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Presented by
Michael Frizell, Director
the Writing Center
AMA
Manual of Style, 10th Edition
The skinny…
 Cost: $50 to $60
 Weighs 4.2 lbs
 1,032 pages
 Amazon.com Reviews:
 “S...
A review from “Doc
Scribe”…
 From the preface: "I never cease to be amazed by the general
inability of physicians, other ...
Final
Manuscripts
GOAL:
Text page format of essays
 Fonts
 12-point or 10-point font. There is no requirement for the typeface. A serif font is ...
Style of Essay Titles, Headings and
Subheadings Format
Title and Major Section
Centered or Flush Left
Title Case Applies
F...
In the text…
 Reference authors with superscripts
numbered consecutively.
 Reference authors in the text each
time they ...
In the text…
 If a reference is cited more than once, and separate parts of the reference are
used, place the page number...
Direct Quotes in the Paper
Direct quotes (in ? marks) must be cited with the
appropriate reference #
 EXAMPLE:
 The repo...
In the text….personal
communication…
 …is only cited within
the text, not the
reference list.
 It’s unpublished!
 It’s ...
More personal
communication formats.
 In a conversation with Dr. Awilda
Haskins, PT, EdD (August
2005). . .
 According t...
Reference List Basics
 Present references in
the order cited in the
paper on a separate
page…
 at the end of the
manuscr...
EXAMPLE: Reference List
References
1. Jones AB. Modes of treatment: A traditional approach. Phys Ther. 1999;80:20-26.
2. S...
References: BOOKS
 Author(s). Title of book and subtitle (if any). Volume number and
volume title (when there is more tha...
Examples: BOOKS
 Davis NM. Medical Abbreviations: 26,000 Conveniences at the expense of
communications and cafety. 12th e...
References: PRINT JOURNALS
 Author(s). Article title. Journal Name. Year;volume:inclusive
page numbers.
 Use the AMA acc...
Examples: PRINT JOURNALS
Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients.
Am J Health-Syst...
References: OTHER
PUBLISHED MATERIAL
Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.
Steinm...
References: ONLINE SOURCES
 Same as other sources (in a sense)
 Always include the web address (URL) and the date access...
Example: ONLINE SOURCES
FDA/CEDR resources page. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/c...
The DOI: Digital Object Identifier
 The DOI is like a social security number for a source. It is meant to
help readers fi...
Helpful Websites and
Sources
AMA Style:
http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citama.htm (very basic)
http://hea...
JADA
http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(95)00007-0/abstract
Information for Authors:
Home Page:
http://www.adajo...
Contact Information
 Michael Frizell, Writing Center Director
 michaelfrizell@missouristate.edu
 Phone number 417-836-5...
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Transcript of "Presented by Michael Frizell, Director the Writing Center"

  1. 1. Presented by Michael Frizell, Director the Writing Center
  2. 2. AMA Manual of Style, 10th Edition The skinny…  Cost: $50 to $60  Weighs 4.2 lbs  1,032 pages  Amazon.com Reviews:  “Style manuals are written either for editors or for authors, rarely for both. The AMA manual is a text only editors could love, it serves the interests of authors mostly as an afterthought.” – Dr. Abel Scribe  “…it never seems to fail that what I am looking for, I can't find. The Index could use quite a bit of work. In addition, this text is quite expensive, in my humble opinion. ..this text is "A Necessary Evil." -- David Wexler, “Edit Ink”
  3. 3. A review from “Doc Scribe”…  From the preface: "I never cease to be amazed by the general inability of physicians, other health professionals, and scientists to communicate through the written word. Their scholarly and creative ideas and insightful data interpretation of them seem to get lost in the translation from brain to page" (p. v).  The quality of medical writing has dramatically improved since a young Dr. Michael Crichton (Jurassic Park, tv's ER) wrote in the pages of the New England Journal that "medical writing is bad, but its functions are perfectly understandable as a display of scientific [editorial?] profundity, not as an attempt to communicate experience" (December 11, 1975;293:1257-1259).  Apparently this malaise, and foot-in-mouth disease to boot, now afflicts the AMA's editors.  Curmudgeoning aside, is the 1000-page text usable? …if you are looking for guidance on the most common problems confronted by a writer, you have a monumental task before you.
  4. 4. Final Manuscripts GOAL:
  5. 5. Text page format of essays  Fonts  12-point or 10-point font. There is no requirement for the typeface. A serif font is commonly used in publication (eg, times roman).  Indents  One-half inch  Spacing  Double space throughout unless instructed otherwise, such as:  Single space within the abstract, notes, titles and headings, block quotes, tables and figures, and references (everything but the main text), double space before and after each single spaced block.  Block paragraph spacing is recommended for final manuscripts.  Page numbers  Every page of a research paper is numbered consecutively starting with the title page. Do not change numbering systems through the text, even with lengthy data sets or appendixes.  Emphasis  Italics
  6. 6. Style of Essay Titles, Headings and Subheadings Format Title and Major Section Centered or Flush Left Title Case Applies FIRST LEVEL HEADING Flush Left Full Caps Second Level Heading Flush Left Title Case Third Level Heading Indent Title Case NOTE: The third level heading is a run-in or paragraph heading
  7. 7. In the text…  Reference authors with superscripts numbered consecutively.  Reference authors in the text each time they are mentioned. Use the same number for a given author as the first time that author was cited.  Consecutive #’s  Superscripts Jones,1 Smith2(p.315) and Garcia and Zabihi3 Give only the surname(s) of the author(s) when mentioning the author(s). If a reference has more than two authors, use only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." If a reference has only two authors, list both. Writing Tip: Journal requirements may vary according to the journal. Departments may also vary in their requirements. JADA, for example, omits page numbers and superscript and places the reference number in parentheses. Example: (2)
  8. 8. In the text…  If a reference is cited more than once, and separate parts of the reference are used, place the page number in parenthesis following the superscript citation. Always give the page number when using a direct quote.  EXAMPLE:  Jones and her colleagues base the treatment approach on more conservative and traditional norms.2(p.95),4-7 NOTE • Superscript numerals appear outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons. Hyphens separate consecutive references and commas separate other parts of a multiple citation. • In text references often use the reference number and omit the page(s) Journal Variation
  9. 9. Direct Quotes in the Paper Direct quotes (in ? marks) must be cited with the appropriate reference #  EXAMPLE:  The report further cited "lingering confusion about the vaccination program's aims."22(p5-6)  NOTE:  Superscript  Lack of spacing between citation and text  Reuse original number when citing the same source more than once  EXAMPLE:  He points out that although these works are at risk for "traumatic injuries, noise- induced hearing loss, needle sticks, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide poisonings, and infectious diseases,"16(p586) respiratory illness is the most recognized occupational risk.  Note:  Space AFTER the citation when it interrupts text.
  10. 10. In the text….personal communication…  …is only cited within the text, not the reference list.  It’s unpublished!  It’s unrecoverable data! Format • Date of communication • Month, Year • Mode of communication • Written, Oral • Highest Academic Degree Recommended • Establishes credibility and reliability EXAMPLE ONE: In a thought-provoking conversation with P. Jafari, MD (June 2005)… EXAMPLE TWO: According to the drug manufacturer (P. Jafari, President, Pharmacorp; oral communication; January, 2005), news reports of unethical drug trials… REMEMBER: No Citation Number is Necessary!
  11. 11. More personal communication formats.  In a conversation with Dr. Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD (August 2005). . .  According to a letter from Dr. Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD in August 2005. . .  Similar findings have been noted by Dr. Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD (written communication, August 2005). . .  According to the author (Dr. Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD, oral communication, August 2005). . .
  12. 12. Reference List Basics  Present references in the order cited in the paper on a separate page…  at the end of the manuscript…  labeled “References”…  including only those cited in the text.  Works with no more than six (6) authors: include all authors' surnames and first and middle name initials separated by commas. Do not use periods for initials (e.g. Garcia EF, Zabihi GH. Transmission …).  Works with seven (7) or more authors: list only the first three (3) names followed by "et al" (e.g. Haskins AR, Himburg SP, George V, et al. Daring to be…).Remember: Some Journals Vary in their requirements!
  13. 13. EXAMPLE: Reference List References 1. Jones AB. Modes of treatment: A traditional approach. Phys Ther. 1999;80:20-26. 2. Smith CD. Transmission modes and treatment approaches. 3rd ed. Miami (FL): Florida University Presses; 1999. 3. Garcia EF, Zabihi GH. Transmission modes. New York (NY): NYU Press; 1999:308-338. 4. Mohamed IJ. Principles of treatment. In: Needles DD, Thread OE, editors. What it's all about? Putnam (NY): Happy Days Press; 1998:29-39. 5. Haskins AR, Himburg SP, George V, et al. Daring to be different: A less traditional style. Clin Mgmt in Educ. 2000;26(1):9-19. 6. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available at: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm. Accessed January 9, 2004. 7. Wyndham Mount Laurel. Meetings and Conferences Page. Available at: http://www.wyndhammountlaurel.com/meetings.html. Accessed January 9, 2004. Refer to recent issues of JAMA & JADA for examples and variations. The AMA style manual is available in the University library.
  14. 14. References: BOOKS  Author(s). Title of book and subtitle (if any). Volume number and volume title (when there is more than 1 volume). Edition number (do not indicate first edition). Place of publication: Name of publisher; Year of copyright. Author’s last name and initials Chapter titles are included Book Title NOT in Title Case (Like This!) Volume only if there is more than one Punctuation in cite is specific
  15. 15. Examples: BOOKS  Davis NM. Medical Abbreviations: 26,000 Conveniences at the expense of communications and cafety. 12th ed. Huntingdon Valley, PA: Neil M.Davis Associates; 2005:173.  McEvoy GK, ed in chief, Snow ED, ed. AHFS: Drug information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2008:1125-1126. Aronoff GR, Berns JS, Brier ME, et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 1999:39. Johannsen EC, Madoff LC. Infections of the liver and biliary system. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JC, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s: Principles and practice of infectious disease. Vol 1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005:951-952.
  16. 16. References: PRINT JOURNALS  Author(s). Article title. Journal Name. Year;volume:inclusive page numbers.  Use the AMA accepted Journal Abbreviations for the journal’s title Article title not in title case (except Proper Nouns), but… Journal Name is in Title Case Issue month or number Page numbers Each element is followed by a period No spaces between the year, volume, pages Pages separated by an en-dash
  17. 17. Examples: PRINT JOURNALS Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003;60(7):683-687. Note: If the journal does not have a volume or issue number, use the issue date. Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE Jr, Laden F, et al. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(18):1253-1258. If more than 6 authors, list first 3, then et al Council on Scientific Affairs. Scientific issues in drug testing. JAMA. 1987;257(22):3110-3114. The choice of antibacterial drugs. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1998;40(1023):33-42.
  18. 18. References: OTHER PUBLISHED MATERIAL Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993. Steinmetz G. Kafka is a symbol of Prague today; also, he’s a T-shirt. Wall Street Journal. October 10, 1996:A1, A6. Clinical Pharmacology [computer program]. Version 2.07. Tampa, FL: Gold Standard Multimedia; 2003. Note: Dates associated with various software may be updates or file dates. WRITING TIP: Mind the capitalization rules for sources!
  19. 19. References: ONLINE SOURCES  Same as other sources (in a sense)  Always include the web address (URL) and the date accessed No underlines! Remove the hyperlink Include as much info as possible Make sure your source is credible Use the words Available at: before the http://... Use the word Accessed before the date Author(s), if give and many times there are none; title of the specific item cited, if any; name of the Web site; URL; published and/or update, if any; accessed date.
  20. 20. Example: ONLINE SOURCES FDA/CEDR resources page. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/approval/index.htm. Accessed April 7, 2007. Clinical Pharmacology Web site. Available at: http://cpip.gsm.com.ezproxy.samford.edu/. Accessed June 23, 2006. PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2007. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase.Updated June 9, 2006. Accessed April 16, 2007. Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA. 1999;281:2289- 2293. Available at: http://url. Accessed July 11, 2009. Mast CT, DeMuro-Mercon C, Kelly CM, Floyd LE, Ealter EB. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family. BMC Pediatrics. 2009;9:11. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-11
  21. 21. The DOI: Digital Object Identifier  The DOI is like a social security number for a source. It is meant to help readers find the exact source you are referencing.  You can type a DOI into Google and get the exact source.  All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash.  Not all sources have DOIs.  If the source has a DOI, cite it after the rest of the citation is finished: Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245- 1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
  22. 22. Helpful Websites and Sources AMA Style: http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citama.htm (very basic) http://healthlinks.washington.edu/hsl/styleguides/ama.html (more detailed) http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html (very detailed) Cites Used to Create this Presentation: http://chua2.fiu.edu/faculty/haskins/PHT6970/AMA%20Style.htm (all the basics) http://www4.samford.edu/schools/pharmacy/dic/amaquickref07.pdf (comprehensive) http://www.ajph.org/misc/ama_references.shtml (one of my favorites) http://www.custom-essays.org/essay_format/AMA_Style_Essay_Format.html (style)
  23. 23. JADA http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(95)00007-0/abstract Information for Authors: Home Page: http://www.adajournal.org/home
  24. 24. Contact Information  Michael Frizell, Writing Center Director  michaelfrizell@missouristate.edu  Phone number 417-836-5006  Office: Meyer Library 112  Writing Center  First floor Meyer Library – The Bear Claw  Phone Number 417-836-6398  http://writingcenter.missouristate.edu  Supplemental Instruction  http://si.missouristate.edu THANK YOU!
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