Delivery Context Descriptions - A Comparison and Mapping Model
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Delivery Context Descriptions - A Comparison and Mapping Model

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Nowadays, mobile devices have implemented several transmission technologies which enable access to the Internet and increase the bit rate for data exchange. Despite modern mobile processors and ...

Nowadays, mobile devices have implemented several transmission technologies which enable access to the Internet and increase the bit rate for data exchange. Despite modern mobile processors and high-resolution displays, mobile devices will never reach the stage of a powerful notebook or desktop system (for example, due to the fact of battery powered CPUs or just concerning the small-sized displays). Due to these limitations, the deliverable content for these devices should be adapted based on their capabilities including a variety of aspects (e.g., from terminal to network characteristics). These capabilities should be described in an interoperable way. In practice, however, there are many standards available and a common mapping model between these standards is not in place. Therefore, in this paper we describe such a mapping model and its implementation aspects. In particular, we focus on the whole delivery context (i.e., terminal capabilities, network characteristics, user preferences, etc.) and investigated the two most prominent state-of-the-art description schemes, namely User Agent Profile (UAProf) and Usage Environment Description (UED).

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Delivery Context Descriptions - A Comparison and Mapping Model Delivery Context Descriptions - A Comparison and Mapping Model Presentation Transcript

  • Delivery
Context
Descrip1ons
 A
Comparison
and
Mapping
Model
 Chris&an
Timmerer
 Klagenfurt
University
(UNIKLU)

Faculty
of
Technical
Sciences
(TEWI)
 Department
of
Informa&on
Technology
(ITEC)

Mul&media
Communica&on
(MMC)
 h9p://research.1mmerer.com

h9p://blog.1mmerer.com

mailto:chris1an.1mmerer@itec.uni‐klu.ac.at
 Co‐authors:
Chris1an
Timmerer,
Johannes
Jabornig,
and
Hermann
Hellwagner
 
(UNIKLU)

  • Outline
 •  Introduc1on
/
Mo1va1on
 •  Available
Descrip1on
Formats
+
 Analysis
/
Comparison
 •  Mapping
Model
/
Levels
/
Classes
 •  Implementa1on
 •  Conclusions
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 2

  • Introduc1on
 •  Access
to
Internet
is
 ubiquitous
 •  Device
types:
sta1onary
+
 mobile
 •  Characteris1cs
manifold
 •  Calls
for
a
descrip1on
of
the
 usage
environment
context
 –  Different
formats
available
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 3

  • Mo1va1on
 •  Use
case:
mul1media
content
 Terminal
Devices
 adapta1on
 Server
/
Proxy
/
 Live
Content
 Access
Point
/Client
 Mul&media
Content
 Adapta&on
 Characteris&cs
 Stored
Content
 Adapta&on
 Capabili&es
 Decision‐Taking
 Condi&ons
 .
.
.
 …
does
not
want
to
change/update
SW
each
&me
a
 new
format
appears
 …
keep
mapping
effort
minimal
 …
want
to
have
a
generic
approach
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 4

  • Available
Descrip1on
Formats
 RDF
 Composite
Capabili1es
/
Preference
Profiles
(CC/PP)
–
W3C
 •  –  Components
+
a9ributes
(simple|complex={bag,seq})
 –  Does
not
define
a
vocabulary
of
terms
 User
Agent
Profile
(UAProf)
–
Open
Mobile
Alliance
(OMA)
 •  HW/SW
Placorm:
display/audio
output,
interac1on,
media
types,
codecs,
OS,
…
 –  CC/PP
 BrowserUA:
(X)HTML
features,
JavaScript,
…
 –  NetworkCharacteris1cs:
bearer,
security
op1ons,
Bluetooth
support,
…
 –  Wap/PushCharacteris1cs
 –  Usage
Environment
Descrip1on
(UED)
–
MPEG‐21
Digital
Item
Adapta1on
(DIA)
 •  –  User
characteris1cs:
user
informa1on,
preferences,
accessibility,
…
 XML
Schema
 –  Terminal
capabili1es:
display/audio
output,
codecs,
power/storage,
CPU,
…
 –  Network
characteris1cs:
capabili1es/condi1ons,
bandwidth,
error,
…
 –  Natural
environment
characteris1cs:
illumina1on,
noise,
loca1on,
1me,
…

 Delivery
Context
Ontology
(DCO)
–
W3C

 •  OWL
 Environment:
loca1on,
network,
…

 –  Hardware:
display,
input,
memory,
camera,
Bluetooth,
CPU,
…
 –  Soiware:
supported
APIs,
data
formats,
OS,
protocols,
Java/Web
browser
specifics,
…
 –  Measure:
units
wrt
physical
electrical
charges,
length,
unit
conversion,
…
 –  2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 5

  • Analysis
/
Comparison
 •  All
standards
make
use
of
XML
 –  MPEG‐21
UED:
XML
Schema
 –  OMA
UAProf:
RDF
(as
it
is
based
on
CC/PP)
 –  W3C
DCO:
OWL
 •  Only
a
few
but
essen1al
characteris1cs/capabili1es
are
 common
across
all
usage
environment
context
descrip1on
 formats
 –  Display
capabili1es,
file/coding
formats,
…
 –  Difference
in
syntax,
e.g.,
horizontal=1024,
ver1cal=768
vs.
 1024×768
 •  CC/PP
defines
only
a
basic
structure
without
a
vocabulary
 of
terms
 
describe
rela1onship
between
commonali1es
(how?
which
 technology?)
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 6

  • Mapping
Model
 •  Direct
mapping
model:
explicit
func1ons
from
one
 standard/format
to
another
 •  Integra1on
model:
common
interface
+
func1on
for
 conver1ng
to/from
this
model
 •  Technology
 –  XML
Schema:
data
type
and
value
range
incompa1bili1es
 cannot
be
described
(e.g.,
UED:
colorCapable={true,false},
 UAProf:
ColorCapable={Yes,No})
 –  OWL:
describes
rela1onship
between
classes
and
proper1es
 uaprof2dco
 ued2dco
 dco
 integra1on
model
 dco2uaprof
 dco2ued
 im2ued
 .
.
.
 ued2im
 ued2uaprof
 ued
 uaprof
 dco
 ued
 uaprof
 uaprof2ued
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 7

  • Approach:
Mapping
Levels
 •  Component:
mapping
of
predefined
group
of
elements/a9ributes
 to
similar
group
of
the
other
descrip1on
format
 •  Elements:
mapping
of
a9ributes/elements
with
equal
seman1cs
but
 possibly
different
syntax,
i.e.,
different
tag
names
 •  Datatype:
mapping
of
datatypes
with
equal
domains
but
different
 syntax

 •  Value:
mapping
of
datatypes
with
different
domains
but
equal
 seman1cs

 Level
 UAProf
Example
 UED
Example
 Component
 prf:NetworkCharacteristics dia:NetworkType Element
 prf:InputCharSet dia:CharacterSetCode Datatype
 prf-dt:Boolean xsd:Boolean Value
 Yes true 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 8

  • Examples
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 9

  • Examples
(cont’d)
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 10

  • Mapping
Classes
 •  Direct:
equal
seman1cs
and
compa1ble
datatypes
with
equal
domains
but
 may
differ
in
their
syntax
(i.e.,
tag
name)
 –  E.g.,
dia:bitsPerPixel
(xsd:integer)
and
prf:BitsPerPixel
(prf‐dt:Number)

 •  Advance:
same
concept
(i.e.,
equal
seman1cs)
but
with
different,
non‐ compa1ble
datatypes
and/or
domains
 –  E.g.,
dia:Resolu1on
(horizontal/ver1cal
a9ributes)
and
prf:SreenSize
(480x320)

 •  Derive:
element
values
can
be
derived
from
one
or
more
elements
of
the
 respec1ve
other
descrip1on
format
 –  E.g.,
prf:SoundOutputCapable
derived
from
presence
of
 dia:AudioOutputCapability

 •  Extend:
require
proprietary
extensions
of
the
respec1ve
other
descrip1on
 format
 –  E.g.,
UAProf
WapCharacteristcs
not
present
in
UED
 •  UAProf:
77
elements
with
direct
(4),
advance
(7),
derive
(4),
and
extend
 (62)
 •  Direct
(4),
advance
(7),
and
derive
(4)
cover
most
mul1media
content
 adapta1on
scenarios
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 11

  • Example
 •  File/coding
format:
Classifica1on
Scheme
vs.
MIME
 type
 –  urn:mpeg:mpeg7:cs:VisualCodingFormatCS:2001:3
 –  video/mp4
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 12

  • Implementa1on
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 13

  • Conclusions
 •  Mapping
of
context
delivery
descrip1ons
between
different
formats
 •  Mapping
model
based
on
levels
=>
four
classes:
direct,
advance,
 derive,
extend
 •  Defined
integra1on
model
+
formulated
templates
(SPARQL/OWL)
 to
query
informa1on
from
this
model
to
generate
the
target
context
 delivery
format
 •  Findings
 –  Overlap
between
different
formats
not
that
huge
as
expected
 •  Clustered
around
those
proper1es
which
are
considered
by
the
majority
of
 applica1ons
areas
(e.g.,
screen
size,
coding
formats,
etc.)
 –  Direct,
advance,
derive
are
sufficient
 –  Rela1onship
described
manually
with
respect
to
an
integra1on
model

 •  Requires
a
thorough
analysis
of
these
formats
which
is
some1mes
 cumbersome

 •  Mapping
func1ons
need
to
be
defined
only
once

 –  We
have
demonstrated
that
it
is
feasible
but
requires
the
integra1on
 of
many
XML‐based
technologies
(XML
Schema,
RDF,
OWL,
SPARQL,
 XSLT,
…)
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 14

  • Thank
you
for
your
a9en1on
 ...
ques1ons,
comments,
etc.
are
welcome
…
 
Ass.‐Prof.
Dipl.‐Ing.
Dr.
Chris1an
Timmerer
 Klagenfurt
University,
Department
of
Informa1on
Technology
(ITEC)
 Universitätsstrasse
65‐67,
A‐9020
Klagenfurt,
AUSTRIA
 chris1an.1mmerer@itec.uni‐klu.ac.at
 h9p://research.1mmerer.com/
 Tel:
+43/463/2700
3621
Fax:
+43/463/2700
3699
 ©
Copyright:
Chris.an
Timmerer
 2009/03/19
 Chris1an
Timmerer,
Klagenfurt
University,
Austria
 15