<ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Ball of huge flaming gases </li></ul><ul><li>Consist mostly of hydrogen and helium </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-aged star, medium-sized and of average brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Has a diameter of 1, 393, 000 km </li></ul>
<ul><li>Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>Very hot that gases exist neither as molecules nor atoms; plasma </li></ul>
The Sun is an average star, one of more than 100 billion stars in our galaxy. Diameter : 1,390,000 km (Earth 12,742 km or nearly 100 times smaller) Mass : 1.1989 x 1030 kg (333,000 times Earth’s mass) Temperature : 5800 K (surface) 15,600,000 K (core) Chemical composition: Hydrogen 92.1% Helium 7.8% Rest of the other 90 naturally occurring elements: 0.1%
Energy is created in the core when hydrogen is fused to helium. This energy flows out from the core by radiation through the radiative layer, by convection through the convective layer, and by radiation from the surface of the photosphere, which is the portion of the Sun we see. CORE
Solar wind shapes the Earth's magnetosphere and magnetic storms are illustrated here as approaching Earth. These storms, which occur frequently, can disrupt communications and navigational equipment, damage satellites, and even cause blackouts. The white lines represent the solar wind; the purple line is the bow shock line; and the blue lines surrounding the Earth represent its protective magnetosphere.
CORONA, or Solar wind is the continuous flow of charged particles (ions, electrons, and neutrons) that comes from the Sun in every direction. Corona
<ul><li>Sunspots </li></ul>Sunspots appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun. Temperatures in the dark centers of sunspots drop to about 3700 K (compared to 5700 K for the surrounding photosphere). They typically last for several days, although very large ones may live for several weeks.
<ul><li>The SUN is located at the center of the Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the four planets closest to the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Asteroid belt lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter </li></ul>
<ul><li>Like our SUN, other stars are huge balls of flaming gases (mostly hydrogen, 90% and helium, 10%) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Expressed in a scale of six magnitudes; brightest stars are first-magnitude stars and the dimmest are sixth-magnitude stars. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A graph where the temperatures or colors of stars plotted against their brightness or absolute magnitudes </li></ul>