On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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The time between when the germ enters your body and your first symptom. Can be several days or up to years and during this time you are HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS!
The body is not able to develop long-lasting immunity to certain viruses, such as colds, flu, or HIV
HOW YOUR BODY PROTECTS ITSELF
Immune System – includes structures of the lymphatic system—the spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels.
Once the human body produces antibodies against a specific antigen the mumps virus etc. you’re protected against that antigen for life.
Antigen – is any substance the white blood cells recognize as foreign.
Autoimmune Disorders – the immune systems declares war on the body which it is trying to protect. Like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus etc. (not in book)
IMMUNIZATION FOR ADULTS
p. 287 Table for Adult Immunization Schedule
Immunizations for Adults Vaccines Recommended for College Students p 286 Insert Figure 9-3 here
Highest Risk? Children and their families, elderly, chronically ill, smokers and respiratory problems, those who live or work with someone sick, and residents or workers in poorly ventilated buildings. nib
1. Common Cold – 200 cold viruses, antibiotics are for bacteria not viruses give it time, rest, and fluids. Hot soups and drinks with lemon or ginger raise the body temp. and help clear the nose. Tea may enhance the immune system.
2. Influenza – more severe symptoms than a cold and last longer. Incubation period is 2 days, symptoms can hit hard and fast. Two varieties of viruses, influenza A and influenza B. Deadliest are from “A”. Allergic to eggs, do NOT get a flu shot!
Who should get a flu shot? P. 289
3. Meningitis – attacks the membranes around the brain and spinal cord and can result in hearing loss, kidney failure, and permanent brain damage. Bacteria meningitis spread through coughing, kissing, sharing drinks, eating utensils, or cigarettes, or prolonged exposure to infected individuals. Viral m. is less severe. 15-24 yrs. But only college students living in dorms. Early symptoms rash, fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and lethargy. Great sign is stiffness in neck when bending forward. If untreated can lead to permanent hearing loss, brain damage, seizures, or death. Nov. to March is peak. IMMUNIZATION RECOMMENDED
4. Hepatitis – A, B, C, Delta, and E, can cause inflammation of the liver. Symptoms include headaches, fever, fatigue, stiff or aching joints, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The liver becomes enlarged and sometimes jaundice develops. Treatment: rest, a high-protein diet, and avoidance of alcohol and drugs that stress the liver.
a. Hep A – less serious form, transmitted by poor sanitation, fecal contamination of food or water. Highest risk are day care workers and children, institutions for mentally handicapped, sanitation workers. (New viruses: non-A, non-B)
b. Hep B – transmitted through the blood and other body fluids. (see STD’s Hepatitis B). mostly transmitted now through sexual contact. 75% of new cases 15-39yrs. Highest risk are Male homo, and hetero with multiple sex partners, health care workers w/ frequent contact w blood, injection drug users, and infants born to infected mothers. There is a vaccine. 100 times more contagious than HIV.
Hep C – is 4 times as widespread as HIV infecting about 2% of Americans. 80% have no symptoms. Risk: exposure to infected blood, illegal drug use, tattoos, or body piercing. Not spread by casual contact. Controversy on spread sexually.
Before you get a tattoo or piercing
5. Mononucleosis – through kissing or other close contact. Viral disease ages 15-24 yrs. Symptoms include a sore throat, headache, fever, nausea, and prolonged weakness. Spleen is swollen and lymph nodes are enlarged. Skin rash or jaundice. Blood test. Treatment: rest
7. Tuberculosis – bacterial infection of the lungs. 15 million Americans have it.
Fig. 9-4, p. 241 When someone with active tuberculosis exhales, coughs, or sneezes, TB bacteria are expelled in tiny airborne droplets that others may inhale. The TB bacteria lodge mainly in the lungs, where they slowly multiply, creating patches, then cavities. Other parts of the lung are affected, including the bronchi and the lining of the lung. If untreated, TB can eventually spread to and damage the brain, bone, eyes, liver and kidneys, spine, and skin.
8. Insect and Animal Borne Infections
a. Lyme Disease – from a deer tick
b. West Nile Virus – transmitted by a mosquito that feeds on an infected bird and then bites a human. First case 1999. Less than 1% who are bitten by mosquitoes experience any symptoms.
c. Avian Influenza (bird flu) – affects wild birds, rare from birds to humans but 3x in 20thc. Then human to human in Hong Kong, 1997. Migratory birds carried to other countries and continents.
9. New Infectious Threats
a. SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Spread by sneezing or coughing. Incubation period 6-10 days. Fever, coughing, headache, chills, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. No specific treatments.
b. Anthrax – found naturally in wild farm animals.
c. Smallpox – last case in U.S. 1949. Last case in the world Somalia in 1977. No treatment and up to 30% of those infected will die. Because of threats as a biological weapon, U.S stockpiled enough vaccine to inoculate everyone in the U.S.
10. REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
1. Vaginal Infections
a. Trichomoniasis – itching, burning, discharge, should be screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV.
b. Candidiasis – yeast infection, poor nutrition, stress, antibiotic use, itching, burning and whitish discharge.
c. Bacterial vaginosis – white or gray discharge and unusual odor like with trichomoniasis. There is treatment and usually for both partners.
2. Urinary Tract Infections(UTI)
Can be present in any of the 3 parts of the urinary tract: the urethra, bladder, or kidneys.
Irritation and swelling of the urethra or bladder as a result of pregnancy, bike riding, irritants (bubble baths, douches, or a diaphragm, urinary stones, enlargement in the men of the prostate gland, vaginitis, and stress.
Early diagnosis is critical because of kidney failure.
Symptoms frequent burning, painful urination, chills, fever, fatigue, and blood in the urine. NEXT STDs