Multiple Myeloma

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Multiple Myeloma

  1. 1. Multiple MyelomaMultiple Myeloma Presented by:Presented by: Mike LynchMike Lynch
  2. 2. Outline of PresentationOutline of Presentation • Multiple myelomaMultiple myeloma • StatisticsStatistics • CausesCauses • SymptomsSymptoms • PrognosisPrognosis • Treatment optionsTreatment options
  3. 3. Multiple MyelomaMultiple Myeloma (myeloma or plasma cell myeloma)(myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) • Hematological cancerHematological cancer • Plasma cellsPlasma cells – White blood cellsWhite blood cells – Immune systemImmune system – Bone marrowBone marrow
  4. 4. How Plasma Cells WorkHow Plasma Cells Work • Develop from stem cells in bone marrowDevelop from stem cells in bone marrow • Stem cells develop into B cells (BStem cells develop into B cells (B lymphocytes)lymphocytes) • Antigens enter body then B cells developAntigens enter body then B cells develop into plasma cellsinto plasma cells • Produce antibodiesProduce antibodies
  5. 5. Normal Cell (5%)Normal Cell (5%)
  6. 6. Myeloma Cells (10%)Myeloma Cells (10%)
  7. 7. What Causes Myeloma Cells To Grow?What Causes Myeloma Cells To Grow? • Adhesion moleculesAdhesion molecules • Stromal cellsStromal cells Interactions:Interactions: – Cytokins (chemical messengers)Cytokins (chemical messengers) – Growth factors that promote angiogenesisGrowth factors that promote angiogenesis – Inactivated immune systemInactivated immune system
  8. 8. StatisticsStatistics • Second most prevalent blood cancerSecond most prevalent blood cancer • Approximately 1% of all cancers and 2%Approximately 1% of all cancers and 2% of all cancer deaths.of all cancer deaths. • 45,000 currently have multiple myeloma45,000 currently have multiple myeloma • 14,600 new cases of myeloma each year.14,600 new cases of myeloma each year. • Responsible for more than 10,000 deathsResponsible for more than 10,000 deaths in the United States annually.in the United States annually. • 5 year survival rate5 year survival rate http://www.multiplemyeloma.org/about_myeloma/2.03.asp
  9. 9. CausesCauses • Is not known for sureIs not known for sure • Decline in the immune systemDecline in the immune system • Biological factorsBiological factors • Certain occupationsCertain occupations • Exposure to certain chemicalsExposure to certain chemicals • Exposure to radiationExposure to radiation • VirusVirus
  10. 10. SymptomsSymptoms • Abnormal proteinsAbnormal proteins – Blood and urineBlood and urine – Polyclonal to Monoclonal proteinsPolyclonal to Monoclonal proteins • High level of calcium in bloodHigh level of calcium in blood – Excessive thirst and urinationExcessive thirst and urination – SleepinessSleepiness – ConstipationConstipation – NauseaNausea – Loss of appetiteLoss of appetite – Mental confusionMental confusion
  11. 11. Symptoms ContinuedSymptoms Continued • AnemiaAnemia • FatigueFatigue • Bone painBone pain – BackBack – RibsRibs • Unexplained bone fracturesUnexplained bone fractures • Repeated infectionsRepeated infections – PneumoniaPneumonia – Bladder and kidney infectionBladder and kidney infection – Urinary tract infectionUrinary tract infection • Weight lossWeight loss • Weakness and numbness in limbsWeakness and numbness in limbs
  12. 12. Screening and DiagnosisScreening and Diagnosis • Blood and urine testsBlood and urine tests • X-raysX-rays • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Computerized Tomography (CT)Computerized Tomography (CT) • Bone marrow examinationBone marrow examination
  13. 13. StagingStaging • Stage 1Stage 1 – Low amount of myelomaLow amount of myeloma • Stage 2Stage 2 – Medium amount of myelomaMedium amount of myeloma • Stage 3Stage 3 – High amount of myelomaHigh amount of myeloma • AA – Normal kidney functionNormal kidney function • BB – Abnormal kidney functionAbnormal kidney function
  14. 14. Treatment OptionsTreatment Options • ChemotherapyChemotherapy • Stem cell transplantationStem cell transplantation • Radiation therapyRadiation therapy • Bortezomib (Velcade)Bortezomib (Velcade) • ThalidamideThalidamide
  15. 15. Thank you for your timeThank you for your time Any QuestionsAny Questions ??

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