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JUDGEMENT

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JUDGEMENT JUDGEMENT Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME TO
    VIRGINIA FLIGHT SCHOOL
    SAFETY MEETING
    30 OCTOBER 2007
  • AGENDA
    Minutes from September 2007 meeting
    Additional Points
    Vital Actions vs Checks –list
    Main Topic – Human Performance
    Aircraft Technical – C 152 Ignition System
    E Learning Ground Training
  • MINUTES FROM 04 SEPT 2007 MEETING
    Occurrence Report Feedback
    Loss of Control
    Aircraft Technical
  • OCCURRENCE REPORT FEEDBACK/ANALYSIS
    ONLY 1 REPORT!!!
  • VITAL ACTION/CHECKS LIST FORMAT
    The majority opinion is that the “flip type”
    format for the VA/Checklist is the most user
    friendly.
    There are two types –
    • Side Tab
    • Bottom reference
  • FORMAT TYPES
    SIDE TAB
    BOTTOM FLIP REFERENCE
  • NOTES ON CHECKLIST
    No two checklists are the same!
    Proposal : Take VFS checklist and
    compare to original Cessna
    checklist to get final checklist
  • HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND
    LIMITATIONS
  • DEFINITIONS
    Human Performance and Limitations.
    Recognising and understanding the
    Physiological effects of flying on the human
    body and therefore be able to compensate
    for these effects in the interests of safe flight.
  • BASIC PHYSIOLOGY
    • Atmospheriology
    • The Circulatory System
    • The Respiratory System
    • The Effects of Partial Pressure
    • Sensory Organs – The Eyes
    • Visual Illusions
    • Sensory Organs – The Ears
    • Vestibular Disorientation
  • ATMOSPHERIOLOGY
    Composition of the atmosphere.
    Composition by Volume
    Nitrogen 78%
    Oxygen 21%
    Argon 0,93%
    Carbon Dioxide 0,03%
  • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    The circulatory system moves blood around
    the body transporting oxygen and nutrients
    to cells and removing waste products.
    The two most important components
    are :
    • The heart.
    • Circulatory System
  • THE HEART
  • CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    Veins & Arteries. Arteries carry blood from the heart to
    the body and veins return blood to the heart from the body.
    Blood. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which binds
    oxygen in the lungs and carries it to body tissues where it
    is essential for efficient bodily function.
    Blood Pressure. Correct blood pressure is essential to
    ensure efficient blood flow and hence oxygen delivery
    especially to the brain and eyes, two vital organs for
    safe flight.
  • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    The breathing process introduces oxygen to the body and
    expels carbon dioxide. The primary part of the
    respiratory system is the lungs.
    Two lungs are housed in the chest cavity with a muscular
    diaphragm beneath them which facilitates contraction and
    expansion of the lungs.
  • BREATHING
    Inhaling
    Exhaling
    Inhaling
    Inhaling
    Diaphragm Down
    Diaphragm Up
  • CONTROL OF RESPIRATION
    Breathing is automatically controlled by the central nervous system. However breathing can be influenced by :
    • Psychological factors such as fear, excitement,
    nervousness, etc.
    • Substances such as aspirin and alcohol cause an increase
    in breathing rate. Morphine and valium suppress the
    breathing rate.
  • SINUSES
    Sinuses are air filled bone cavities in the facial skull. They are of extreme importance to pilots and passengers because blocked sinuses lead to barotrauma and extreme pain.
  • THE EFFECTS OF PARTIAL PRESSURE
    BAROTRAUMA
    Gasses trapped in any body cavity, such as in
    blocked sinuses, will tend to expand with an
    increase in altitude.
    The expansion will cause an increase in
    pressure causing discomfort and even possible
    severe pain known as barotrauma.
  • BAROTRAUMA
    A pilot should never fly or dive with a head
    cold as this could result in a ruptured
    eardrum or severe barotrauma.
    Decongestant drugs areNOTcompatible with
    flying.DO NOTadminister self medication –
    consult an aviation medical practitioner.
  • HYPOXIA
    Hypoxia is the condition where the oxygen level in the tissue is less than normal. Anoxia is the condition where there is a total absence of oxygen.
    These conditions can obviously not be tolerated in flying as optimal oxygen supply to the tissue is essential for effective operation of the body – especially vital organs such as the eyes and brain.
  • HYPOXIA - SUMMARY
    Symptoms:
    • Involuntary increased breathing rate and yawning.
    • Dull headache.
    • Tiredness and sleepiness.
    • “Blueness” of lips and fingers.
    Effects on Vision:
    • At night vision adversely affected from 5000’ upwards.
    • Peripheral vision adversely affected.
    • Colour and depth perception vision adversely affected
    from 10 000’ upwards.
  • HYPOXIA - SUMMARY
    Effects on Brain Function :
    • Feeling of apprehension.
    • Personality Changes :
    • “Don’t care” attitude.
    • Euphoria – “Don’t worry – Be happy!”
    • Unwarranted irritability.
    • Loss of judgement.
    • Lack of co-ordination/clumsiness.
    • Loss of short term memory.
    • Difficulty in carrying out routine tasks.
    • Light-headedness and dizziness followed by
    confusion.
  • HYPOXIA – TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS
    ALTITUDE SITTING QUIETLY MODERATE ACTIVITY
    40 000’ 30 secs 18 secs
    35 000’ 45 secs 30 secs
    30 000’ 75 secs 45 secs
    25 000’ 3 min 2 min
    22 000’ 10 min 5 min
    20 000’ 12 min 6 min
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    NB! As a general rule DO NOT fly above 10 000’ during the
    day and 5000” at night without oxygen.
  • HYPERVENTILATION
    Hyperventilation simply means over breathing, or breathing at a rate in excess of that required to remove carbon dioxide.