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Day 1 and 2 information based on the CIC Study Guide. From Hamilton Public Library

Day 1 and 2 information based on the CIC Study Guide. From Hamilton Public Library

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  • Legislature – means a group of people who write the lawsParliament – a type of legislature. In Canada, it’s the group of people in Ottawa who are elected to run the country and write the laws.
  • One of the great examples of “where did Canadian laws come from” is the The MagnaCarta - also known as the Great Charter of Freedoms
  • Points out the importance of religious traditions to Canadian society and to the dignity and worth of people
  • Mobility rights – Canadians can live and work anywhere we chose. We can leave and enter the country freely and apply for a passportAboriginal Peoples’ rights – the rights of the charter will not affect any treaty or other rights or freedoms of Aboriginal peoples in a negative way.Official language rights – French and English have equal status in Parliament and throughout the government (Canada has two official languages)Multiculturism – Canadians celebrate the gift of one another’s presence and work hard to respect diversity and live in harmony
  • Habeas corpus: the right to have your detention (being put in jail) proven to be within the law. If it doesn’t follow the law, you must be released immediately.
  • Aboriginal – means original/native peopleAbout 4% of the Aboriginal People are Inuit.TheMetismake up approximately 30% of all AboriginalsApproximately half of First Nations people live on reserve land in about 600 communities across the country while the other half live off the reserve. Reserves are lands set aside for the exclusive use of First Nations people.
  • During the war more than 2/3 of Acadians were deported (made to leave) France – they came to Canada This move was called the “Great Upheaval”
  • Diversity = mixture/varietyIn Vancouver 13% of the people speak a Chinese language; in Toronto 7% Canadians can follow the religion of their choice or chose to follow no religion.
  • Many Aboriginals died from new diseases - They died because they didn’t have immunity/resistance. Our bodies build up protection from the diseases we are exposed to all the time but when the sickness/disease is new our body doesn’t have that protection (immunity) built up to fight it off.However, despite the changes, they formed bonds through religion, economy, and the military for the first 200 yearsCabot recorded his explorations by being the first to draw a map of Canada’s east coast
  • Fur-trade – there was a great demand for beaver pelts in EuropeWatershed – the area where all the rivers flowed into Hudson Bay from the north
  • During this time there was no clear “ruler” of Canada (ie Britain or France)coureurs des bois – runners of the woods
  • 1759 when the British defeated the French in the battle, this marked the end of France’s control in North AmericaThe majority of the province of Quebec were French speaking Catholic people but the British who ruled them after the war were English speaking and Protestant.The Quebec Act gave religious freedom for the Catholic people and allowed them to hold public office (this was not allowed in Britain)The Quebec Act restored French civil law (civil law is a between private parties) and criminal law is an offence against the state.
  • Those who fled felt oppressed during the revolution and thought they would be safer in Canada. They had a loyalty to Britain (aka “the Crown”).
  • Representative assembly would be similar to our members of parliament Representatives are other people acting for you (on your behalf) and an assembly is a group of people. This is what a democratic government is all about – voting for someone that you want in charge to make decisions about how things will be run.
  • The Constitutional Act replaced the Quebec Act. Upper Canada received English laws and Lower Canada received French laws. Representative governments (legislative assemblies) were formed in both at this time.
  • North Star – the slaves hid during the day when it was light and traveled by night using the North Star (brightest star) as their guide to know what direction to goU-TUBE VIDEO (our heritage)Underground railway – a huge group of people helping the slaves escape. The term” conductor" was the person responsible for moving fugitives from one station to the next and “stations” were where the slaves would eat and hide until they moved again. Occasionally they did travel by real trains or boats which sometimes had to be paid for.By 1833, slavery was abolished in Canada
  • Canada was still under British rule so an attack on Canada was seen as an attack on Britain.The Americans were wrong when they thought it would be easy to defeat Canada. Canadians and the First Nations tribe Shawnee led by Chief Tecumseh helped the British soldiers to defend Canada.Major General Sir Isaac Brock was responsible for getting (Fort) Detroit to surrender but was killed in an attack by the Americans at Queenston Heights (near Niagara Falls). He died in the attack but the Americans lost the battle.The Battle of Beaver Dams occurred in 1813 and this when pioneer Laura Secord travelled 19 miles (30 km) to warn Lieutenant FitzGibbon of a planned American attack. Her bravery contributed to the victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams. By 1814 the American’s attempt to take over Canada had failed.Our present day border between Canada and the United States is partly an outcome of the War of 1812 – a reminder that we are independent.
  • Responsible government the “ministers of the crown” (the leaders of the country) must have the support of the a majority of the elected representatives in order to govern. This is the system we have today. If the government loses a confidence vote in the assembly it must resign.
  • Until 1982 July 1st was celebrated as “Dominion Day”, today it is officially known as “Canada Day”
  • This caused a huge problem – the 12,000 Metis of that area had no say in the matter when Canada took over. This led to fighting.
  • RCMP/ The “Mounties” – our national police force and one of Canada’s best known symbols
  • After the railway was completed the Chinese were discriminated against, including the “Head tax” – a fee charged to enter the country based on their race. In 2006 Canada apologized.U TUBE (our heritage)
  • In 1880 Britain transferred ownership of the “Arctic Islands”to Canada; it became a part of the Northwest Territories
  • Most Canadians serving in the war were volunteersCanada’s population at the time was 8 millionThe capture of Vimy Ridge resulted in 10,000 killed or wounded – it became a symbol of sacrificeMen from all regions of Canada were present at the battle. Brigadier-General A.E. Ross declared after the war, "in those few minutes I witnessed the birth of a nation.“ Canada managed to defeat the Germans – something both the French and British had been unable to doApril 9 is celebrated as Vimy Day
  • Armistice – agreement to stop fighting
  • READ FIRST: AT THE TIME OF CONFEDEDATION, VOTING WAS ONLY FOR ADULT WHITE MALES WHO OWNED PROPERTYWomen’s suffrage movement was the effort/fight by women to achieve the right to vote
  • There were more than 3000 Canadian nurses serving in the war – nicknamed “Bluebirds”.
  • Roaring Twenties – businesses were doing well and most people had jobs (unemployment rate was low)In 1933 many businesses were wiped out, unemployment was 27%. The time was known as the “Dirty Thirties”Farmers in western Canada were hit hardest by low grain prices and a terrible droughtThe Bank of Canada managed the manage the money supply and was created to make the financial system more stable.During this time, Canada wasn’t accepting new immigrants and many refugees were turned away.
  • D-Day : the invasion of Normandy in northern France. 15,000 Canadian soldiers stormed Juno Beach and captured it from the German Army. This is a great national achievement.(refer to page 22 for explanation of the poppy and “in Flanders fields”)
  • After the war, life improved in Canada ; In 1951, for the first time, majority of Canadians were able to afford food, shelter and clothingToday, Canadians enjoy one of the world’s highest standards of living
  • The light bulb – Evans and Woodward sold the patent to Thomas Edison who became famous for commercializing the bulb
  • Parliamentary democracy – means we vote for who will run the countryConstitutional monarchy – we have a Queen or King
  • House of Commons – the Members of Parliament ie the group of people voted to represent Canadians federally
  • Canada’s Sovereign is Queen Elizabeth IISenators are appointed by the Governor General (on the advice of the Prime Minister) and they serve until the age of 75The House of Commons are the representatives (members of Parliament) elected by the people of Canada
  • Hereditary Sovereign : King or Queen and the next in line is always related. Queen Elizabeth II is our Head of State (Sovereign) – her son Prince Charles is the next in line for the throne.The Queen is not involved in the daily governing of the country – the Prime Minister directs the governing (running) of the country
  • Electoral districts are more commonly known as “ridings”. These districts or ridings are areas represented by a member of Parliament (MP)The citizens in each electoral district elect one MP to represent them in the House of Commons.The people who run in an election (or “for office”) are called candidates
  • Once an election has been called, Elections Canada mails a voter information card to each person whose name is in the National Register. The card lists when and where to vote. The place you vote is called the “polling station”If you don’t receive a voter information card, you can still vote.
  • Secret ballot – no one has the right to ask you how you voted.Election results – after the polling stations close, every ballot is counted and the results are made public. You can see the results on tv, hear them on the radio or on the Elections Canada website (www.elections.ca)
  • The most seats means most number of representatives (MPs, members of parliament)
  • Members or seats in the house of commonsThe job of the opposition parties is to oppose or try and improve government proposals
  • crown -has been symbol of the state of Canada for 400 yearscrown -is a symbol of government, Parliament, the legislatures, courts, police services and the armed forcesFlag The National Flag was first raised on February 15, 1965The red and white pattern comes from the flag of the Royal Military CollegeThe provinces and territories have their own flags The union Jack is our official Royal FlagThe Fleur-De-Lys “Lily Flower”Adopted by the French King in the year 496.Symbols of French royalty for more than a thousand years.Coat of arms The arms contain symbols of England, France, Scotland and Ireland and red maple leavesAlso the Parliament buildings. The Peace Tower was built in memory of the first world war
  • Service: health care, transportation, education, retail,, banking, tourism, government (more than 75 % of Canadians work in service)Manufacturing: paper, automobiles, food, clothing. Our biggest trading partner is the USNatural resources: forestry, fishing, agriculture, mining and energy
  • You may get a question such as how many provinces and how many territories?Who was the first prime minister?Different names of the Aboriginal people?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Day 1: Canadian Citizenship Information Session
    • 2. ContentsDay 1: Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 8 – 9 Who We Are  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 10 – 13 Canada’s History  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 14 – 23 Modern Canada  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 24 – 27 Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities
    • 3. Rights and Responsibilities Canadian citizens have rights and responsibilities They reflect our shared traditions, identity and values. They come to us from our history and are secured by Canadian law Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 4. Sources of Canadian law • Parliament • Provincial legislature • English common law • Civil code of France • Unwritten constitution - inherited from Great Britain Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 5. The Magna Carta Signed in 1215 in England Guarantees Canadian Citizens the following :  Freedom of conscience and religion  Freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of speech and of the press  Freedom of peaceful assembly  Freedom of association Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 6. The Constitution of Canada Revised in 1982 - to include Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Canadian Charter begins:  “Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law” Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 7. The Canadian Charter of Rights The Charter promises Canadian citizens the following:  Mobility Rights  Aboriginal Peoples’ Rights  Official Language Rights and Minority Language Educational Rights  Multiculturalism Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 8. An Example of Canadian Law Habeas corpus  The right to challenge unlawful detention by the state. This law comes from the English common law Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 8 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 9. An example of Canadian rights Equality In Canada, men and women are equal under the law Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 9 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 10. Citizenship Responsibilities Obeying the law  No person or group is above the law Taking responsibility for yourself and your family  For example: getting a job Serving on a jury  you are legally required to serve on a jury when called to do so Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 9 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 11. Citizenship Responsibilities Voting  A right to vote comes with a responsibility to vote in federal, provincial and local (municipal) elections Helping others in the community  For example: volunteering Protecting and enjoying our heritage and environment  For example: avoiding waste and pollution, saving the environment for future generations Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 9 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 12. Who We Are The founding peoples of Canada:  The Aboriginals  The French  The British Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 10 Study Guide
    • 13. Aboriginal Peoples The Inuit – meaning “the people” live in small, scattered communities across the Arctic The Métis – are of Aboriginal and European backgrounds.  They speak their own dialect of French and English, called Michif  Many of them live in the Prairie provinces Indian (First Nation) – refers to all Aboriginal people who are not Inuit or Métis.  In the 1970s, the term First Nations began to be used& instead of Indian Rights Responsibilities Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 10 Study Guide
    • 14. The French The Acadians  Came from French Colonies  Began settling in the Maritime province in 1604 During the war between France and Britain (1755-1763) many more came to Canada Quebecers are people of Quebec  Most came from the French settlers that arrived during the 1600s and 1700s  Most of them speak French Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 11 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 15. The French In 2006, the House of Commons recognized that the Quebecois form a nation within Canada There are 7 million people in Canada who speak French as their first language (Known as Francophones)  Most live in Quebec New Brunswick is the only official bilingual province Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Page 11 Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 16. The British English, Welsh, Scottish and Irish settlers immigrated to Canada from 1600s to the 20th century  They set up the way of life in English speaking areas of Canada In Canada, 18 million people speak English as their first language (Known as Anglophones) Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 12 Study Guide
    • 17. Diversity in Canada Canada is often called the “land of immigrants” Over the past 200 years, millions of newcomers have helped build and defend Canada Since 1970 most newcomers are from Asian countries Most Canadians are Christians  Of those most follow the Catholic religion Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 12 Study Guide
    • 18. Canada’s History The arrival of European traders, missionaries, soldiers, and settlers changed life for the Natives The very first Europeans to set up a colony in Canada were Vikings from Iceland  They had settlements in Labrador and Newfoundland John Cabot was the first explorer to reach Canada’s east coast in 1497 Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 14 Study Guide
    • 19. Exploration, Naming Canada Jacques Cartier crossed the Atlantic 3 times between 1534 and 1542 to claim the land for France Cartier heard the word “kanata” (meaning village in Iroquois)  The name “Canada” began to appear on maps by the 1550s Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 14 Study Guide
    • 20. Royal New France (Quebec) In 1608 Samuel de Champlain:  Built a fortress where Quebec City is today and set up a French colony (New France) After fighting for many years, the French and Iroquois worked together in the fur-trade business Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 15 Study Guide
    • 21. Struggle For A Continent 1670: King Charles II of England gave the Hudson’s Bay Company the private rights to use the watershed draining into Hudson Bay for their fur-trade The skilled men who travelled by canoe were called voyageurs and coureurs des bois  They formed a strong alliances with the First Nations Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 15 Study Guide
    • 22. Struggle For A Continent Cont’d The English settlements along the Atlantic became richer and more populated than New France  1700s -France and Great Britain battled for control of North America  1759 -the British defeated the French in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec City Great Britain then renamed New France “the Province of Quebec”  1774 - Britain passed the “Quebec Act” Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 15 Study Guide
    • 23. United Empire Loyalists 1776 - 13 British colonies south of Quebec declared independence and formed the United States During the American Revolution, more than 40,000 returned; they were called “Loyalists” Joseph Brant led thousands of Loyalist Mohawk Indians into Canada The Loyalists settled in Quebec and Nova Scotia Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 15 Study Guide
    • 24. United Empire Loyalists Monument Main St E in Hamilton
    • 25. The Beginnings of Democracy The first representative assembly was elected in Nova Scotia in 1758 Prince Edward Island was next in 1773 Then New Brunswick in 1785 Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 16 Study Guide
    • 26. Beginning of Democracy Cont’d In 1791, The Constitutional Act divided Quebec into Upper Canada (Ontario as we know it) and Lower Canada (Quebec as we know it) Upper Canada was mainly Loyalist, Protestant and English speaking Lower Canada was mainly Catholic and French speaking Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 16 Study Guide
    • 27. Slavery in Canada 1793 - Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe started to try and stop slavery in Upper Canada Thousands of slaves escaped from the United States by following “the North Star” using the “Underground Railroad” 1833 - Slavery was ended in Canada Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 16 Study Guide
    • 28. The War of 1812 The British Royal Navy “ruled” the sea The Americans resented the British for interfering with their shipping June of 1812 the U.S. declared war on Britain and invaded Canada (thinking Canada would be easy to defeat) Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 17 Study Guide
    • 29. Rebellions of 1837-38 In the 1830s, reformers in Upper and Lower Canada felt the move toward full democracy was too slow Some thought Canada should take on American Republican values Some suggested Canada even join the U.S. However the rebels were defeated by British troops and Canadian volunteers Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 17 Study Guide
    • 30. Responsible Government 1840 - Upper and Lower Canada were once again united – this time as the Province of Canada Between 1847 and 1848 - Nova Scotia became the first British North American colony to achieve full responsible government 1849 - La Fontaine was the first leader of a responsible government Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 18 Study Guide
    • 31. Confederation From 1864-1867 representatives of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada worked together to form a new country These representatives are known as the “Fathers of Confederation” They created two levels of government  Provincial and Federal Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 18 Study Guide
    • 32. Confederation Cont’d The Province of Canada was split into two new provinces:  Ontario and Quebec Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick formed the new country: called the Dominion of Canada The British North America Act passed in 1867 The Dominion of Canada officially became a country on July 1, 1867 - birth of Canada Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 18 Study Guide
    • 33. Canada’s First Prime Minister Known as Sir John A. Macdonald January 11 is known as Sir John A. Macdonald day His picture is on the Canadian $10.00 bill Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 19 Study Guide
    • 34. The West 1869 - Canada took over the huge northwest area from the Hudson’s Bay Company. To protect the rights of the Metis, Louis Riel seized Fort Garry, the territorial capital 1870 - Ottawa sent soldiers to retake Fort Garry Louis Riel fled to the U.S. and Canada established a new province: Manitoba Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 19 Study Guide
    • 35. The West Cont’d In 1873 Prime Minister Macdonald formed the North West Mounted Police to help bring peace to the West and the Metis. They are now known as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 19 Study Guide
    • 36. A Railway from Sea to Sea In 1871 - British Columbia joined Canada, after Ottawa promised to build a railway to the West Coast The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) was paid for by British and American investors and built by European and Chinese labourers On November 7, 1885 Donald Smith (Lord Strathcona) hammered the last spike to finish the CPR “ribbons of steel” Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 20 Study Guide
    • 37. Moving Westward The railway allowed for immigrants from the Ukraine, Poland, Germany, France, Norway and Sweden to settle in the West and develop a successful farming community During the 1890s and early 1900s, one million British and one million Americans immigrated to Canada Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 20 Study Guide
    • 38. Sir Wilfrid Laurier Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier encouraged immigration to the West Sir Wilfrid Laurier is the Canadian $5.00 Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 20 Study Guide
    • 39. Time Line of Provinces and Territories 1867 - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 1870 - Manitoba, Northwest Territories 1871 - British Columbia Between 1873 and 1949 - Prince Edward Island, “Arctic Islands”, Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland (and Labrador) 1999 - Nunavut (last to join) Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 19 Study Guide
    • 40. World War I Ottawa formed the Canadian Expeditionary Force (later the Canadian Corps) More than 600,000 Canadians served The Canadian Corps captured Vimy Ridge in April 1917 securing Canada’s reputation for valour Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 21 Study Guide
    • 41. World War I cont’d The first world war ended after Germany and Austria surrendered and the Armistice was signed, on November 11, 1918 60,000 Canadians were killed and 170,000 injured Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 21 Study Guide
    • 42. Women Get the Vote During confederation  Only adult white males who owned property could vote Women’s suffrage movement – women’s right to vote The leader of the movement in Canada was Emily Stowe – the first Canadian woman to practice medicine in Canada In 1916 – Manitoba became the first province to grant &voting rights to women Rights Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 21 Study Guide
    • 43. Women Get the Vote Cont’d In 1917 - Prime Minister Robert Borden gave women the right to vote in Federal elections  First to nurses serving in the war  Then to women who were related to men who were on duty in the war By 1918 - most Canadian female citizens 21 years and over had the right to vote in federal elections 1921 - Agnes MacPhail became the first female member of parliament Page 1940&- Quebec granted women Modern Canada to vote 21 Rights Who We Are Canada’s History the right Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 44. Between the Wars 1920s were known as the “Roaring Twenties” The stock market crashed in 1929, leading to “the Great Depression” The government was pressured to create a social safety net with minimum wage, standard work week and unemployment insurance The Bank of Canada was created in 1934 Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 22 Study Guide
    • 45. World War II Began in 1939 when Adolf Hitler of Germany invaded Poland and took control of most of Europe More than one million Canadians served in WW II 44,000 Canadians were killed Canadians took part in D-Day June 6, 1944 Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 23 Study Guide
    • 46. Modern Canada 1947 - Oil was discovered in Alberta and began Canada’s energy industry 1945-1970 - the economy grew 1951 - After the war, a majority of Canadians were able to afford food, shelter and clothing 1940 - Employment Insurance 1927 - Old Age Security 1965 - Canadian and Quebec Pension Plans Canada is part of theNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the United Nations Page (UN) Rights & Responsibilities Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada 24 Study Guide
    • 47. Canadian Achievements In 1891 - James Naismith invented Basketball Wayne Gretzky is famous for playing for the Edmonton Oilers from 1979 to 1988. In 1980 - Terry Fox who lost his leg to cancer began a cross country run, “the Marathon of Hope” to raise money for cancer research  He is a Canadian Hero Rights & Page Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Responsibilities 26 Study Guide
    • 48. Discoveries and Inventions Alexander Graham Bell – the telephone Matthew Evans and Henry Woodward – invented the first electric light bulb (sold patent to Thomas Edison) Dr John Hopps – invented the first cardiac pacemaker Sir Frederick Banting – discovered insulin (used to treat diabetics) saving 16 million people world wide Canadian Space Agency – Canadarm, a robotic arm used in outer space Page 27 Rights & Who We Are Canada’s History Modern Canada Mike Lazaridis and Jim Balsillie – CEO’s of Responsibilities Study Guide
    • 49. Day 1: Conclusion Comments, questions? Please visit our blog or e-mail us with any comments or questions:canacitizen@gmail.comhplcitizenship.blogspot.ca
    • 50. Day 2: Canadian Citizenship Information Session
    • 51. Contents Day 2:  How Canadians Govern Themselves  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 28 - 29  Federal Elections – Voting Procedurals  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 30 - 33  The Justice System  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 36 - 37  Canadian Symbols  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 38 - 41  Canada’s Economy  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 42 - 43  Canada’s Regions  Canadian Citizenship Study Guide Page 44 - 51 JusticeGovernment Elections Symbols Economy Regions System
    • 52. How Canadian Govern Themselves  Three key facts about Canada’s system of government:  Our country is a federal state  Parliamentary Democracy  Constitutional Monarchy  There are three levels of government in Canada: 1) Federal 2) Provincial or Territorial 3) MunicipalGovernment Justice Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 28 System
    • 53. Federal State  The federal government takes responsibility for matters of national and international concern  Examples include:  Defence,  Foreign policy  Trades  Currency  Criminal law  Federal and provinces share jurisdiction over agriculture and immigrationGovernment Justice Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 28 System
    • 54. Provincial  Provinces are responsible for:  Municipal government  Education  Health  Property  Highways  Each province has its own elected Legislative Assembly - like the House of Commons in OttawaGovernment Justice Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 28 System
    • 55. Parliamentary Democracy  The people elect members to the House of Commons (in Ottawa) and to the provincial and territorial legislatures  The members (representatives) are responsible for:  Passing laws  Approving/monitoring expenses  Keeping the government accountableGovernment Justice Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 28-29 System
    • 56. Canada’s Government Parliament buildings House of Commons JusticeGovernment Elections Symbols Economy Regions System
    • 57. Parliamentary Democracy  Parliament has three parts:  The Sovereign (Queen or King)  The Senate  The House of Commons  Prime minister selects cabinet ministers  House of commons (made up of members elected by the people)  Senators are appointed on advice of prime minister (can serve until age 75)  Both the house of commons and senators review bills (proposal of new laws)Government Justice Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 28-29 System
    • 58. Constitutional Monarchy The head of state or governor general - is a hereditary Sovereign  The Sovereign is a part of Parliament with a focus on citizenship and allegiance.  The head of government – the Prime Minister is responsible for the operations and policy of the government JusticeGovernment Elections Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 29 System
    • 59. Constitutional Monarchy  The Sovereign is represented in Canada by the Governor General - David Johnston  In each of the provinces, the Sovereign is represented by the Lieutenant Governor  The Governor General is appointed by the Sovereign on advice of the Prime Minister  In Ontario the Lieutenant Governor is David Onley  Lt. Governor is appointed by the Governor General  Governor General and Lt. Governor serve forGovernment 5 years about Elections Justice Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 29 System
    • 60. Federal Elections Canadians vote in elections for the people they want to represent them in the House of Commons Members of the House of Commons are known as Members of Parliament or MPs Federal elections usually held the on the third Monday in October every 4 years Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 30 System
    • 61. Federal Elections Cont’d Canada is divided into 308 electoral districts/ridings Electoral districts – commonly known as “ridings” Canadian who are 18 years or older may run in a federal election Districts/ridings are represented by a local MP The candidate who receives the most votes becomes the MP for that electoral district Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 30 System
    • 62. Major Political Parties Liberal Party Conservative Party New Democratic Party The Bloc Quebecois JusticeGovernment Elections Symbols Economy Regions System
    • 63. Voting Once an election is called, voter cards are mailed These cards list when and where to vote The place you vote is a “polling station” You are eligible to vote in a federal election if you are:  Canadian citizen  At least 18 years old  On the voters’ list Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 30 System
    • 64. Voting Procedures If you don’t receive a voter information card, call Elections Canada On election day go to the polling station with your voter card and identification Voting is done behind a screened door  Secret ballot – no one has the right to ask how you voted After polls close every vote is counted and made public through the TV or Radio Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 30-31 System
    • 65. After the Election The leader of the political party with the most seats in the House of Commons forms the government The leader of this party becomes the Prime Minister If this party has at least half of the seats in the House of Commons, they have a majority government (less than half; a minority government) Seats – number of representatives (members of parliament) Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 31 System
    • 66. After the Election The Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet ministers Cabinet ministers are responsible for running federal government departments The Prime Minister and the Cabinet ministers make decisions on how the country is run They prepare the budget and propose most new laws Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 31 System
    • 67. After the Election The other parties not in power are known as the opposition parties The opposition party with the most members of the House of Commons is called the Official Opposition The role of the opposition is to peacefully disagree to improve government proposals Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 31 System
    • 68. Other Levels of Government in Canada Municipal government – local (city government) The council includes:  Mayors and councillors or aldermen  Example Mayor Bob Bratina (Hamilton)  Pass “by laws” affect the local community Municipalities are responsible for things like:  Roads Page 33 has a  Garbage removal chart showing all levels of the  Police Forces government in Canada Elections JusticeGovernment Symbols Economy Regions Pg. 33 System
    • 69. The Justice System Canadian justice system guarantees “due process”  The respect of legal rights a person is entitled to Founded on the presumption of innocence - everyone is innocent until proven guilty Laws are written rules to guide society Police enforce the laws and keep us safe Courts settle disagreements  Federal, family, traffic and small claims Justice  Supreme Court of Canada is the highest courtGovernment Elections System 36- Symbols Economy Regions 37
    • 70. Canadian Symbols Canadian Crown – symbol of government National Flag – first raised Feb 15, 2965 red and white is from the Royal Military College, Kingston Maple Leaf – first adopted by the French in the 1700s Coat of Arms and Motto – Expression of national pride, A Mari Usque Ad Mare (from sea to sea) Parliament Buildings – embody French, English and Aboriginal traditions Beaver – symbol of Hudson’s Bay Company Justice SymbolsGovernment Elections Economy Regions System Pg. 38-39
    • 71. Order of Canada and Honors  Canada started own system of honours called the Order of Canada in 1967  The Victoria Cross (V.C.) is the highest honour available to Canadians – recipients awarded with bravery  Examples include:  Lt. Alexander Dunn was the first awarded for serving in the British Army  Able Seaman – first African Canadian awarded for role in the Siege of Lucknow Justice SymbolsGovernment Elections Economy Regions System Pg. 41
    • 72. Popular Sports  Hockey  Extremely popular in Canada  Developed in the 1800s  Is our official Winter Sport  Lacrosse is our official Summer Sport  First played by the Aboriginals Justice SymbolsGovernment Elections Economy Regions System Pg. 39
    • 73. Canada’s Economy Always been a trading nation, part of NAFTA Today Canada is one of the 10 largest economies Three main types of industries:  Service: involves jobs such as education, healthcare  Manufacturing: products that are sold  Natural resources: forestry or agriculture Main trading partner is the United States, biggest bilateral trading relation in the world US/CAN Border is the “world’s longestGovernment Elections Justice Symbols Economy Regions System Pg. 42-43 undefended”
    • 74. Canada’s Regions How many provinces and 10 Provinces territories are 3 Territories there in The Atlantic Provinces Canada? Ontario and Quebec The Prairie Provinces The West Coast The Northern Territories Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 44-45
    • 75. Canada’s Regions  Three oceans:  Pacific (West)  Atlantic (East)  Arctic (North)  Capital: Ottawa  Ontario’s capital: Toronto  Our population: about 34 million Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 44
    • 76. Newfoundland and Labrador  Has its own time zone  Linked to the sea  The oldest colony of the British Empire  Off shore oil and gas  Hydro-electric resources Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 46
    • 77. Prince Edward Island  Is the smallest province  Known for: beaches, red soil and agriculture and potatoes  Is connected to mainland Canada by one of the longest continuous bridges in the world – the Confederation Bridge (13 km)Government Elections Justice Symbols Economy Regions System Pg. 46
    • 78. Nova Scotia  Known for the world’s highest tides in the Bay of Fundy  History of shipbuilding, fisheries and coal mining  Today off shore oil and gas exploration  Halifax has played an important role in Atlantic trade and defense  Home to Canada’s largest naval base Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 46
    • 79. New Brunswick  Largest river system on North America’s Atlantic coastline, the St. John River system  Only officially bilingual province  Forestry, fishing, mining, food processing and tourism Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 47
    • 80. Quebec  Quebec is Canada’s main producer of pulp and paper  It is Canada’s largest producer of hydroelectricity  Montreal, is Canada’s second largest city and the second largest mainly French- speaking city Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 47
    • 81. Ontario  Toronto is the largest city in Canada and the country’s financial centre  Five Great Lakes: Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior  Produce a large percent of Canada’s Justice Regions exportsGovernment Elections System Symbols Economy Pg. 48
    • 82. Manitoba  Manitoba’s economy is based on agriculture, mining, and hydro electric power generation  Manitoba is important centre for Ukrainian culture and largest Aboriginal population of any province Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 48
    • 83. Saskatchewan  Is the country’s largest producer of grains and oilseeds  Produces oil and natural gas  Regina, the capital, is home to training academy of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 48
    • 84. Alberta  Has 5 national parks, including Banff National Park  Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountains  Alberta is the largest producer of oil and gas  Also known as agriculture-for cattle ranches Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 49
    • 85. British Columbia  Is Canada’s westernmost province, with a population of 4 million  Has the most valuable forestry industry in Canada (lumber, newsprint, pulp and paper)  Mining, fishing, fruit and wine  Has 600 provincial parksGovernment Elections Justice Symbols Economy Regions System Pg. 49
    • 86. Yukon  The north is known as the land of the midnight sun  Thousands of miners came to the Yukon territory during the Gold Rush of 1890’s  Yukon holds the record for the coldest temperature ever recorded in Canada (- 63oC) Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 50
    • 87. Northwest Territories  The capital, Yellowknife, is called the “diamond capital of North America”  More than half of the population is Aboriginal  The Mackenzie River at 4,200 km, is the second longest river system in North America after the MississippiGovernment Elections Justice Symbols Economy Regions System Pg. 50
    • 88. Nunavut  Was established in 1999  The capital is Iqaluit  The population is 85% Inuit  Inuktitut is an official language and first language in schools Justice RegionsGovernment Elections Symbols Economy System Pg. 51
    • 89. Good Luck! Conclusion – Day 2 Comments, questions? Please visit our blog or e-mail us with any comments or questions:canacitizen@gmail.comhplcitizenship.blogspot.ca