow-twitch/cardiac) isoforms. Cardiac troponin T: cTnT is different from those found in skeletal muscle. These differences allow to generate monoclonal antibodies which recognise only cTnT and can therefore be used for the development of cardiac specific immunoassays. Overall there are 120 differences (58.3 % homology) between the amino acid sequence of cTnT and slow-twitch TnT and 125 amino acid differences (56.6 % homology) between cTnT and fast-twitch TnT (Mesnard L. et al. FEBS Letters 1993; 328:139-144). In the human heart muscle, approximately 5 % of the total cTnT content is found as a soluble cytoplasmic pool, which probably serves as a precursor pool for the synthesis of the troponin complex (Katus H. et al. Am J Cardiol 1991; 67:1360-1367). Cardiac troponin I: cTnI found in the myocardium is different from those found in skeletal muscle. cTnI has an extra 13 amino acid residues at the N-terminus and its amino acid sequence shows approx. 60 % homology to the other two isoforms (Wilkinson J.M. and Grand R.J.A. Nature 1978; 271:31-35). In the human heart muscle, approximately 3 - 5 % of the total cTnI content is found as a soluble cytoplasmic pool, which probably serves as a precursor pool for the synthesis of the troponin complex (Adams J.E. et al. Clin Chem 1994; 40:1291-1295).

Prions Prions Presentation Transcript

  • Blood Sciences
    • Kieran Hayhurst
    • Trainee Biomedical Scientist
    • Clinical Chemistry
    • North Tyneside General Hospital
  • Laboratory Science Backroom Boys
  • Science and Technology Na, K, BICARB, UREA, CREAT, ALB, CA, PO4, ALK PHOS, TP, BILIRUBIN, ALT, GGT, CHOL, URATE 4 million tests per year 0.5 million blood samples Turnaround <1hr
  • Liquid Chromatography Gas Chromatography Specialised Testing Drugs – Heroin, Cocaine, methadone Vitamins – B, D, etc. Samples separated due to size A B
    • The troponin complex is a component of the thin Filaments in muscle
    • Troponin T
    Cardiac myofiber ECG Cardiac Markers Actin Tropomyosin
  • Immunoassay Thyroids, Steroids, Peptides - hormones Antibody Bound Magnetic particles Free hormone
  • Tumour Markers Myeloma screening and monitoring Monoclonal Bands
  • Haematology Red cells, White cells Blood Transfusion
  • What’s good about this profession?
    • The Science!
      • A chance to put knowledge in to practice
      • Carry out real “hands on” procedures.
      • Can apply the results to clinical findings and enhance patient care.
    • The Team
      • -The lab is a dynamic social environment, (its actually quite good fun!)
  • Teamwork
  • What’s not so good?
    • Staffing
    • Laboratory is very poorly staffed, particularly in light of an ever increasing work load.
    • Consequently, not much time for self development or researching new techniques/methods.
    • Training, is more difficult in these circumstances.
  • Patient Contact Sweat Testing Diabetic Clinics Point of Care Testing
  • The Future
    • Where do I want to go with my career?
    • Do an MSc in Clinical Chemistry, hopefully leading to a Senior post
    • New development in the profession mean Biomedical Scientists can achieve consultant status - attractive to those who want to avoid management positions.