Open Access, Open Research, Open Data, Open Science, Open what? #gfm2013
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Open Access, Open Research, Open Data, Open Science, Open what? #gfm2013

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Drawing from a quick overview of the recent discourses on Open Access, Open Research and Open Science we will challenge the all to often unspecific and generalized notion of "Openness". What does it ...

Drawing from a quick overview of the recent discourses on Open Access, Open Research and Open Science we will challenge the all to often unspecific and generalized notion of "Openness". What does it mean to be open in contrast to being closed? On activist level the Open Knowledge Foundation proposed an 'Open Definition' which lists eleven criteria for openness. By discussing this definition we intend to outline some controversial issues in the current struggle for openness.

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Open Access, Open Research, Open Data, Open Science, Open what? #gfm2013 Open Access, Open Research, Open Data, Open Science, Open what? #gfm2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Open Access, Open Research, Open Data, Open Science, Open what? Marcus Burkhardt (@bumatic), Christian Heise (@christianheise) | GFM 2013
  • Open Access Image: "Piled Higher and Deeper" by Jorge Cham www.phdcomics.com ● Work is published online and reader is allowed to access it without charge. ○ Author has right to disseminate work and can set the terms of use through licensing. ○ Author should retain copyright! ● 40-60% of articles authored by faculty are not available on the campuses where they teach
  • Open Access: Motivations ● research funded by the public should be available to the public (ethical) ● OA publications will have more accesses (readers), citations and therefore impact (Research Impact) ● concern over the hindrance to research caused by the cost of journal subscriptions (cost) ● ...
  • Open Access: Green and Gold ● green: the author can self-archive at the time of submission of the publication (the 'green' route) whether the publication is grey literature (usually internal non-peer-reviewed), a peer-reviewed journal publication, a peer-reviewed conference proceedings paper or a monograph ● gold: the author or author institution can pay a fee to the publisher at publication time, the publisher thereafter making the material available 'free' at the point of access (the 'gold' route). The two are not, of course, incompatible and can co-exist. ● further little-used “road” hybrid forms: for example platinum open access (does not charge author fees)...
  • Open Science ● umbrella term of the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional ● encompasses practices such as publishing open research, campaigning for open access, encouraging scientists to practice open notebook science ● generally making it easier and more efficient to do, publish and communicate scientific knowledge Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_science
  • Open Science Source: A Revolution in Open Science: Open Data and the Role of Libraries (Professor Geoffrey Boulton at LIBER 2013)
  • Open what? “As a concept [...] the open is reactionary; it gains meaning largely through a consideration of what it is not.” Tkacz, Nate: “From open source to open government: A critique of open politics”, in: Ephemera, 12(4), S. 400.
  • Open what? “At the same time, closure remains an inherent part of the open; it is what openness must continually respond to and work against – a continual threat amongst the ranks. Openness, we might say, implies antagonism, or what the language of openness would describe as closures. Such closures do not randomly emerge, unexpected and from the outside. It is the very qualities that Popper holds up as representative of contemporary openness [...] that not only coincide with, but are actually generative of new forms of closure.” Tkacz, Nate: “From open source to open government: A critique of open politics”, in: Ephemera, 12(4), S. 403.
  • The Open (Knowledge) Definition History of the Open Definition: 2005-08-21: v0.1 first draft of an Open Knowledge Definition was circulated to, among others, Peter Suber, Cory Doctorow, Tim Hubbard, Peter Murray-Rust, Jo Walsh and Prodromos Tsiavos 2005-10: Response to that feedback a second draft (v0.2) was released and publicly posted 2006-05: Contact with Freedom Defined project and further feedback led to another minor revision (v0.2.1) 2006-07: After a final period in which to solicit feedback v1.0 2009-11: Very minor corrections and emendations to the text. Merge annotated and simple versions of the definition v1.1 Ongoing: Further Development Open Definition v1.2dev+
  • Openness according to the Open Definition v.1.1 A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions: 1. Access 2. Redistribution 3. Reuse 4. Absence of Technological Restriction 5. Attribution 6. Integrity 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 9. Distribution of License 10.License Must Not Be Specific to a Package 11.License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works Source: http://opendefinition.org/okd/
  • Openness according to the Open Definition v.1.1 A work is open if its manner of distribution satisfies the following conditions: 1. Access 2. Redistribution The Principles 3. Reuse 4. Absence of Technological Restriction 5. Attribution Allowed Constraints 6. Integrity 7. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups Non-Discrimination 8. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 9. Distribution of License Licencing Rules 10.License Must Not Be Specific to a Package 11.License Must Not Restrict the Distribution of Other Works Source: http://opendefinition.org/okd/
  • 1. Access The work shall be available as a whole and at no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The work must also be available in a convenient and modifiable form.
  • 2. Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the work either on its own or as part of a package made from works from many different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale or distribution.
  • 3. Reuse The license must allow for modifications and derivative works and must allow them to be distributed under the terms of the original work.
  • 4. Absence of Technological Restriction The work must be provided in such a form that there are no technological obstacles to the performance of the above activities. This can be achieved by the provision of the work in an open data format, i.e. one whose specification is publicly and freely available and which places no restrictions monetary or otherwise upon its use.
  • Why are NC-Licences are not open? “Open Access stands for unrestricted access and unrestricted reuse.” Definition by Public Library of Science (PLoS) https://www.plos.org/about/open-access/
  • Discussion Thank you! Any Questions? More Information at http://hybridpublishing.org