Milton Friend: Emergence and Reemerence of Infectious Diseases ...


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Milton Friend: Emergence and Reemerence of Infectious Diseases ...

  1. 1. Emergence and Reemergence of Infectious Diseases Milton Friend Emeritus Scientist U.S. Department of Interior U.S. Geological Survey
  2. 2. “During the last 150 years the Western world has virtually eliminated death due to infectious disease.” (U.S. Surgeon General, 1975)
  3. 3. “…it is time to ‘close the book on infectious diseases’.” (U.S. Surgeon General, 1967)
  4. 4. Time Magazine
  5. 5. Number of People Worldwide with HIV/AIDS in 2002 Men 38.8 million Women 19.6 million Children <15 yrs 3.2 million Total 42.0 million U.S. AIDS-related mortalities (CDC data through 2001) 467,910
  6. 6. Disease Emergence multi-pronged assault on humans by infectious disease exotic diseases
  7. 7. “diseases and infections which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man.” (World Health Organization, 1959) Zoonoses =
  8. 8. Disease Year of Emergence Wildlife Hosts Monkeypox 2003 Prairie Dog SARS 2003 Civet Cat West Nile Virus 1999 Birds Hantavirus 1993 Small Rodents AIDS 1981 Nonhuman Primates Lyme Disease 1975 Small Rodents Notable Emerging Diseases with Wildlife Origins
  9. 9. Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Birds Mammals – terrestrial and marine Reptiles and Amphibians Fish – shellfish and finfish Corals n=~190
  10. 10. West Nile Virus – Surveillance Activities
  11. 11. West Nile Virus – Necropsy Activities
  12. 12. 2000 West Nile Virus Outbreak Timeline May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct
  13. 13. West Nile Virus – Mapping Wild Bird Surveillance Human Cases
  14. 14. A Potential Wildlife Disease Surveillance Network
  15. 15. Specimens Submitted to NWHC (n=74,913) Dept. of Interior States University OthersOther Federal
  16. 16. Hepatopathy (Mycotoxin?) Emerging Diseases Identified by NWHC Inclusion Body Disease Poxvirus Nestling Herpesvirus 1970s 1980s Pentobarbitol Poisoning Mycotoxin Trichothecine Woodcock Reovirus Eastern Equine Encephalitis Lake Andes Duck Plague
  17. 17. Hawaii Disease Biocomplexity Sea Otter Encephalitis Avian Myelinopathy Hepatopathy in Wisconsin Stunting, Humpback Chub Sea Turtle Retrovirus Rainbow Trout Enteritis Splenitis, Hepatitis in Brant Coral Coccidiosis, Tumors 1990s 2000s LT Duck Adenovirus Poisoning in Asian Vultures Newcastle Disease L. polyoon Enteritis Chytrid Fungus/ Ranavirus Emerging Diseases Identified by NWHC ???
  18. 18. 1.9% (1.4-2.5%) n = 2602 0.2% (0.04-4.0%) n = 2393 0% (0-0.5%) n = 624 6.7% (5.7-7.9%) n = 1994 Model Disease Distribution in Wisconsin’s Eradication Zone Deer Processing Station
  19. 19. Specialized Biocontainment Facilities
  20. 20. Infectious Disease Investigations
  21. 21. Rabies
  22. 22. Wildlife Domestic Animal Human Translocation Human encroachment Ex situ contact Ecological manipulation Human behaviors Global travel Urbanization Biomedical manipulation Food processing/distribution Technology and Industry Agricultural Intensification Encroachment Introduction “Spill over” & “Spill back”
  23. 23. SARS has cost an estimated $50 – $100 billion Economic and Social ImpactsEconomic and Social Impacts $ $ $ $ $ Human Health
  24. 24. Component Primary Focus Monitoring Disease patterns, trends, and geographic distribution Surveillance Pathogen presence and disease activity Reporting Real-time awareness and summaries Field Response Disease control activities Disease Ecology Disease maintenance, eruption and spread – finding the weak links Technology Development New capabilities for disease detection, diagnosis and control Interagency Collaboration Efforts crossing areas of jurisdiction/agency responsibilities Training and Education Enhancing societal awareness, addressing disease issues Components Required to Adequately Address Wildlife Disease
  25. 25. Characteristic Humans Domestic Animals WIldlife Species One Several Many Species Biology & Ecology Well Known Well Known Highly Variable Disease Ecology* Well Known Well Known Poorly Known Disease Control High Probability High Probability Limited Success Profession Long Standing Long Standing Recent Origin Status of Knowledge for Disease Prevention and Control * for established diseases
  26. 26. Non- Governmental Organizations Department of Interior State Wildlife Agencies Tribal Governments General Public Other Federal Agencies Stewardship Network
  27. 27. Foundation for an Effective Wildlife Disease Capability Operational Resources Timely Response Scientific KnowledgeEarly Detection Rapid, accurate diagnosis $$$
  28. 28. “...emerging zoonotic diseases are among the most important public health threats facing humanity.” (Mahy and Brown, 2000)
  29. 29. “Pathogens that infect wildlife are twice as likely to become emerging diseases of humans as pathogens without wildlife hosts.” (Cleaveland et al., 2001)
  30. 30. • Diseases in wildlife are often transmitted to humans • USGS is well positioned to develop the type of wildlife disease program needed to best serve wildlife and human health • Wildlife disease surveillance and monitoring are weak links in the protection of human health • Wildlife are important to the national economy and natural heritage and can be impacted by disease • USGS has increasingly been called upon to respond with its wildlife disease expertise to help combat emerging infectious diseases of humans, such as WNV and monkeypox.