A Utility Model for Sensory Experience

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  • 1. A Utility Model for Sensory Experience Christian Timmerer, Benjamin Rainer, and Markus Waltl Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (AAU)  Faculty of Technical Sciences (TEWI)  Department of Information Technology (ITEC)  Multimedia Communication (MMC)  Sensory Experience Lab (SELab) http://research.timmerer.com  http://blog.timmerer.com  http://selab.itec.aau.at/mailto:christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at 5th International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX) 5th July, 2013 Acknowledgments. This work was supported in part by the EC in the context of the ALICANTE (FP7-ICT-248652), SocialSensor (FP7-ICT-287975), and QUALINET (COST IC 1003) projects and partly performed in the Lakeside Labs research cluster at AAU.
  • 2. Outline • Introduction / Motivation / Goal • Methodology and Subjective Evaluation • Utility Model for Sensory Experience • Instantiation and Validation • Conclusions July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 2
  • 3. Introduction • Multimedia services enriched by sensory effects like wind, vibration and light • Previous studies showed – Enhancement of QoE for genres like action, documentary, commercial, and sports – Can compensate for lower video quality (lower bitrate) – Influence the users’ emotions and intensity • Active emotions are decreased July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 3
  • 4. Motivation / Goal • Current QoE models focus on single modalities (or simple combinations) • In previous studies we focused on a holistic approach – What is the influence of single sensory effects? – Which sensory effect has the highest impact? • Find a utility model to estimate QoE based on the individual effects – Complementary to existing models for audio-visual content without sensory effects July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 4
  • 5. Methodology • Subjective evaluation ➜ generic utility model ➜ instantiation and validation (based on data from previous studies) • 32 Participants – 6 female and 26 male – Age 20 – 47 – 90% were aged between 20 – 31 • Stimuli – Four video sequences from our dataset including the sensory effects • Two sports sequences (Berrecloth and Pastranas) • Two action sequences (2012 and Tron) – Length 10 seconds, resolution 720p – Each video sequence was presented in eight configurations – One action video sequence (Tron) was selected as training sequence July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 5 ID Configuration 1 No sensory effects 2 Light only 3 Wind only 4 Vibration only 5 Light and wind 6 Light and vibration 7 Wind and vibration 8 Light, wind, and vibration
  • 6. Methodology (cont’d) • Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale – Slider with a continuous scale from 0 (very low) to 100 (very high) with an initial position at 50 (medium) • Test setup – Introduction – Pre-questionnaire – Training phase – Main evaluation – Post-questionnaire • Training phase with one video sequence in all eight configurations – To eliminate or at least reduce the surprise effect • Test configurations were presented in randomized order July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 6
  • 7. Results of Subjective Evaluation Pastranas Berrecloth July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 7 MOS & 95% CI
  • 8. Major Findings • Sensory effects enhance the QoE • Some sensory effects have a higher impact on the QoE than other single sensory effects – Vibration compared to light and/or wind • Highest QoE with all three sensory effects present July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 8
  • 9. A Utility Model for Sensory Experience • Proposed utility model: • The model represents single sensory effects as binary variables – Present or not • The model should allow to estimate the QoE with sensory effects from the QoE without sensory effects July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 9
  • 10. Instantiation of the Utility Model • The instantiation takes light, wind, and vibration into account: • Model fitted to the data by Multivariate Linear Regression (MLR) with least square estimator by taking the assessed MOS into account July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 10
  • 11. Validation of the Utility Model July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 11
  • 12. Validation of the Utility Model (cont’d) July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 12
  • 13. Validation of the Utility Model (cont’d) • Analyzed the impact of the variables on the model by the squared sample correlation – Gives an estimate on the variability that the variables introduce in the model • The highest variability or impact in the model is represented by the variable depicting the vibration (73%) – Strengthens the finding that vibration has the highest impact on the QoE in terms of MOS points July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 13
  • 14. Conclusions • Influence of single sensory effects and their combination provides insights on how single and combined sensory effects influence the QoE • Vibration effects have the highest influence on the QoE compared to other single sensory effects (or combinations) • We presented a first utility model for sensory experience + instantiation thereof with light, wind, and vibration effects July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013 14
  • 15. Thank you for your attention ... questions, comments, etc. are welcome … Ass.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Christian Timmerer Klagenfurt University, Department of Information Technology (ITEC) Universitätsstrasse 65-67, A-9020 Klagenfurt, AUSTRIA christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at http://research.timmerer.com/ Tel: +43/463/2700 3621 Fax: +43/463/2700 3699 © Copyright: Christian Timmerer 15July 5th, 2013 QoMEX 2013