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CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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  • Figure 9.4: How Tuberculosis Spreads . If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver, kidneys, spine, and skin.

CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CH. 10 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    • INFECTION
    • Pathogens – disease-causing organisms (germs)
    • Host – person or population, that contracts the agent
    • Vector – provides the means of transmission
  • 2. 1. Agents (causes) of Infection
    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Parasitic Worms
  • 3. 2. How Infections Spread (not in book)
    • Animals and insects
    • People
    • Food
    • Water
  • 4. 3. The Process of Infection (not in book)
    • Incubation Period, what is it?
    • The time between when the germ enters your body and your first symptom. Can be several days or up to years and during this time you are HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS!
    • The body is not able to develop long-lasting immunity to certain viruses, such as colds, flu, or HIV
  • 5. HOW YOUR BODY PROTECTS ITSELF
    • Immune System – includes structures of the lymphatic system—the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.
    • Once the human body produces antibodies against a specific antigen the mumps virus etc. you’re protected against that antigen for life.
    • Antigen – is any substance the white blood cells recognize as foreign.
  • 6.
    • Autoimmune Disorders – the immune systems declares war on the body which it is trying to protect. Like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus etc. (not in book)
    • IMMUNIZATION FOR ADULTS
    • p. 287 Table for Adult Immunization Schedule
  • 7. Immunizations for Adults Vaccines Recommended for College Students p 286 Insert Figure 9-3 here
  • 8. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    • Highest Risk? Children and their families, elderly, chronically ill, smokers and respiratory problems, those who live or work with someone sick, and residents or workers in poorly ventilated buildings. nib
    • 1. Common Cold – 200 cold viruses, antibiotics are for bacteria not viruses give it time, rest, and fluids. Hot soups and drinks with lemon or ginger raise the body temp. and help clear the nose. Tea may enhance the immune system.
  • 9.
    • 2. Influenza – more severe symptoms than a cold and last longer. Incubation period is 2 days, symptoms can hit hard and fast. Two varieties of viruses, influenza A and influenza B. Deadliest are from “A”. Allergic to eggs, do NOT get a flu shot!
    • Who should get a flu shot? P. 289
  • 10.
    • 3. Meningitis – attacks the membranes around the brain and spinal cord and can result in hearing loss, kidney failure, and permanent brain damage. Bacteria meningitis spread through coughing, kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils, or cigarettes, or prolonged exposure to infected individuals. Viral m. is less severe. 15-24 yrs. But only college students living in dorms. Early symptoms rash, fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. Great sign is stiffness in neck when bending forward. If untreated can lead to permanent hearing loss, brain damage, seizures, or death. Nov. to March is peak. IMMUNIZATION RECOMMENDED
  • 11.
    • 4. Hepatitis – A, B, C, Delta, and E, can cause inflammation of the liver. Symptoms include headaches, fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The liver becomes enlarged and sometimes jaundice develops. Treatment: rest, a high-protein diet, and avoidance of alcohol and drugs that stress the liver.
  • 12.
      • a. Hep A – less serious form, transmitted by poor sanitation, fecal contamination of food or water. Highest risk are day care workers and children, institutions for mentally handicapped, sanitation workers. (New viruses: non-A, non-B)
      • b. Hep B – transmitted through the blood and other body fluids. (see STD’s Hepatitis B). mostly transmitted now through sexual contact. 75% of new cases 15-39yrs. Highest risk are Male homo, and hetero with multiple sex partners, health care workers w/ frequent contact w blood, injection drug users, and infants born to infected mothers. There is a vaccine. 100 times more contagious than HIV.
  • 13.
    • Hep C – is 4 times as widespread as HIV infecting about 2% of Americans. 80% have no symptoms. Risk: exposure to infected blood, illegal drug use, tattoos, or body piercing. Not spread by casual contact. Controversy on spread sexually.
    • Before you get a tattoo or piercing
    • p. 292
  • 14.
    • 5. Mononucleosis – through kissing or other close contact. Viral disease ages 15-24 yrs. Symptoms include a sore throat, headache, fever, nausea, and prolonged weakness. Spleen is swollen and lymph nodes are enlarged. Skin rash or jaundice. Blood test. Treatment: rest
    • 6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) – profound fatigue, weakness, muscle pain, symptoms (years), 4x more women.
    • No cure, therapies can relieve symptoms.
    • 7. Tuberculosis – bacterial infection of the lungs. 15 million Americans have it.
  • 15. Fig. 9-4, p. 241 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, TB bacteria are expelled in tiny airborne droplets that others may inhale. The TB bacteria lodge mainly in the lungs, where they slowly multiply, creating patches, then cavities. Other parts of the lung are affected, including the bronchi and the lining of the lung. If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys, spine, and skin.
  • 16. 8. Insect and Animal Borne Infections
      • a. Lyme Disease – from a deer tick
      • b. West Nile Virus – transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an infected bird and then bites a human. First case 1999. Less than 1% who are bitten by mosquitoes experience any symptoms.
      • c. Avian Influenza (bird flu) – affects wild birds, rare from birds to humans but 3x in 20thc. Then human to human in Hong Kong, 1997. Migratory birds carried to other countries and continents.
  • 17. 9. New Infectious Threats
      • a. SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Spread by sneezing or coughing. Incubation period 6-10 days. Fever, coughing, headache, chills, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. No specific treatments.
      • b. Anthrax – found naturally in wild farm animals.
      • c. Smallpox – last case in U.S. 1949. Last case in the world Somalia in 1977. No treatment and up to 30% of those infected will die. Because of threats as a biological weapon, U.S stockpiled enough vaccine to inoculate everyone in the U.S.
  • 18. 10. REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
    • 1. Vaginal Infections
      • a. Trichomoniasis – itching, burning, discharge, should be screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV.
      • b. Candidiasis – yeast infection, poor nutrition, stress, antibiotic use, itching, burning and whitish discharge.
      • c. Bacterial vaginosis – white or gray discharge and unusual odor like with trichomoniasis. There is treatment and usually for both partners.
  • 19. 2. Urinary Tract Infections(UTI)
        • Can be present in any of the 3 parts of the urinary tract: the urethra, bladder, or kidneys.
        • Irritation and swelling of the urethra or bladder as a result of pregnancy, bike riding, irritants (bubble baths, douches, or a diaphragm, urinary stones, enlargement in the men of the prostate gland, vaginitis, and stress.
        • Early diagnosis is critical because of kidney failure.
        • Symptoms frequent burning, painful urination, chills, fever, fatigue, and blood in the urine. NEXT STDs
  • 20. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (transmitted) (DISEASES - symptoms)
    • Almost 700,000 people worldwide are infected every day with STIs.
    • Highest rates among 16-24 yr. olds mostly older teens.
    • More Americans are infected now than at any other time in history.
    • Odds are 1 in 4 during a lifetime for STI.
    • Half of new cases of STIs in U.S. are college age.
    • More than 1+ million in U.S. living with HIV or AIDS, with about 56,300 new infections every year. 15,000 everyday
  • 21.
    • Men who have sex with men account for 53% of AIDS diagnoses among men.
    • About a third of HIV individuals in U.S. have NOT been diagnosed.
    • Almost half living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. are African American.
    • HIV/AIDS 3 rd leading cause of death among AA between 25-34 and 6 th leading cause of death for whites and Hispanics in this age group.
    • AA women make up 13% of female population of U.S. but account for 67% of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases.
    • Teenage girls vulnerable to HIV because the immature cervix is easily infected.
    • In Africa, ABC program ( A bstain, B e faithful, wear a C ondom) p 271-272
  • 22. WHERE ARE YOUR MUCOUS MEMBRANES?
    • CAN YOU HAVE MORE THAN 1 STD AT A TIME?
    • IS IT EASIER TO BECOME INFECTED WITH HIV IF YOU ALREADY HAVE ANOTHER STD?
    • CAN YOU CONTRACT AN STD FROM HAVING ORAL SEX?
    • ARE WOMEN MORE LIKELY TO BE INFECTED WITH AN STD?
    • Common STIs p. 269
  • 23. CHLAMYDIA (bacteria)
    • Most widespread st bacterium
    • Usually through sexual contact, but by fingers from one area to another or oral-genital.
    • One in 25 young Americans is infected with Chlamydia
    • 6 times more prevalent in young black adults than in young white adults.
    • Half of cases occur in 15-24 yrs. olds
    • 60% women have no symptoms
    • 50% men have no symptoms
  • 24.
    • 8. Greatest risk is 25 yrs. or younger who have sex with more than 1 new partner within 2 months.
    • 9. Without treatment, 40% can lead to PID
    • 10. Women have 3-5 times greater risk of contacting HIV if exposed.
    • 11. Treatment usually azithromycin/ofloxacin
    • 12. May be linked to cervical cancer
  • 25. GONORRHEA (bacteria)(clap)
    • Most common bacterial in U.S.
    • 8/10 women have no symptoms
    • By sexual contact including oral sex
    • In men, thick yellow-white pus oozes from the penis and urination is burning.
    • 5% of women have positive gonorrhea cultures but are unaware that they are silent carriers
    • Leading cause of sterility in women
    • Urinary obstruction and sterility in men
    • Treatment is ofloxacin for Chlamydia and gonorrhea
  • 26. NONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS(bacteria)
    • 1. Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrhea
    • 2. Most common in men
    • 3. Through sexual intercourse, symptoms like gonorrhea
    • 4. May lead to PID in women and spread to the prostate, epididymis, or both.
  • 27. SYPHILIS(bacteria)
    • Primary - 1st stage is a chancre – a sore on penis, vagina, rectum or mouth. 3-4 weeks incubation before sore appears.
    • Secondary - skin rash, fever, flu-like symptoms, lesions appear in the genital area. 1-12 months after 1st stage.
    • Latent – no longer infectious after two years, lasts for several years and bacteria multiplies.
    • Tertiary – Can occur 10-20 yrs. after infection. Complications include heart disease, blindness, brain damage, paralysis, insanity, and death.
  • 28.
    • THESE FIRST 4 STD’S ARE CURABLE, THE NEXT 4 ARE NOT!!!!
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – infection of woman’s fallopian tubes or uterus. Due to complication of STIs. 1 of every 7 women of reproductive age has PID. May cause infertility p 276
    • Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are responsible for ½ to 1/3 of all cases of PID.
    • Most cases occur under age 25
    • PID causes 10 to 20% of PID leads to obstruction of fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility.
  • 29. HERPES (virus)
    • Symptoms can be itching, tingling, burning on the legs, buttocks, or genitals.
    • Expect 4-5 recurrences in a year
    • Triggered by lowered resistance, fever, sunburn or stress
    • Even with standard testing as many as two-thirds of the cases are missed.
    • 40% of new cases occur in 15-24 yrs.
    • Still contagious even when no symptoms appear
  • 30. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) (genital warts)
    • MOST COMMON STI IN THE U.S.
    • 100+ different strains of the virus, 40 sexually transmitted.
    • Can lead to cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina, anus in women, Penile cancer in men.
    • Most men and women have NO symptoms
    • More common in college age women than men between 20-22 yrs.
    • 6.2 million Americans get new HPV infections each year.
    • 80% of sexually active women acquire HPV by age 50.
  • 31. HEPATITIS B (virus)
    • 100 times more infectious than HIV
    • Spread through, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, breast milk, and perspiration
    • Can cause chronic liver infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.
    • Flu-like symptoms.
    • Potentially fatal disease.
    • Then brownish urine, loose, light yellow stools, yellowing of the eyes and skin
    • There is a vaccine
    • 75% of new cases ages 15-39.
    • 10% may be carriers for life.
  • 32. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME(AIDS)(virus) HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)
    • AIDS first appeared 1981/HIV late 1970s U.S.A.
    • HIV doubling every 10 ten years.
    • Herpes, gonorrhea, and syphilis facilitate transmission of HIV
    • Semen has higher concentration of HIV than a woman’s genital fluids.
    • Some HIV carriers have no symptoms for 20 yrs. before being diagnosed with AIDS.
    • With HIV flu-like symptoms may occur.
    • After diagnosis of AIDS death usually occurs depending on medications.
    • New research indicates that the virus itself, NOT a breakdown in the immune system is responsible for disease progression.
  • 33. HIV and AIDS Insert Figure 9-7 here
  • 34. HIV and AIDS Insert Figure 9-8 here
  • 35.
    • Half of new HIV infections occur in under 25 yrs. old.
    • More than half of 13-24 yrs. women with HIV infected heterosexually.
    • HIV TESTING P. 281.
    • Home HIV test approved is “Home Access” in drug stores or online.
    • NO ORGASM IS WORTH DYING FOR!
    • USE A CONDOM TO PREVENT STD’S AND PREGNANCY