Clark 8 and 9 Personalization Principles Segmenting and Pre-training Principles Christian King LHDT 548
Objectives 1. Students will differentiate formal language from informal language. 2. Students will identify segments of a presentation and list ways to divide lessons into segments.
Personalization Principle 1: Use conversational rather than formal style. • Use active voice in writing • Use second person and informal language such as contractions
You should use active voice instead of passive voice. Passive voice creates a more formal tone
You should use active voice instead of passive voice. Example of passive voice: The database is used by all employees to store client records. Note that the subject, the person or thing DOING something in the sentence ( employees ), comes after the thing being acted on ( database ).
You should use active voice instead of passive voice. Example of active voice: All employees use the database to store client documents. This time, the subject of the sentence ( employees ), comes before the thing being acted on ( database ).
Use second person and con-tractions in writing and narration Example of formal writing: Employees should change their passwords monthly when they are prompted to. The use of “you” is second person perspective, and using the contraction “you’re” is less formal than “you are”. Example of informal writing: You should change your passwords monthly when you’re prompted to.
Research-based Rationale Percent correct on Transfer Test Moreno and Mayer, 2000
Research-based Rationale Percent correct on Transfer Test Moreno and Mayer, 2000 People learn better from conversational style speech or text than from formal style.
Additional tips: People learn better from human, rather than computer voices. Use polite, conversational language rather than direct language. Try “Let’s click the ‘enter’ key.” or “You may click the ‘enter’ key.” vs. “ Click the ‘enter’ key.”
Personalization Principle 2: Use effective on-screen coaches, or “agents,” to promote learning. •“ Pedagogical agents are on-screen characters who help guide the learning process during an e-learning episode.” Clark, p. 168 • On-screen agents provide coaching, hints, solved examples, demonstrations, explanations
Personalization Principle 3: Make the author visible to promote learning. • Feel free to allow the author’s voice to enhance the text. -The author may include himself/herself as a first person example in the text. -The author might interject his or her perspective while avoiding bias. -You may include interviews with authorities in audio, video, or text format.
Review 1. Use conversational language, “you,” “I,” and contractions. 2. On-screen pedagogical agents should provide coaching 3. The voice quality of narration should be natural. 4. The course author can express her or his own voice.
Chapter 9- Segmenting and pre-training principles
Segmenting Principle: Break a continuous lesson into bite-size segments. • Break lessons into concepts or steps • Allow the learner to continue at her or his own pace
Pre-training Principle: Ensure that learners know the names and characteristics of key concepts. • If the processes or procedures your are teaching will be complex for your learners, introduce them prior to the lesson. -Clark’s “Design Dilemma” segments are examples of pre-training exercises.
Research-based Rationale Scores on transfer test Mayer, Mathias, and Wetzel, 2002
Research-based Rationale Pre-training elements in lessons resulted in better learning. Scores on transfer test Mayer, Mathias, and Wetzel, 2002
Review 1. Segment lessons into manageable portions controlled by the learner. 2. Define technical terms and provide examples in advance of the lesson where appropriate.
Exercise 1. Read the following sentences and decide whether they are conversational or formal.
<ul><li>Cook chicken to an internal temperature of 180 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Desks are to be cleared at the end of each day. </li></ul><ul><li>You may click on the next link when you’re ready. </li></ul><ul><li>I find that a right-click menu is easier to use than moving the cursor to the application’s menu. You may use either that you prefer. </li></ul><ul><li>Narration should be included by the software team. </li></ul><ul><li>You can purchase your textbook at the school’s bookstore. </li></ul>
Exercise 2. Briefly review this presentation. Did the author introduce new concepts at the start of the lesson? How did the author segment the various concepts introduced in the lesson? What are some other ways you could create segments in a lesson?