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CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
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CH. 9 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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  • Figure 9.4: How Tuberculosis Spreads.
    If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver, kidneys, spine, and skin.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CH. 10 PREVENTING INFECTIOUSCH. 10 PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASESDISEASES INFECTIONINFECTION  Pathogens – disease-causingPathogens – disease-causing organisms (germs)organisms (germs)  Host – person or population, thatHost – person or population, that contracts the agentcontracts the agent  Vector – provides the means ofVector – provides the means of transmissiontransmission
    • 2. 1. Agents (causes) of Infection1. Agents (causes) of Infection 1.1. VirusesViruses 2.2. BacteriaBacteria 3.3. FungiFungi 4.4. ProtozoaProtozoa 5.5. Parasitic WormsParasitic Worms
    • 3. 2. How Infections Spread2. How Infections Spread (not in book)(not in book) 1.1. Animals and insectsAnimals and insects 2.2. PeoplePeople 3.3. FoodFood 4.4. WaterWater
    • 4. 3. The Process of Infection3. The Process of Infection (not in book)(not in book) Incubation Period, what is it?Incubation Period, what is it?  The time between when the germThe time between when the germ enters your body and your firstenters your body and your first symptom. Can be several days or upsymptom. Can be several days or up to years and during this time you areto years and during this time you are HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS!HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS!  The body is not able to develop long-The body is not able to develop long- lasting immunity to certain viruses,lasting immunity to certain viruses, such as colds, flu, or HIVsuch as colds, flu, or HIV
    • 5. HOW YOUR BODY PROTECTS ITSELFHOW YOUR BODY PROTECTS ITSELF  Immune System – includesImmune System – includes structures of the lymphatic systemstructures of the lymphatic system —the spleen, thymus gland, lymph—the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.nodes, and lymph vessels.  Once the human body producesOnce the human body produces antibodies against a specific antigenantibodies against a specific antigen the mumps virus etc. you’rethe mumps virus etc. you’re protected against that antigen forprotected against that antigen for life.life.  Antigen – is any substance theAntigen – is any substance the white blood cells recognize aswhite blood cells recognize as foreign.foreign.
    • 6.  Autoimmune Disorders – the immuneAutoimmune Disorders – the immune systems declares war on the bodysystems declares war on the body which it is trying to protect. Likewhich it is trying to protect. Like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus etc.rheumatoid arthritis, lupus etc. (not in book)(not in book) IMMUNIZATION FOR ADULTSIMMUNIZATION FOR ADULTS  p. 287 Table for Adult Immunizationp. 287 Table for Adult Immunization ScheduleSchedule
    • 7. Immunizations for AdultsImmunizations for Adults Vaccines Recommended for College StudentsVaccines Recommended for College Students p 286p 286 Insert Figure 9-3 here
    • 8. INFECTIOUS DISEASESINFECTIOUS DISEASES  Highest Risk? Children and their families,Highest Risk? Children and their families, elderly, chronically ill, smokers andelderly, chronically ill, smokers and respiratory problems, those who live orrespiratory problems, those who live or work with someone sick, and residents orwork with someone sick, and residents or workers in poorly ventilated buildings.workers in poorly ventilated buildings. nibnib 1. Common Cold – 200 cold viruses,1. Common Cold – 200 cold viruses, antibiotics are for bacteria not virusesantibiotics are for bacteria not viruses give it time, rest, and fluids. Hot soupsgive it time, rest, and fluids. Hot soups and drinks with lemon or ginger raise theand drinks with lemon or ginger raise the body temp. and help clear the nose. Teabody temp. and help clear the nose. Tea may enhance the immune system.may enhance the immune system.
    • 9. 2. Influenza – more severe symptoms2. Influenza – more severe symptoms than a cold and last longer.than a cold and last longer. Incubation period is 2 days,Incubation period is 2 days, symptoms can hit hard and fast.symptoms can hit hard and fast. Two varieties of viruses, influenza ATwo varieties of viruses, influenza A and influenza B. Deadliest are fromand influenza B. Deadliest are from “A”. Allergic to eggs, do NOT get a“A”. Allergic to eggs, do NOT get a flu shot!flu shot! Who should get a flu shot? P. 289Who should get a flu shot? P. 289
    • 10. 3. Meningitis – attacks the membranes3. Meningitis – attacks the membranes around the brain and spinal cord and canaround the brain and spinal cord and can result in hearing loss, kidney failure, andresult in hearing loss, kidney failure, and permanent brain damage.permanent brain damage. BacteriaBacteria meningitis spread through coughing,meningitis spread through coughing, kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils,kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils, or cigarettes, or prolonged exposure toor cigarettes, or prolonged exposure to infected individuals.infected individuals. ViralViral m. is lessm. is less severe. 15-24 yrs. But only collegesevere. 15-24 yrs. But only college students living in dorms. Early symptomsstudents living in dorms. Early symptoms rash, fever, severe headache, nausea,rash, fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. Great sign isvomiting, and lethargy. Great sign is stiffness in neck when bending forward.stiffness in neck when bending forward. If untreated can lead to permanentIf untreated can lead to permanent hearing loss, brain damage, seizures, orhearing loss, brain damage, seizures, or death. Nov. to March is peak.death. Nov. to March is peak. IMMUNIZATION RECOMMENDEDIMMUNIZATION RECOMMENDED
    • 11. 4. Hepatitis – A, B, C, Delta, and E,4. Hepatitis – A, B, C, Delta, and E, can cause inflammation of the liver.can cause inflammation of the liver. Symptoms include headaches,Symptoms include headaches, fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints,fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The liver becomes enlarged andThe liver becomes enlarged and sometimes jaundice develops.sometimes jaundice develops. Treatment: rest, a high-proteinTreatment: rest, a high-protein diet, and avoidance of alcohol anddiet, and avoidance of alcohol and drugs that stress the liver.drugs that stress the liver.
    • 12. a. Hep A – less serious form, transmitted bya. Hep A – less serious form, transmitted by poor sanitation, fecal contamination of foodpoor sanitation, fecal contamination of food or water. Highest risk are day care workersor water. Highest risk are day care workers and children, institutions for mentallyand children, institutions for mentally handicapped, sanitation workers. (Newhandicapped, sanitation workers. (New viruses: non-A, non-B)viruses: non-A, non-B) b. Hep B – transmitted through the blood andb. Hep B – transmitted through the blood and other body fluids. (see STD’s Hepatitis B).other body fluids. (see STD’s Hepatitis B). mostly transmitted now through sexualmostly transmitted now through sexual contact. 75% of new cases 15-39yrs. Highestcontact. 75% of new cases 15-39yrs. Highest risk are Male homo, and hetero with multiplerisk are Male homo, and hetero with multiple sex partners, health care workers w/sex partners, health care workers w/ frequent contact w blood, injection drugfrequent contact w blood, injection drug users, and infants born to infected mothers.users, and infants born to infected mothers. There is a vaccine. 100 times moreThere is a vaccine. 100 times more contagious than HIV.contagious than HIV.
    • 13. c.c. Hep C – is 4 times as widespread asHep C – is 4 times as widespread as HIV infecting about 2% ofHIV infecting about 2% of Americans. 80% have noAmericans. 80% have no symptoms. Risk: exposure tosymptoms. Risk: exposure to infected blood, illegal drug use,infected blood, illegal drug use, tattoos, or body piercing. Nottattoos, or body piercing. Not spread by casual contact.spread by casual contact. Controversy on spread sexually.Controversy on spread sexually. Before you get a tattoo or piercingBefore you get a tattoo or piercing p. 292p. 292
    • 14. 5. Mononucleosis – through kissing or other5. Mononucleosis – through kissing or other close contact. Viral disease ages 15-24close contact. Viral disease ages 15-24 yrs. Symptoms include a sore throat,yrs. Symptoms include a sore throat, headache, fever, nausea, and prolongedheadache, fever, nausea, and prolonged weakness. Spleen is swollen and lymphweakness. Spleen is swollen and lymph nodes are enlarged. Skin rash or jaundice.nodes are enlarged. Skin rash or jaundice. Blood test. Treatment: restBlood test. Treatment: rest 6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) –6. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) – profound fatigue, weakness, muscle pain,profound fatigue, weakness, muscle pain, symptoms (years), 4x more women.symptoms (years), 4x more women. No cure, therapies can relieve symptoms.No cure, therapies can relieve symptoms. 7. Tuberculosis – bacterial infection of the7. Tuberculosis – bacterial infection of the lungs. 15 million Americans have it.lungs. 15 million Americans have it.
    • 15. Fig. 9-4, p. 241 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, TB bacteria are expelled in tiny airborne droplets that others may inhale. The TB bacteria lodge mainly in the lungs, where they slowly multiply, creating patches, then cavities. Other parts of the lung are affected, including the bronchi and the lining of the lung. If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys, spine, and skin.
    • 16. 8. Insect and Animal Borne Infections8. Insect and Animal Borne Infections a. Lyme Disease – from a deer ticka. Lyme Disease – from a deer tick b. West Nile Virus – transmitted by ab. West Nile Virus – transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an infected birdmosquito that feeds on an infected bird and then bites a human. First caseand then bites a human. First case 1999. Less than 1% who are bitten by1999. Less than 1% who are bitten by mosquitoes experience any symptoms.mosquitoes experience any symptoms. c. Avian Influenza (bird flu) – affects wildc. Avian Influenza (bird flu) – affects wild birds, rare from birds to humans butbirds, rare from birds to humans but 3x in 20thc. Then human to human in3x in 20thc. Then human to human in Hong Kong, 1997. Migratory birdsHong Kong, 1997. Migratory birds carried to other countries andcarried to other countries and continents.continents.
    • 17. 9. New Infectious Threats9. New Infectious Threats a. SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.a. SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Spread by sneezing or coughing. IncubationSpread by sneezing or coughing. Incubation period 6-10 days. Fever, coughing,period 6-10 days. Fever, coughing, headache, chills, muscle aches, andheadache, chills, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. No specific treatments.shortness of breath. No specific treatments. b. Anthrax – found naturally in wild farmb. Anthrax – found naturally in wild farm animals.animals. c. Smallpox – last case in U.S. 1949. Last case inc. Smallpox – last case in U.S. 1949. Last case in the world Somalia in 1977. No treatment andthe world Somalia in 1977. No treatment and up to 30% of those infected will die. Becauseup to 30% of those infected will die. Because of threats as a biological weapon, U.Sof threats as a biological weapon, U.S stockpiled enough vaccine to inoculatestockpiled enough vaccine to inoculate everyone in the U.S.everyone in the U.S.
    • 18. 10.10. REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY TRACTREPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONSINFECTIONS 1. Vaginal Infections1. Vaginal Infections a. Trichomoniasis – itching, burning,a. Trichomoniasis – itching, burning, discharge, should be screened fordischarge, should be screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV.syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV. b. Candidiasis – yeast infection, poorb. Candidiasis – yeast infection, poor nutrition, stress, antibiotic use, itching,nutrition, stress, antibiotic use, itching, burning and whitish discharge.burning and whitish discharge. c. Bacterial vaginosis – white or grayc. Bacterial vaginosis – white or gray discharge and unusual odor like withdischarge and unusual odor like with trichomoniasis. There is treatment andtrichomoniasis. There is treatment and usually for both partners.usually for both partners.
    • 19. 2. Urinary Tract Infections(UTI)2. Urinary Tract Infections(UTI) Can be present in any of the 3 parts of theCan be present in any of the 3 parts of the urinary tract: the urethra, bladder, or kidneys.urinary tract: the urethra, bladder, or kidneys. Irritation and swelling of the urethra orIrritation and swelling of the urethra or bladder as a result of pregnancy, bike riding,bladder as a result of pregnancy, bike riding, irritants (bubble baths, douches, or airritants (bubble baths, douches, or a diaphragm, urinary stones, enlargement in thediaphragm, urinary stones, enlargement in the men of the prostate gland, vaginitis, andmen of the prostate gland, vaginitis, and stress.stress. Early diagnosis is critical because of kidneyEarly diagnosis is critical because of kidney failure.failure. Symptoms frequent burning, painful urination,Symptoms frequent burning, painful urination, chills, fever, fatigue, and blood in the urine.chills, fever, fatigue, and blood in the urine. NEXT STDsNEXT STDs
    • 20. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONSSEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (transmitted)(transmitted) (DISEASES - symptoms)(DISEASES - symptoms)  Almost 700,000 people worldwide areAlmost 700,000 people worldwide are infected every day with STIs.infected every day with STIs.  Highest rates among 16-24 yr. olds mostlyHighest rates among 16-24 yr. olds mostly older teens.older teens.  More Americans are infected now than atMore Americans are infected now than at any other time in history.any other time in history.  Odds are 1 in 4 during a lifetime for STI.Odds are 1 in 4 during a lifetime for STI.  Half of new cases of STIs in U.S. areHalf of new cases of STIs in U.S. are college age.college age.  More than 1+ million in U.S. living withMore than 1+ million in U.S. living with HIV or AIDS, with about 56,300 newHIV or AIDS, with about 56,300 new infections every year. 15,000 everydayinfections every year. 15,000 everyday
    • 21.  Men who have sex with men account for 53% ofMen who have sex with men account for 53% of AIDS diagnoses among men.AIDS diagnoses among men.  About a third of HIV individuals in U.S. have NOTAbout a third of HIV individuals in U.S. have NOT been diagnosed.been diagnosed.  Almost half living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. areAlmost half living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. are African American.African American.  HIV/AIDS 3HIV/AIDS 3rdrd leading cause of death among AAleading cause of death among AA between 25-34 and 6between 25-34 and 6thth leading cause of death forleading cause of death for whites and Hispanics in this age group.whites and Hispanics in this age group.  AA women make up 13% of female population ofAA women make up 13% of female population of U.S. but account for 67% of newly diagnosedU.S. but account for 67% of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases.HIV/AIDS cases.  Teenage girls vulnerable to HIV because theTeenage girls vulnerable to HIV because the immature cervix is easily infected.immature cervix is easily infected. In Africa, ABC program (In Africa, ABC program (AAbstain,bstain, BBe faithful, wear ae faithful, wear a CCondom) p 271-272ondom) p 271-272
    • 22. WHERE ARE YOUR MUCOUSWHERE ARE YOUR MUCOUS MEMBRANES?MEMBRANES?  CAN YOU HAVE MORE THAN 1 STDCAN YOU HAVE MORE THAN 1 STD AT A TIME?AT A TIME?  IS IT EASIER TO BECOMEIS IT EASIER TO BECOME INFECTED WITH HIV IF YOUINFECTED WITH HIV IF YOU ALREADY HAVE ANOTHER STD?ALREADY HAVE ANOTHER STD?  CAN YOU CONTRACT AN STD FROMCAN YOU CONTRACT AN STD FROM HAVING ORAL SEX?HAVING ORAL SEX?  ARE WOMEN MORE LIKELY TO BEARE WOMEN MORE LIKELY TO BE INFECTED WITH AN STD?INFECTED WITH AN STD? Common STIs p. 269Common STIs p. 269
    • 23. CHLAMYDIA (bacteria)CHLAMYDIA (bacteria) 1.1. Most widespread st bacteriumMost widespread st bacterium 2.2. Usually through sexual contact, but byUsually through sexual contact, but by fingers from one area to another or oral-fingers from one area to another or oral- genital.genital. 3.3. One in 25 young Americans is infectedOne in 25 young Americans is infected with Chlamydiawith Chlamydia 4.4. 6 times more prevalent in young black6 times more prevalent in young black adults than in young white adults.adults than in young white adults. 5.5. Half of cases occur in 15-24 yrs. oldsHalf of cases occur in 15-24 yrs. olds 6.6. 60% women have no symptoms60% women have no symptoms 7.7. 50% men have no symptoms50% men have no symptoms
    • 24. 8. Greatest risk is 25 yrs. or younger8. Greatest risk is 25 yrs. or younger who have sex with more than 1who have sex with more than 1 new partner within 2 months.new partner within 2 months. 9. Without treatment, 40% can lead to9. Without treatment, 40% can lead to PIDPID 10. Women have 3-5 times greater10. Women have 3-5 times greater risk of contacting HIV if exposed.risk of contacting HIV if exposed. 11. Treatment usually11. Treatment usually azithromycin/ofloxacinazithromycin/ofloxacin 12. May be linked to cervical cancer12. May be linked to cervical cancer
    • 25. GONORRHEA (bacteria)(clap)GONORRHEA (bacteria)(clap) 1.1. Most common bacterial in U.S.Most common bacterial in U.S. 2.2. 8/10 women have no symptoms8/10 women have no symptoms 3.3. By sexual contact including oral sexBy sexual contact including oral sex 4.4. In men, thick yellow-white pus oozesIn men, thick yellow-white pus oozes from the penis and urination is burning.from the penis and urination is burning. 5.5. 5% of women have positive gonorrhea5% of women have positive gonorrhea cultures but are unaware that they arecultures but are unaware that they are silent carrierssilent carriers 6.6. Leading cause of sterility in womenLeading cause of sterility in women 7.7. Urinary obstruction and sterility in menUrinary obstruction and sterility in men 8.8. Treatment is ofloxacin for Chlamydia andTreatment is ofloxacin for Chlamydia and gonorrheagonorrhea
    • 26. NONGONOCOCCALNONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS(bacteria)URETHRITIS(bacteria) 1. Any inflammation of the urethra not1. Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by gonorrheacaused by gonorrhea 2. Most common in men2. Most common in men 3. Through sexual intercourse,3. Through sexual intercourse, symptoms like gonorrheasymptoms like gonorrhea 4. May lead to PID in women and4. May lead to PID in women and spread to the prostate, epididymis,spread to the prostate, epididymis, or both.or both.
    • 27. SYPHILIS(bacteria)SYPHILIS(bacteria) 1.1. Primary - 1st stage is a chancre – a sorePrimary - 1st stage is a chancre – a sore on penis, vagina, rectum or mouth. 3-4on penis, vagina, rectum or mouth. 3-4 weeks incubation before sore appears.weeks incubation before sore appears. 2.2. Secondary - skin rash, fever, flu-likeSecondary - skin rash, fever, flu-like symptoms, lesions appear in the genitalsymptoms, lesions appear in the genital area. 1-12 months after 1st stage.area. 1-12 months after 1st stage. 3.3. Latent – no longer infectious after twoLatent – no longer infectious after two years, lasts for several years andyears, lasts for several years and bacteria multiplies.bacteria multiplies. 4.4. Tertiary – Can occur 10-20 yrs. afterTertiary – Can occur 10-20 yrs. after infection. Complications include heartinfection. Complications include heart disease, blindness, brain damage,disease, blindness, brain damage, paralysis, insanity, and death.paralysis, insanity, and death.
    • 28.  THESE FIRST 4 STD’S ARE CURABLE, THETHESE FIRST 4 STD’S ARE CURABLE, THE NEXT 4 ARE NOT!!!!NEXT 4 ARE NOT!!!!  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) –Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – infection of woman’s fallopian tubes orinfection of woman’s fallopian tubes or uterus. Due to complication of STIs. 1 ofuterus. Due to complication of STIs. 1 of every 7 women of reproductive age hasevery 7 women of reproductive age has PID. May cause infertility p 276PID. May cause infertility p 276  Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are responsibleGonorrhea and Chlamydia are responsible for ½ to 1/3 of all cases of PID.for ½ to 1/3 of all cases of PID.  Most cases occur under age 25Most cases occur under age 25  PID causes 10 to 20% of PID leads toPID causes 10 to 20% of PID leads to obstruction of fallopian tubes enough toobstruction of fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility.cause infertility.
    • 29. HERPESHERPES (virus)(virus)  Symptoms can be itching, tingling,Symptoms can be itching, tingling, burning on the legs, buttocks, orburning on the legs, buttocks, or genitals.genitals.  Expect 4-5 recurrences in a yearExpect 4-5 recurrences in a year  Triggered by lowered resistance, fever,Triggered by lowered resistance, fever, sunburn or stresssunburn or stress  Even with standard testing as many asEven with standard testing as many as two-thirds of the cases are missed.two-thirds of the cases are missed.  40% of new cases occur in 15-24 yrs.40% of new cases occur in 15-24 yrs.  Still contagious even when noStill contagious even when no symptoms appearsymptoms appear
    • 30. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV)HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) (genital warts)(genital warts) 1.1. MOST COMMON STI IN THE U.S.MOST COMMON STI IN THE U.S. 2.2. 100+ different strains of the virus,100+ different strains of the virus, 40 sexually40 sexually transmitted.transmitted. 3.3. Can lead to cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina,Can lead to cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina, anus in women, Penile cancer in men.anus in women, Penile cancer in men. 4.4. Most men and women have NO symptomsMost men and women have NO symptoms 5.5. More common in college age women thanMore common in college age women than men between 20-22 yrs.men between 20-22 yrs. 6.6. 6.2 million Americans get new HPV6.2 million Americans get new HPV infections each year.infections each year. 7.7. 80% of sexually active women acquire HPV80% of sexually active women acquire HPV by age 50.by age 50.
    • 31. HEPATITIS B (virus)HEPATITIS B (virus) 1.1. 100 times more infectious than HIV100 times more infectious than HIV 2.2. Spread through, saliva, semen,Spread through, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, breast milk, andmenstrual blood, breast milk, and perspirationperspiration 3.3. Can cause chronic liver infection,Can cause chronic liver infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.cirrhosis, and liver cancer. 4.4. Flu-like symptoms.Flu-like symptoms. 5.5. Potentially fatal disease.Potentially fatal disease. 6.6. Then brownish urine, loose, light yellowThen brownish urine, loose, light yellow stools, yellowing of the eyes and skinstools, yellowing of the eyes and skin 7.7. There is a vaccineThere is a vaccine 8.8. 75% of new cases ages 15-39.75% of new cases ages 15-39. 9.9. 10% may be carriers for life.10% may be carriers for life.
    • 32. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCYACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME(AIDS)(virus)SYNDROME(AIDS)(virus) HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) 1.1. AIDS first appeared 1981/HIV late 1970s U.S.A.AIDS first appeared 1981/HIV late 1970s U.S.A. 2.2. HIV doubling every 10 ten years.HIV doubling every 10 ten years. 3.3. Herpes, gonorrhea, and syphilis facilitateHerpes, gonorrhea, and syphilis facilitate transmission of HIVtransmission of HIV 4.4. Semen has higher concentration of HIV than aSemen has higher concentration of HIV than a woman’s genital fluids.woman’s genital fluids. 5.5. Some HIV carriers have no symptoms for 20Some HIV carriers have no symptoms for 20 yrs. before being diagnosed with AIDS.yrs. before being diagnosed with AIDS. 6.6. With HIV flu-like symptoms may occur.With HIV flu-like symptoms may occur. 7.7. After diagnosis of AIDS death usually occursAfter diagnosis of AIDS death usually occurs depending on medications.depending on medications. 8.8. New research indicates that the virus itself, NOTNew research indicates that the virus itself, NOT a breakdown in the immune system isa breakdown in the immune system is responsible for disease progression.responsible for disease progression.
    • 33. HIV and AIDSHIV and AIDS Insert Figure 9-7 here
    • 34. HIV and AIDSHIV and AIDS Insert Figure 9-8 here
    • 35.  Half of new HIV infections occur in underHalf of new HIV infections occur in under 25 yrs. old.25 yrs. old.  More than half of 13-24 yrs. women withMore than half of 13-24 yrs. women with HIV infected heterosexually.HIV infected heterosexually.  HIV TESTING P. 281.HIV TESTING P. 281. Home HIV test approved is “Home Access”Home HIV test approved is “Home Access” in drug stores or online.in drug stores or online.  NO ORGASM IS WORTH DYING FOR!NO ORGASM IS WORTH DYING FOR!  USE A CONDOM TO PREVENT STD’S ANDUSE A CONDOM TO PREVENT STD’S AND PREGNANCYPREGNANCY

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