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  1. 1. Christian S. Gle BEEd 2nd yr. – AGrace V. Gamueda Prof. Corazon T. LapisJocelyn NuguitMa. Katrina Cortez ATHLETICSFirst Part (July 12, 2012) I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the student will be able to: Identify athletics Review the history of athletics and it‘s development Identify track and field Determine track and field events II. Subject Matter Topics: - Introduction to Athletics - The Track and Field Events References: - - Athletics Basic Physical Education Doris D. Tulio pp. 1-15 Teaching Methodology: discussion and demonstration III. Lesson Content Athletics is a sport that includes running, jumping, throwing and more. THE HISTORY OF ATHLETICS Middle Ages Athletic contests in running, walking, jumping, and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. 1Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  2. 2. Athletic events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the HebSed Festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC. The Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded in 1800 BC. The only event at the First Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium length running event known as the stadion. It‘s later expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon. Athletic competitions also took place at other Panhellic Games, founded later around 500 BC. Modern Era The Royal Military College, Sandhurst has claimed to be the first to adopt athletics in 1812. Earliest recorded meting was organized at Shrewsbury, Shrospire in 1840 by the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt. The Amateur Athletic Association (AAA) was established in England in 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships. The United States also holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. An international governing body, the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was founded in 1912; it adopted its current name the International Association of Athletes Federation in 2001. The first organized international competitions for athletes with a physical disability began in 1952. The first Paralympic Games were held in 1960.THE TRACK AND FIELD AND THE STADIUM The track and field is a sport comprising various competitive athletic contest based onrunning, jumping and throwing. This sport derives from the competition venue: a stadium withan oval running track around a field. The throwing and jumping events generally takes place inthe central enclosed area. There are two kinds of stadiums: the outdoor and the indoor.Outdoor Tracks The IAAF standardized the length to 400 m and stated that the tracks must be split intosix to eight running lanes. Precise widths for the lanes were established, as were regulationsregarding the curvature of the track. The field of the stadium combines a number of elements for use in the jumping andthrowing events. The long jump and triple jump areas comprise a straight, narrow 40-metrerunning track with a sandpit at one or both ends. Jumps are measured from a take off board—typically a small strip of wood with a plasticine marker attached—which ensures athletes jumpfrom behind the measurement line. The pole vault area is also a 40-metre running track and has 2Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  3. 3. an indentation in the ground (the box) where vaulters plant their poles to propel themselves overa crossbar before falling onto cushioned landing mats. The high jump is a stripped down versionof this, with an open area of track or field that leads to a crossbar with a square area of landing mats behind it. The four throwing events generally all begin on one side of the stadium. The javelin throwtypically takes place on a piece of track that is central and parallel to the straights of the main running track. The javelin throwing area is a sector shape frequently across the Pitch (sports field) in the middle of the stadium, ensuring that the javelin has aminimal chance of causing damage or injury. The discus throws and hammer throw contestsbegin in a tall metal cage usually situated in one of the corners of the field. The cage reduces thedanger of implements being thrown out of the field of play and throws travel diagonally acrossthe field in the centre of the stadium. The shot put features a circular throwing area with a toeboard at one end. The throwing area is a sector. Some stadia also have a water jump area on oneside of the field specifically for steeplechase races.Indoor Tracks Basic indoor venues may be adapted gymnasiums, which can easily accommodate highjump competitions and short track events. Full-size indoor arenas (i.e. those fully equipped tohost all events for the World Indoor Championships) bear similarities with their outdoorequivalents. Typically, a central area is surrounded by a 200-metre oval track with four to eightlanes. The track can be banked at the turns to allow athletes to run around the radius morecomfortably. There is also a second running track going straight across the field area, parallel tothe straights of the main circuit. This track is used for the 60 meters and 60 metershurdles events, which are held almost exclusively indoors. Another common adaptation is a 160yard track (11 laps to a mile) that fits into a common basketball court sized arena. This was quitepopular when races were held at imperial distances, which gradually were phased out bydifferent organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. Examples of this configuration includethe Millrose Games at Madison Square Garden, and the Sunkist Invitational formerly held inthe Los Angeles Sports Arena. 3Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  4. 4. All four of the common jumping events are held at indoor venues. The long and triplejump areas run alongside the central 60 m track and are mostly identical in form to their outdoorcounterparts. The pole vault track and landing area are also alongside the central running track.Shot put (or weight throw) is the only throwing event held indoors due to size restrictions. Thethrowing area is similar to the outdoor event, but the landing sector is a rectangular sectionsurrounded by netting or a stop barrier.TRACK EVENTS It includes a variety of races. Short races, called sprints, stress maximum speed, while distance races require more endurance. In certain running races such as hurdles and steeplechases, runners must go over barriers. Other races, called relays involve teams of runners. I. Running races on outdoor track covers distances from 100 m to 10,000 m. indoors may measure from 50 m to 5000 m.The following are track events: a. SPRINTS Sprints are short running events in athletics and track and field. This game featured onlyat the stadion race. a.) Short Distances – There are three kinds of sprinting events in short distances: the 100m, 200m, and 400m. These events have their roots in races of imperial measurements that later changed to metric: the 100m evolved from the 100 yard dash, the 200 meter distances came from the furlong (or 1/8 of a mile) and the 400 meter was the successor to the 440 yard dash or quarter-mile race. b.) Middle Distances – The most common middle distance track events are the 800m, 1500m and mile run. c.) Long Distances – There are three common long distance running events in track and field competitions: 3000m (sometimes included in middle distances), 5000m, and 10,000m. Sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and gradually moving into an upright position as the brace progresses and momentum is gained. The set position differs depending on the start. Body alignment is the key importance in producing the optimal amount of force. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events.False starts  It is a false start if a competitor ails after a reasonable time to comply with the common ―set‖ start before the pistol is fired. 4Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  5. 5.  A pistol shot after a false start recalls the competitors.  The competitor responsible must be warned.  Competitors are disqualified after causing two false starts, or three false starts in the decathlon and heptathlonObstruction  A competitor who jostles, run across or otherwise obstructs another competitor is liable to disqualification.  After a disqualification the referee may order the race to be re-run or in the case of a heat, permit any affected competitor to complete in the next round.Lanes For all Olympic sprint events, runners must remain within their pre-assigned lanes, whichmeasure 1.22 metres (4 feet) wide, from start to finish. The lanes can be numbered 1 throughnormally 8 or 9 rarely 10, starting with the inside lane. Any athlete who runs outside the assignedlane to gain an advantage is subject to disqualification. If the athlete is forced to run outside ofhis or her lane by another person, and no material advantage is gained, there will be nodisqualification. Also, a runner who strays from his or her lane in the straightaway, or crosses theouter line of his or her lane on the bend, and gains no advantage by it, will not be disqualified aslong as no other runner is obstructed.The finish The first athlete whose torso reaches the vertical plane of the closest edge of the finishline is the winner. To ensure that the sprinters torso triggers the timing impulse at the finish linerather than an arm, foot, or other body part, a double Photocell is commonly used. Times areonly recorded by an electronic timing system when both of these Photocells are simultaneouslyblocked. Photofinish systems are also used at some track and field events. b. HURDLING Races with hurdles as obstacles were first popularized in the 19th century in England. Most of these races have 10 hurdles spaced at equal intervals. There are two types ofhurdle races: intermediate and high. Intermediate hurdles are 91cm high for men and 76cm highfor women. Men‘s high hurdles are 107cm high and for women‘s are 84cm high. Intermediatehurdle races over 400m or 440 yard in men and women‘s competition. Most outdoor high hurdleraces are 110m for men and 100m for women.Rules and Regulations  A competitor is disqualified. If he trails a foot or leg below the plane of the top of the bar of the hurdle at the instance of clearance.  If the competitor jumps any hurdles not in his own lane 5Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  6. 6.  If he deliberately knocks down any hurdle with his hands or foot. FORM OVER HURDLE 6Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  7. 7. c. STEEPLECHASE It is a race usually of 3,000 meters over two kinds of obstacles, hurdles and water jumps.Runners must clear 91-cm hurdles 28 times. These hurdles are sturdier than the one used inhurdle races, and runners may put a foot on top of them as they pass over them. Runners mustcross water jumps seven times. A water jump consists of a hurdle and a water-filled pit 3.66meter square. The steeplechaser steps onto the hurdle and leaps across the water. The pit is 70cmdeep at the foot of the hurdle and slopes up to the track level. Most steeplechasers come down inthe water at the shallow end of the pit to soften their landing.Rules and Regulations  The Olympic steeplechase is a men event run over 3,000 meters.  It comprises 20 hurdle jumps and seven water jumps.  Competitors may jump, vault or stand on the hurdles.  The hurdles numbered (3) and (4) are positioned after the competitors have passed by on the first lap.  A steeplechaser will be disqualified if he steps to either side of the jump, fails to go over or through water, and/or his foot or led below the horizontal plane of the top hurdles. d. WALKING RACES Are events in which the must follow certain rules of walking. The front foot must touchthe ground before the rear foot leaves the ground. While the foot is touching the ground, the legmust be unbent for at least one moment. Walkers are entitled to one warning for improper formbefore they are disqualified. Walking races are also called race walking, may take place in atrack or a road. 7Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  8. 8. e. RELAYS Relays are run by teams of four runners. The first runner carries a baton about 30cm long.After running a certain distance, called a leg, the athlete hands the baton to the next teammember. This exchange must occur within a zone 20m long. If the runners do not pass the batonwithin this zone, their team is disqualified. The most common relays are run at distances of 400 meters or 1,600 meters.Rules and Regulations  4x100m relay races are run entirely in lanes  In races up to 4x200m, members of a team other than the first runner may commence running not more than 10m outside the take-over zone.  In the 4x200m races the first 2 stages as well as that part of the third leg up to the exit from the first bend will be run entirely in lanes.  All competitors may break from their lanes immediately after they have passed the exit from the first bend.  The position of the teams at the start shall be retained at each take-over zone. After lanes have ceased to be used, runners can move to an inner position on the track as incoming team members arrive, provided this can be done without fouling.  In the event where the first part of the race is run in lanes, the competitors, after completing this part, are free to take up any position on the track.  After handling over the baton, competitors should remain in their lanes until the course is clear to avoid obstruction to other competitors.FIELD EVENTS Field events take place in specially prepared areas, usually within the oval track.Rules to be considered:  Competitors compete in the order drawn by lot.  Unless competing in a simultaneous trackevent, a competitor missing his turn in a field event is not permitted to take trial.  A competitor who unreasonably delays a trial is liable to have that trial disallowed and recorded as a fault.  After a second delay in a competition, he shall be debarred from further trials. 8Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  9. 9. I. Jumping Events a. THE LONG JUMP It is once called broad jump, is completed in a single jump into a pit filled with sand. Tobegin the long jump, the competitor sprints down a long runway and leaps from a take-off board.If the athlete steps past the board before jumping, the jump is a foul. A jump‘s length ismeasured from the edge of the take-off board to the nearest mark an athlete makes in the sand.When there are many competitors, each one is allowed three jumps, and a certain number ofleaders qualify for three more. When fewer athletes compete, each one is allowed six jumps. Iftwo jumpers leap the same distance, the winner is the one with the next big jump. b. THE TRIPLE JUMP It is originally called the hop, step, and jump, consists of three continuous jumps, thefirst two completed on the runway. On the first jump, the athlete takes off one foot and lands onthe same foot. At the end of the third jump, the athlete land on both feet in a pit of sand. c. HIGH JUMP A high jumper runs towards the bar from any angle within a large, semi-circular runway.The athlete may use any style of jumping, but he or she must take off from one foot. In mostpopular modern style, called Fosbury flop, jumpers go over with their back to the bar and theirhead clearing first. d. POLE VAULT A pole vaulter uses a long pole usually made of fiberglass. He begins his vault bysprinting down a runway, carrying the pole with both hands. As he nears the vaulting pit, heroams the far end of the pole into a wood or metal box embedded in the ground. The pole bendswhile he hangs with his back to the ground and his feet up. As the pole straightens, helping totrust into the air, he pulls himself higher and turns his body to face the ground. Before he releasesthe pole, he gives a final push with his arm to add to his height.Rules and Regulations:  A competitor fails. If he touches the ground, including the landing area beyond the vertical plane through the upper part of the stop-board with any part of his body or with the pole, without first clearing the bar.  If he knocks the bar off the support. 9Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  10. 10.  If he, after leaving the ground, places his lower hands moved the upper one or moves the upper land higher on the pole. It is not counted a failure if a competitor‘s pole breaks. 10Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  11. 11. Second Part (July 19, 2012) I. Objectives At the end of the lesson, the student will be able to: Continue determining track and field events Identify the decathlon, heptathlon and pentathlon Determine other terminologies used in athletics II. Subject Matter Topics: - The Track and Field Events (continued) - Terminologies in Athletics - The Multi-Events: the decathlon, heptathlon and pentathlon References: - - Athletics Basic Physical Education Doris D. Tulio pp. 15-23 Teaching Methodology: discussion and demonstrationTHROWING EVENTS There are four different throwing events included in athletics competition which requireathletes to demonstrate power, strength and accuracy. The four events are: the hammer, the discus, the javelin and the shot put. Hammer The ‗hammer‘ is an extremely heavy metal ball weighing 7.2kg which is attached to a handle by a steel wire. The hammer event requires the contestant to have extreme strength and excellent technique, in order to throw the metal ball across the field. When making the throw the contestant must stand within a designated area, marked by a circle. If the athlete steps out of the circle during the throw or before the hammer lands, the throw is classified as a fail. 11Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  12. 12. Discus Making use of a spinning technique to bring about speed and strength, the discus requires the athlete to throw a disc shaped object across the field as far as possible. The athlete must begin the throw from a stationary position but there are no specified requirements for the method used to throw the discus. To make the throw the athlete stands within a circle marked on the ground and is forbidden to leave the circle before the discus has landed. If the contestant steps on or outside the circle, the throw is classified as a fail. Javelin The Javelin combines speed with great strength, requiring the athlete to throw a long spiked pole as far as possible across the field. The javelin has a grip, part way along the pole, which the athlete must hold on to when throwing. The javelin is thrown by an arm extended backwards, being thrown over the shoulder or upper part of the arm. For the throw to count, the javelin must land with the tip (front part of the javelin) hitting the ground before the tail (back part of the javelin) If the athlete turns their back to the throwing line during the throw or crosses the line during or after the throw, the throw is classified as a fail. 12Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  13. 13. Shot Put Requiring perhaps more strength than any other athletic event, the shot put requires the athlete to throw an extremely heavy ball across a specified distance by transferring leg strength up through the arms. The athlete is required to begin the throw from a stationary position within a marked circle and must throw the shot using one hand only. The contestant is disqualified if they leave the marked circle before the shot has touched the ground.THE MULTI-EVENTSThe Decathlon, Heptathlon, and Pentathlon The decathlon, heptathlon and pentathlon are combined competitions, in which an athletecompetes in several different events over a period of one or two days. The athletes receive ascore for their performance in each event. The winner is the athlete who receives the highest totalscore. Thus, the competition champion is the best all around athlete, not necessary the bestcompetitor in any single event, The decathlon is a 10-event competition for men. It takes place over two days. First Day Second Day 100-Meter Run 110m Hurdles Long Jump Discus Throw Shot Put Pole Vault High Jump Javelin Throw 400-meter Run 1,500-Meter Run The heptathlon, at one-day competition of five events, is rarely held today. Triathlon isa combination of three events held also at one day. 13Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  14. 14. OTHER TERMINOLOGIES USED IN ATHLETICS Anchor leg refers to the final position in a relay race. The term is commonly used with respect to relays in athletics. Typically, the anchor leg of a relay is given to the fastest or most experienced competitor on a team. The athlete completing the anchor leg of a relay is responsible for making up ground on the race-leader or preserving the lead already secured by their teammates. Cadence in sports involving running is the total number of revolutions per minute (RPM), or number of full cycles taken within a minute, by the pair of feet, and is used as a measure of athletic performance. It is very similar in respect to cadence in cycling, however it is often overlooked in its importance in the sports of running and race walking. This discrepancy may be attributable to other factors of importance in running, including stride length, technique, and other elements pertaining to bio-mechanical efficiency. Foot speed, or sprint speed, is the maximum speed at which a human can run. It is affected by many factors, varies greatly throughout the population, and is important in athletics. Fully automatic time (abbreviated FAT) is a form of race timing in which the clock is automatically activated by the starting device, and the finish time is either automatically recorded, or timed by analysis of a photo finish. Mass start is a format of starting in some events in athletics (track and field), such as a marathon race, speed skating or a long-distance cross country skiing competition. Pace, also called rhythm or tempo, is a term used to describe the rate of activity or movement, such as in running. A pace band is a wristband, sometimes made of a strip of waterproof paper, that lists expected split times for a running race. When used in conjunction with a stopwatch, a pace band can assist athletes in maintaining a steady pace throughout the race. This is the most efficient racing pace from a cardiovascular and muscle energy perspective. Erratic running speeds, particularly the urge to sprint early in a race while feeling fresh, consume energy inefficiently. A glance at the pace band and stopwatch as each distance marker is passed allows the athlete to quickly determine if they are running too fast for their targeted finishing time or too slowly and adjust accordingly. A pacemaker or pace-setter (sometimes colloquially called a rabbit) is a runner who leads a middle- or long distance running event for the first section to ensure a fast time and avoid excessive tactical racing. A photo finish occurs in a sporting race, when two (or more) competitors cross the finishing line at near the same time. As the naked eye may not be able to discriminate between which of the competitors crossed the line first, a strip photo, a series of rapidly triggered photographs, or a video taken at the finish line may be used for a more accurate check. Nowadays, the photographs may be digital. 14Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports
  15. 15. The Scissors is a style used in the athletics event of high jump. As it allows the jumper to land on their feet, it is the most common style used by junior athletes where the landing surface is not deep or soft enough to meet full competition standards. Second wind is a phenomenon in distance running, such as marathons or road running (as well as other sports), whereby an athlete who is too out of breath and tired to continue suddenly finds the strength to press on at top performance with less exertion. The feeling may be similar to that of a "runners high", the most obvious difference being that the runners high occurs after the race is over.[1] Some scientists believe the second wind to be a result of the body finding the proper balance of oxygen to counteract the buildup of lactic acid in the muscles.[2] Others claim second winds are due to endorphin production, while still others believe it to be purely psychological. The short course prevention factor (SCPF) is a multiplicative factor or coefficient used in the sport of athletics, specifically road running, to ensure that the measured length of a course is at least as long as the desired length of the course. Tartan Track is the trademarked all-weather synthetic track surfacing made of polyurethane which is used fortrack and field competitions. It lets athletes compete in bad weather without serious performance loss (as opposed to running in what turns into mud) and improves their results over other surfaces. It also provides a more consistent surface for competition even under optimum weather. Track spikes, or just spikes, are pointed protrusions usually made of metal, ceramic or plastic that is screwed into the bottom of most track and field shoes to increase traction and minimize the likelihood of slipping. The term "spikes" can also refer to track shoes featuring such protrusions. Spikes are similar to cleats which are used for team sports, although generally smaller. A vertical jump or vertical leap is the act of raising ones center of gravity higher in the vertical plane solely with the use of ones own muscles; it is a measure of how high an individual or athlete can elevate off the ground (jump) from a standstill.The vertical jump is divided into two different types: Standing Vertical Jump: This refers to a vertical jump done from a standstill with no steps being involved at all. Running Vertical Jump: This refers to a vertical jump after an approach or run to help add energy to the jump in an effort to improve on the standing vertical jump. Wind assistance is a term in track and field, which refers to the wind level during a race or event as registered by a wind gauge. Wind is one of many forms of weather which can affect sport. 15Athletics | Fundamentals of Games and Sports