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  • 1. Pancreatic Cancer: A New Way to Treat the Disease Christie Gwaltney English 302
  • 2. Pancreatic Cancer
    • “ The American Cancer Society estimates that 42,470 Americans will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer during 2009.”
  • 3. The Dangers of Pancreatic Cancer
    • only curable when found in its earliest stages, and before the cancer has begun to spread to other organs in the body.
    • If the cancer has spread, palliative treatment can improve the patient's quality of life by controlling the symptoms and complications.
    • There is only one type of restorative treatment, and that is surgical resection.
  • 4. The Dangers of Pancreatic Cancer, cont’d
    • However, most patients present with advanced stages of this disease are not candidates for surgery
    • Even though there are treatments such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, the survival rate is still very slim.
  • 5. Survival Rates
    • In the local/resectable stage, the median survival rate is 17 months.
    • In the local/nonresectable stage, the median survival rate is 8-9 months.
    • In the metastatic stage, the median survival rate is only 4-6 months.
  • 6. Chemotherapy
    • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells, and maybe given by mouth or injection into a muscle or a vein.
    • Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug often used to treat pancreatic cancer.
    • It has been displayed, in many controlled clinical trials, to improve quality of life.
    • Many types of cancer respond well to chemotherapy and are often cured.
  • 7. Hypothesis
    • If chemotherapy works well for other cancers, then it must be effective for pancreatic cancer.
  • 8. Chemotherapy, cont’d
    • Chemotherapy has been used as a treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer for over a decade.
    • However, it is still ineffective for those suffering with advanced stages of this disease.
  • 9. Chemotherapy, cont’d
    • Unfortunately, there has not been very much progress on the treatment for later stages of pancreatic cancer.
    • The benefit of single-agent gemcitabine in advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer is small.
    • Adding additional chemotherapy agents to gemcitabine has not resulted in significant improvement in survival.
    • The randomized trials studying the accumulation of molecular targeting agents to gemcitabine compared with gemcitabine alone have been insufficient.
  • 10. New Approach
    • In a recent study, a new approach was reported for pancreatic cancer patients who are in need of chemotherapy.
    • Dr. Dave Melisi, an Italian Scientist, has believed for some time that that resistance to chemotherapy has been the greatest challenge in treating pancreatic cancer. So, he put that to test.
  • 11. New Approach, cont’d
    • Melisi and his collegues began to focus their attention on a distinctive enzyme activated by TGFbeta, called TAK-1.
    • Melisi hypothesized that if the TAK-1 enzyme was inhibited, then cancer cells will be more sensitive to treatment.
    • The TAK-1 enzyme makes cancer cells sensitive to treatment, and targeting TAK-1 could be a strategy to revert this resistance.
    • This would improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.
  • 12. New Approach, cont’d
    • .
    • Dr. Dave Melisi developed a composite competent of inhibiting TAK-1 and tested it both on its own and in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs.
    • He also tested it in combination of gemcitabine in mice with pancreatic cancer.
    • The TAK-1 inhibitor increased the sensitivity of pancreatic cells to the chemotherapeutics researched.
  • 13. Effects of Inhibiting TAK-1
    • In comparison with using chemotherapy alone, adding the inhibitor allowed the use of up to 70 times lower doses of the chemotherapeutic drugs to kill the same amount of cancer cells.
    • Additionally, while gemcitabine therapy alone was unsuccessful in pancreatic cancer-bearing mice, adding the TAK-1 inhibitor moved it up to a 78% reduction in tumor volume and increased median average survival from 82 days to 122 days.
  • 14. Research Design
    • Purpose:
    • The study proposed will determine whether or not oxalipatin (a chemotherapeutic drug) will be effective once the TAK-1 enzyme is inhibited.
    • The ideal result: Oxalipatin will be effective and support the proposed hypothesis.
  • 15. Methods and Procedures:
    • Since mice are used to evaluate the safety of many things, we will use mice to complete the procedure. A fixed number of mice with pancreatic cancer will be used to test the effects of TAK-1 and the chemotherapeutic drug called oxaliplatin.
  • 16. Assessment:
    • The outcome of this experiment will be established by analyzing the results and formulating the data.
    • Once the data is collected, it will be tested against the hypothesis to determine whether or not the expectation of the experiment was correct or incorrect.
  • 17. Next Steps:
    • With the closing stages of the experiment, a peer reviewed article will be printed and submitted to the American Journal of Nursing and the Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
    • The next steps in the project would be to expand and repeat the experiment.
  • 18. Conclusion
    • Problem: Pancreatic cancer is a terminal illness in need of a cute
    • Hypothesis: Chemotherapy could be proven effective for pancreatic cancer
    • Solution: Based on the hypothesis, additional measures will be taken
  • 19. Citations
    • Michel Vulfovich; Caio Rocha-Lima., (2008) Novel Advances in Pancreatic Cancer:Dietary Fructose Consumption Among US Children and Adults: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy. The Medscape Journal of Medicine .  Vol 8(6):993-1002. 
    • &quot;Pancreatic Cancer.&quot; Pancreatic Cancer . MedicineNet, Inc., 2009. Web. 28 Sept. 2009. <http://www.medicinenet.com/pancreatic_cancer/article.htm>.
    • Melisi, David. Inhibiting TAK-1 Renders Pancreatic Cancer Susceptible to Chemotherapy . 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <Inhibiting TAK-1 Renders Pancreatic Cancer Susceptible to Chemotherapy. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, 2009. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. .>.
    • ECCO-the European Cancer Organization (2009, September 25). Pancreatic Cancer: Researchers Find Drug That Reverses
    • Chemo Fails to Treat Pancreatic Cancer . Natural News . David Gutierrez, 31 Aug. 2009. Web.