Review Using software such as Adobe Captivate, Jing, or PowerPoint, we can create educational content for our students. This content can include audio, graphics, animation, video, text, evaluations, etc. This content can be delivered via the internet, a company’s intranet, on flash drives, c.d’s, or via mobile devices.
Review Research has concluded that using multimedia, vs. text-only, is the most effective means of delivering e-learning content. (Clark, ch. 3) Research has been conducted which determined the most effective methods of presenting educational multimedia. (Clark, ch. 4 - 6)
Objectives for this lesson 1. Students will list examples of graphics which could be enhanced by the addition of audio narration and examples of graphics which could be enhance with text. 2. Students will decide whether audio, text, or both, would enhance a graphic.
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle Where possible, use audio to describe graphics. Studies show that learners retain more when examining graphics in conjunction with audio than with text or with both text and audio.
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle Research shows that when words are being used to accompany a graphic, it is more effective to use audio narration than to use printed text. Presenting both graphics and text can overload the learner’s “cognitive channels”.
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle The cognitive channels are auditory senses and visual senses. This chart represents overload on the visual cognitive channels. Multimedia Memory Systems Sensory Memory Working Memory Phonetic Processing Printed Words Ears Visual Processing Pictures Eyes Mayer, 2001a
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle This chart represents balanced load between auditory and visual cognitive channels. Multimedia Memory Systems Sensory Memory Working Memory Phonetic Processing Spoken Words Ears Visual Processing Pictures Eyes Mayer, 2001a
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle This graph represents the greater number of solutions generated by students who were presented with graphics plus an audio script vs. those presented with the same graphic and the same script as printed text. Moreno and Mayer, 1999
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle Exceptions: Avoid using audio if complex text is presented file sizes will be too large for your capacity bandwidth prohibits use cost of audio recording is prohibitive
Chapter 5: The Modality Principle Exceptions: Make text available if technical terms are presented key steps in a procedure are listed directions are given for a practice exercise the learner is a non-native speaker the learner is extremely unfamiliar with the material
Chapter 6: The Redundancy Principle Part 1. When providing a graphic, do not provide both audio and printed text. This avoids overloading the cognitive channels. It also prevents the learner from trying to compare the text with the audio.
Chapter 6: The Redundancy Principle This graph represents the greater number of solutions generated by students who were presented with graphics plus an audio script vs. those presented with the same graphics and the same script as both audio and printed text. Moreno and Mayer, 1999
Chapter 6: The Redundancy Principle Part 2. E-learning is improved by having both audio and text in these situations- There is no pictorial presentation. There is plenty of opportunity for processing the pictorial presentations. The learner is not a native speaker or has a specific learning disability preventing understanding of spoken words
Chapter 6: The Redundancy Principle Note: To be 508 compliant, the authors recommend that when it’s possible, offer an “audio off” mode which gives the learner the option to read text instead of hearing audio; do not give learners the option to access both.
Review The modality principle When a graphic is used, it is better to include audio narration than to include text. Do use text in certain conditions when the learner needs time or is unfamiliar with terminology. The redundancy principle When providing a graphic, do not provide both text and audio. Do use both if there is no graphic, if the learner has lots of time to read, or the learner has trouble understanding language.
Exercise 1 Modality principle: In pairs or groups, create a list of five types of graphics which would benefit from audio accompaniment and five examples of material which would benefit from text.
Exercise 2 Redundancy principle: Read the following examples and decide whether audio or text should be included with the material.
This is a graphic showing privacy settings in Skype software. According to Clark, would the content be enhanced more by text narration, by audio narration, or by both? What is the rationale for your answer?
This graphic is for a training module for architectural design software. Should it be accompanied by audio, text, or both? Explain your answer.
To rebuild the iPhoto library: 1.Quit iPhoto if it is open. 2.Hold down the Command and Option keys on the keyboard. 3.Open iPhoto. 4.Keep the keys held down until you are prompted to rebuild the library. 5.A dialog will appear with rebuild options. Select the options you want to use. 6.Click Rebuild to begin the rebuild process. This may take a few minutes to complete. These are instruc-tions for repairing a damaged iPhoto library. Should they be accom-panied by audio? Explain.