MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience
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MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience

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Presentation at MMT workshop in Kyoto during the 91st MPEG meeting...

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MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience Presentation Transcript

  • MPEG-21-based Cross-Layer Optimization Techniques for enabling Quality of Experience
    Christian Timmerer
    Klagenfurt University (UNIKLU)  Faculty of Technical Sciences (TEWI)
    Department of Information Technology (ITEC)  Multimedia Communication (MMC)
    http://research.timmerer.com  http://blog.timmerer.com  mailto:christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at
    Acknowledgments: DANAE, ENTHRONE, P2P-Next, ALICANTE projects funded by EC, SCALIPTV/SCALNET funded by FFG, ASSSV funded by FWF and, in particular Michael Eberhard, Ingo Kofler, Robert Kuschnig, Michael Ransburg, Michael Sablatschan, Hermann Hellwagner
  • Outline
    Background / Introduction
    Cross-layer designs & optimizations
    MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation
    How to exploit MPEG-21 for XL optimizations?
    Cross-Layer Model (XLM)
    Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
    Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
    Conclusions
    2010/01/20
    2
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
  • Background / Introduction
    Cross-layer designs
    Aim: increase QoS/QoEby performing coordinated actions across the network layers => violating the protocol hierarchy and isolation model
    Approaches: bottom-up or a top-down or jointly optimizing parameters at the different layers
    Common property: compromising interoperability in favor of performance
    Increasing the interoperability of cross-layer designs by adopting an open standard – MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation – for describing the functional dependencies across network layers
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    3
  • Digital Item Adaptation
    DIA := syntax and semantics of tools that assist in the adaptation of Digital Items
    Goals:
    Satisfy transmission, storage andconsumption constraints as well asQuality of Service (QoS) management
    Enable transparent access to (distributed)advanced multimedia content by shieldingusers from network and terminal installationissues
    Codec Format-independent mechanisms that provide support for Digital Item Adaptation in terms of:
    Resource adaptation
    Description adaptation
    Quality of Service management
    The adaptation engines themselves are non-normative tools
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    4
  • 2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    Usage Environment Description (UED)
    Terminal Capabilities
    • Codec Capabilities
    • Device Properties
    • Input-Output Characteristics
    User Characteristics
    • User Info
    • Usage Preference & History
    • Presentation Preferences
    • Accessibility
    • Location
    fundamental inputto any adaptation engine
    Natural Environment Characteristics
    • Location & Time
    • Audio-Visual
    Network Characteristics
    • Capabilities
    • Conditions
    5
    Context-related metadata describes the usage environment in terms of terminal capabilities; network characteristics; user characteristics; natural environment characteristics;
    e.g., codec capabilities = mp2, ML@MP; available bandwidth=1500kbps; visually impaired; high-level ambient noise;
  • AdaptationQoS and Universal Constraints Description
    Content-related metadata – AdaptationQoS– describes the relationship between constraints; feasible adaptation operations satisfying these constraints; associated utilities (qualities);
    e.g., available bandwidth is 384kbps, terminal display is CIF; reduce bit-rate; quality at QCIF/30fps/QP=10 versus CIF/10fps/QP=15e.g., bit-rate = 256kbps, frame-rate=30fps, resolution=CIF, etc.
    Universal Constraints Description (UCD): mathematical approach based on an optimization problem
    find values for the variables representing adaptation parameters that do not violate the limitation constraints (feasibility) and maximize the optimization constraint(optimality, objective function)
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    6
  • How to exploit MPEG-21 for XL optimizations?
    Three-step approach
    Cross-Layer Model (XLM): describing the relationship between QoS metrics at different levels
    No specific notation (e.g., graphical)
    For example:
    Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
    AdaptationQoS (AQoS): describe the relationship between constraints, feasible adaptation operations satisfying these constraints, and associated utilities (qualities)
    Usage Environment Description (UED): context information (network conditions, terminal capabilities, user preferences, etc.)
    Universal Constraints Description (UCD): limitation and optimization constraints
    Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
    Software module solving an optimization problem adopting any algorithm
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    7
  • Example: Adaptive XL-based Streaming
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    8
    supported display resolution, frame-rate
    TID, DID, QID
    packet loss, jitter
    max. payload size, forward error correction
    signal strength, physical rate
    Basic Cross-Layer Model
    temporal id (TID)
    dependency id (DID)
    quality id (QID)
    packet size
    vertical and horizontal resolution
    bit rate
    frame rate
  • Advanced Cross-Layer Model
    Desirable characteristics
    TCP friendliness: long-term throughput similar to TCP
    Responsiveness: time to act upon a certain event
    Smoothness: variation experienced for a particular flow
    TCP-friendly Rate Control Protocol (TFRC)
    Throughput T in bytes/sec is modeled as a function of
    Segment size sin bytes
    RTT estimate r in seconds
    Loss event rate pas a fraction between 0.0 and 1.0
    TCP retransmission timeout value tRTOin seconds (simple tRTO= 4r)
    Adapts sending rate accordingly
    If Tcurr > Tnewthen reduce rate else increase rate
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    9
  • Instantiation of XLM using MPEG-21
    AdaptationQoS (AQoS)
    Parameters (TID, …) as IOPins
    Basic XL model as Look-Up Table (LUT)
    Advanced XL model as Stack Function (SF)
    Usage Environment Description (UED)
    Display resolution as display capabilities
    Max bit-rate of codec as codec capabilities
    RTT as packetTwoWay
    Loss event rate by using the packetLossRate
    Universal Constraints Description (UCD)
    Limit constraints
    resulting bit-rate < TFRC transmit rate
    resulting bit-rate < max bit-rate of codec
    video resolution < display size
    Optimization constraint: max bit-rate
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    10
  • Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video
    MPEG/ITU-T Scalable Video Coding (SVC)
    3 dimensions of scalability: spatial, temporal, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
    Spatial dimension [pixels]: 640x360, 1024x576, 1920x1080
    Temporal dimension [fps]: 15, 30
    Step 1: Determine Variables
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    11
    Table 1. (a) Adaptation Parameter Variables; (b) Content Property Variables.
  • Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video (cont’d)
    Step 2: Identify Functional Dependencies
    Step 3: Restrict Solution Space (Limit Constraints)
    Step 4: Define Objective Function
    maximize FrameRate
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    12
  • Example: Adaptation of Scalable Video (cont’d)
    Possible adaptation parameters
    Feasible adaptation parameters
    Optimal adaptation parameters
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    13
  • Conclusions
    Three steps to cross-layer interoperability
    Cross-Layer Model (XLM): describing the relationship between QoS metrics at different levels
    Instantiation of the XLM by utilizing MPEG-21 metadata
    Cross-Layer Adaptation Decision-Taking Engine (XL-ADTE)
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria
    14
  • Thank you for your attention
    ... questions, comments, etc. are welcome …
    Ass.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Christian Timmerer
    Klagenfurt University, Department of Information Technology (ITEC)
    Universitätsstrasse 65-67, A-9020 Klagenfurt, AUSTRIA
    christian.timmerer@itec.uni-klu.ac.at
    http://research.timmerer.com/
    Tel: +43/463/2700 3621 Fax: +43/463/2700 3699
    © Copyright: Christian Timmerer
    15
    2010/01/20
    Christian Timmerer, Klagenfurt University, Austria