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MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience
 

MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience

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Presentation at MMT workshop in Kyoto during the 91st MPEG meeting...

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    MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience Presentation Transcript

    • MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience
      Christian Timmerer
      Klagenfurt University (UNIKLU)  Faculty of Technical Sciences (TEWI)
      Department of Information Technology (ITEC)  Multimedia Communication (MMC)
      http://research.timmerer.com  http://blog.timmerer.com  mailto:christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at
      Acknowledgments: DANAE, ENTHRONE, P2P-Next, ALICANTE projects funded by EC, SCALIPTV/SCALNET funded by FFG, ASSSV funded by FWF and, in particular Michael Eberhard, Ingo Kofler, Robert Kuschnig, Michael Ransburg, Michael Sablatschan, Hermann Hellwagner
    • Outline
      Background / Introduction
      Cross-layer designs & optimizations
      MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation
      How to exploit MPEG-21 for XL optimizations?
      Cross-Layer Model (XLM)
      Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
      Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
      Conclusions
      2010/01/20
      2
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    • Background / Introduction
      Cross-layer designs
      Aim: increase QoS/QoEby performing coordinated actions across the network layers => violating the protocol hierarchy and isolation model
      Approaches: bottom-up or a top-down or jointly optimizing parameters at the different layers
      Common property: compromising interoperability in favor of performance
      Increasing the interoperability of cross-layer designs by adopting an open standard – MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation – for describing the functional dependencies across network layers
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      3
    • Digital Item Adaptation
      DIA := syntax and semantics of tools that assist in the adaptation of Digital Items
      Goals:
      Satisfy transmission, storage andconsumption constraints as well asQuality of Service (QoS) management
      Enable transparent access to (distributed)advanced multimedia content by shieldingusers from network and terminal installationissues
      Codec Format-independent mechanisms that provide support for Digital Item Adaptation in terms of:
      Resource adaptation
      Description adaptation
      Quality of Service management
      The adaptation engines themselves are non-normative tools
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      4
    • 2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      Usage Environment Description (UED)
      Terminal Capabilities
      • Codec Capabilities
      • Device Properties
      • Input-Output Characteristics
      User Characteristics
      • User Info
      • Usage Preference & History
      • Presentation Preferences
      • Accessibility
      • Location
      fundamental inputto any adaptation engine
      Natural Environment Characteristics
      • Location & Time
      • Audio-Visual
      Network Characteristics
      • Capabilities
      • Conditions
      5
      Context-related metadata describes the usage environment in terms of terminal capabilities; network characteristics; user characteristics; natural environment characteristics;
      e.g., codec capabilities = mp2, ML@MP; available bandwidth=1500kbps; visually impaired; high-level ambient noise;
    • AdaptationQoS and Universal Constraints Description
      Content-related metadata – AdaptationQoS– describes the relationship between constraints; feasible adaptation operations satisfying these constraints; associated utilities (qualities);
      e.g., available bandwidth is 384kbps, terminal display is CIF; reduce bit-rate; quality at QCIF/30fps/QP=10 versus CIF/10fps/QP=15e.g., bit-rate = 256kbps, frame-rate=30fps, resolution=CIF, etc.
      Universal Constraints Description (UCD): mathematical approach based on an optimization problem
      find values for the variables representing adaptation parameters that do not violate the limitation constraints (feasibility) and maximize the optimization constraint(optimality, objective function)
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      6
    • How to exploit MPEG-21 for XL optimizations?
      Three-step approach
      Cross-Layer Model (XLM): describing the relationship between QoS metrics at different levels
      No specific notation (e.g., graphical)
      For example:
      Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
      AdaptationQoS (AQoS): describe the relationship between constraints, feasible adaptation operations satisfying these constraints, and associated utilities (qualities)
      Usage Environment Description (UED): context information (network conditions, terminal capabilities, user preferences, etc.)
      Universal Constraints Description (UCD): limitation and optimization constraints
      Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
      Software module solving an optimization problem adopting any algorithm
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      7
    • Example: Adaptive XL-based Streaming
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      8
      supported display resolution, frame-rate
      TID, DID, QID
      packet loss, jitter
      max. payload size, forward error correction
      signal strength, physical rate
      Basic Cross-Layer Model
      temporal id (TID)
      dependency id (DID)
      quality id (QID)
      packet size
      vertical and horizontal resolution
      bit rate
      frame rate
    • Advanced Cross-Layer Model
      Desirable characteristics
      TCP friendliness: long-term throughput similar to TCP
      Responsiveness: time to act upon a certain event
      Smoothness: variation experienced for a particular flow
      TCP-friendly Rate Control Protocol (TFRC)
      Throughput T in bytes/sec is modeled as a function of
      Segment size sin bytes
      RTT estimate r in seconds
      Loss event rate pas a fraction between 0.0 and 1.0
      TCP retransmission timeout value tRTOin seconds (simple tRTO= 4r)
      Adapts sending rate accordingly
      If Tcurr > Tnewthen reduce rate else increase rate
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      9
    • Instantiation of XLM using MPEG-21
      AdaptationQoS (AQoS)
      Parameters (TID, …) as IOPins
      Basic XL model as Look-Up Table (LUT)
      Advanced XL model as Stack Function (SF)
      Usage Environment Description (UED)
      Display resolution as display capabilities
      Max bit-rate of codec as codec capabilities
      RTT as packetTwoWay
      Loss event rate by using the packetLossRate
      Universal Constraints Description (UCD)
      Limit constraints
      resulting bit-rate < TFRC transmit rate
      resulting bit-rate < max bit-rate of codec
      video resolution < display size
      Optimization constraint: max bit-rate
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      10
    • Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video
      MPEG/ITU-T Scalable Video Coding (SVC)
      3 dimensions of scalability: spatial, temporal, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
      Spatial dimension [pixels]: 640x360, 1024x576, 1920x1080
      Temporal dimension [fps]: 15, 30
      Step 1: Determine Variables
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      11
      Table 1. (a) Adaptation Parameter Variables; (b) Content Property Variables.
    • Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video (cont’d)
      Step 2: Identify Functional Dependencies
      Step 3: Restrict Solution Space (Limit Constraints)
      Step 4: Define Objective Function
      maximize FrameRate
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      12
    • Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video (cont’d)
      Possible adaptation parameters
      Feasible adaptation parameters
      Optimal adaptation parameters
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      13
    • Conclusions
      Three steps to cross-layer interoperability
      Cross-Layer Model (XLM): describing the relationship between QoS metrics at different levels
      Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
      Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
      14
    • Thank you for your attention
      ... questions, comments, etc. are welcome …
      Ass.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Christian Timmerer
      Klagenfurt University, Department of Information Technology (ITEC)
      Universitätsstrasse 65-67, A-9020 Klagenfurt, AUSTRIA
      christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at
      http://research.timmerer.com/
      Tel: +43/463/2700 3621 Fax: +43/463/2700 3699
      © Copyright: Christian Timmerer
      15
      2010/01/20
      Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria