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  • 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklz xcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcv bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjk lzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq Ways to Integrate Educational Technology into my Teaching to Enhance my Pedagogy by Christine L. Michael A Creative Inquiry Presented to the Graduate Faculty in the School of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education
  • 2. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 1 APPROVAL PAGE Creative Inquiry Director: Marilyn J. Llewellyn, PhD_________________ _____________________________________ Signature _____________________________________ Date Dean School of Education: Marilyn J. Llewellyn, PhD_________________ ______________________________________ Signature ______________________________________ Date
  • 3. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 2 ABSTRACT In 2009, 97 percent of teachers had one or more computers located in the classroom (Fast Facts Educational technology, 2009).Technology in the classroom is prolific, and its effectiveness is dependent on how it is used. The goal of this inquiry was to understand my educational pedagogy and then integrateappropriate technology to support my pedagogy.Learning theories were reviewed, and distilledto create my own pedagogy. Technologyis an influential educational tool.Educational technology is explored,understood, applied, analyzed, evaluated andused to create various examples of usage in the classroom. Bloom‘s revised taxonomy created structure for the applications. Technology, when used effectively, aside teacher‘s skills, can powerfully impact the learning experience. In understanding my own pedagogy, and the technologies available, I took ownership of my digital immigrant status. My journey led me through ways to integrate educational technology into my teaching to enhance my pedagogy. I worked towards a passport of knowledge and native comfort in the digital world of educational technology.
  • 4. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I dedicate this work, to my best friend and husband, James. I wish to express my sincere appreciation for his support and willingness to listen to the progress and non-progress of my creative inquiry. I also want to acknowledge my children, Mac and Mikayla. My children forfeited many summer days, to allow me to concentrate on my studies. Grateful acknowledgements are also extended to Dr. Marilyn J. Llewellyn, PhD, my academic advisor and professor, for all her professional assistance and guidance. Dr. Llewellyn‘s warminteractive approach, reassuring style and gentle probing pushed me to write to the best of my abilities.Dr. Llewellyn explained ancient Greek words kairos and chronos. Chronos refers to time as quantitative, sequential, and flowing in a chronological manner. I feel my scholarly journey progressed this way. Kairosrefers to time as qualitative, meaning time comes together, to culminate into the right thing at the right time. I feel my final course with Dr. Llewellyn took my journey and creative inquiry from chronos, to kairos. Dr. Llewellyn was the very first person I met as I walked through Carlow‘ s doors in 2005. How appropriate she was my professor to close out my academic career. So as we say in my native tongue…Merci à vous.
  • 5. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 4 Contents APPROVAL PAGE........................................................................................................................ 1 ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................... 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................................ 3 Creative Inquiry .............................................................................................................................. 5 Teacher… teach thyself… .............................................................................................................. 6 My journey of understanding my pedagogy. .................................................................................. 6 Educational Technology, an Evolution not a Revolution ............................................................. 20 The Blooms are in the Garten (as in kindergarten)....................................................................... 27 You must be the change you want to see in the world" –Gandhi ................................................. 34 Summary....................................................................................................................................... 39 References..................................................................................................................................... 43 Educational Technologies used..................................................................................................... 47
  • 6. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 5 Creative Inquiry Do you do the Popplet or the Symbaloo? Have you seen a Wordnik with your Polldaddy lately? Have you played Picaboo with the Survey Monkey in the last month? If you answered yes to any of the questions, then you must be in the power user community of educators who are changing the face of education. If you answered no to these questions, and still have a look of puzzlement on your face, then you are about to be enter a digital world, where the technology in the classroom, extends beyond computer classes, to integrating technology across the curriculum.The explosion of technology available for the classroom has created a virtual supermarket. I will discuss my pedagogical journey, and explore and refine the appropriate technologies to use in my classroom.I have chosen to focus my inquiry on… Ways to Integrate Educational Technology into my Teaching to Enhance my Pedagogy
  • 7. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 6 Teacher… teach thyself… My journey of understanding my pedagogy. What is my pedagogy? I had to first understand what pedagogy meant. The word comes from the Greek (paidagōgeō); in which (país, genitive means "child" and ‗ago‘ means "lead"; so it literally means "to lead the child"(Pedagogy, 2013). I had to appreciate how I feel is the best way to lead a child in the education environment. A famous quote from Ignacio Estrada comes to mind ―If a child can‘t learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn‖(Estrada, n.d.).I needed to investigate how past society has led a child. Education in USA has itself been on its own learning curve.The end goal of education hasmorphed from hunter and gatherer days of self-exploration and learning for survival, to the public education system today, focused on producing an educated society, to keep the wheels of capitalism spinning. Education is a transfer of values from one generation to the next generation. Our end consequenceand desired value of education has shifted, through the agricultural period, of efficient farmers, to industrialperiod, preparing obedient and proficient workers. In the late 1700‘s into the 1800‘s, children were busy working on the farms, and then starting in the 1820‘s, they began working in factories. School was an activity left to the lucky few who had leisure time for learning. The name for school is from Greek skhole, school, meaning to lecture and discuss inleisure and spare time (School, n.d.). As industry and automation progressed,the need for child labor decreased. Public,State controlled, mandatory education became the decree. The end goal was for a literate civilian, to ensure inculcationof
  • 8. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 7 religion, and the ability to read scriptures, creating a moral citizen.Finally, free education, notfor all at first, became the end result of American Society.(History of Education in America, n.d.). Now, in the 21st century, some say the goal or ultimate product we want from the American school system is a good citizen, obedient, honest, loyal and God-fearing. Others want capable people who will be able to go out into the work force and make money and contribute to the economy. Some believe the school is a necessity to satisfy society and master what society deems important to know and get the certificate to prove it. Now, I need to distill my thoughts and understand what I think is the end goal of education. Actually, I do not think I have anend goal,but an ongoing goal.As I look back at a paper I wrote in 2005, in the class ED 782, Social Foundations of Education, I asked myself is the purpose of education to teach history or happiness, science or self-sufficiency, mathematics or motivation, English or empathy? Is the end product a good citizen, a productive worker, or an informed student? To answer my own question I must align myself to my own pedagogy. My answer isyes to all of my aforementioned questions. I decided,creating a critical thinker was my objective of teaching.―Critical comes from 14c French from crisis (critique), meaning the ability to make a judgment to separate and to decide‖(Critical thinking, n.d.).―Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it. Critical thinking is self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking‖(Concept and Definition of Critical Thinking, 2013). I want students to be able to judge, separate and decide what information supports their thoughts, and decide if it is relevant to their argument, or to what they wish to accomplish.
  • 9. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 8 Critical thinking enables the student to be a part of the world without being absorbed by it. The critical thinker is not just an observer, but a participant able to digest the world, analyze it and sift the information. ―Hutchins proposed that education was not a utilitarian venture. The main purpose of education was to create an individual who was capable of intellectual power. The education system was not just an imitation of life but a preparation for life‖ (Hutchins, 1953).In today‘s climate, children cannot just be receptors; they need to be active in life‘s dialogue. Schools need not serve the public, but create a public. Paulo Freire stated ―it was the duty of the schools to provide the students with the tools to be agents of change‖(Freire, 1972). Knowledge should not be taught as a finished product. I still hunger every day, for what the world has on display for me to discover. ―If we regard truth as emerging from a complex process of mutual inquiry, the classroom will look like a resourceful and interdependent community. Our assumptions about knowing can open up, or shut down, the capacity for connectedness on which good teaching depends‖.(Powell, 2001). I want for students to recognize all dialogue is beneficial. Even if I have a conversation with someone, and I do not share their philosophy, I still benefit from the exchange of ideas. I will digest the concepts and modify or solidify my thoughts. I have discussed the logistics of education, but what about the philosophy of education?Now, I am clear what I think is the end result (or ongoing result) of education: a critical thinker. I now examine my learning theory, through revisiting educative scholars, to find out how I came to my pedagogy. The first theory I investigate is the Cognitive Theory. This theory states learning concentrates on attention and participation from students, recollection of what was taught,
  • 10. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 9 teaching the lesson and providing guidance, instruction, feedback and assessment. Learning must be relevant and activate prior knowledge and scaffolding. This theory highlights many learning styles – visual, kinesthetic, oral, aural and interactive. This theory advocates rote learningand memorization in order for the informationto make sense and lead to critical thinking.(Shelly, 2009).Cognitive theory states learning is intrinsically motivated and if we can point out the benefits of learning the material, students will buy in(Zheng, M., n.d. slide 21). A very important contributor to the Cognitive theory is Benjamin Bloom.Bloom postulated in 1956, that we learn in a progressive manner. Bloom divided his theory into 3 categories, Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. The cognitive domain included objectives which dealt with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills. The affective domain included objectives which described changes in interest, attitudes and values and development of appreciations and adequate adjustments. The manipulative domain or motor-sill domain we found so little done in schools and needs further development‖(Bloom, Cognitive Domain, 1984). It is the Cognitive domain that I will concentrate on. Bloom‘s taxonomy of education objectives were knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation, (Bloom, 1956)―But in 1999, Dr. Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom's, and his colleagues published an updated version of Bloom‘s Taxonomy that takes into account a broader range of factors that have an impact on teaching and learning. This revised taxonomy attempts to correct some of the problems with the original taxonomy. Unlike the 1956 version, the revised taxonomy differentiates between ―knowing what,‖ the content of thinking, and ―knowing how,‖ the procedures used in solving problems.‖ (Designing, n.d.; Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001)
  • 11. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 10 The new version consists of remembering, understanding, applying, analysis, evaluation and creating. (Anderson & Krathwohl, Taxonomy, 2001)We first learn through memorization and retention of information. We restate into our own words, for our own digestion and understanding. We then take this information and use it in new situations to solve problems. We look at the plausibility of our solution and analyze the logic – we become critical thinkers. This leads to a synthesis of our thoughts to making decisions and supporting our new knowledge. When we become comfortable with our thought process we have the freedom to be creative thinkers. I mirror this process in my own learning. I must condense the information into my own framework, regroup, and reform it into my own thoughts to be able to retain the information. This is why I believe in the points from the Cognitive theory. I agree with many of the thoughts of cognitive theory. For instance, knowledge is activated from prior experience and there are many learning and expressive styles. I have trouble with the ―rote memorization‖ element. Memorization creates a climate for regurgitation, and runs the risk of being forgotten once the material has been submitted. ―Tell me and I‘ll forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand‖ –Chinese proverb. I chose to use a Chinese proverb, to add dimension to my inquiry.This statement was made a long time ago and in a different culture but the logic and message still stand. I continue to search and define my pedagogy.I still feel there are more components, to my learning theory. ―In Constructivism, knowledge is constructed, not reproduced, not passive but active. Knowledge isguided by the teacher. Constructivism does not supply factoids to be memorized. Emphasis is on the student, not the teacher. The teacher is the facilitator of knowledge, and learning is interactive, negotiated and often done in group work. Constructivism attributes
  • 12. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 11 knowledge formation to the student‘s active and past experiences.Know that your own past will rise up to give you today's answers. Inch by inch, the new character growth - a mature wisdom from life's experience will see you through in the future.‖(Dobransky, 2009) Constructivists consider knowledge formation to be more dependent on the learner and the learner's active experience with the environment. The constructivism theory reminds me of the movie Slumdog Millionaire.This Indian movie introduces us to the main character whilst answering questions on a quiz show. Unbelievably the impoverished, uneducated lead character knew the answers to the questions. This caused suspicion he is cheating. As the lead character Jamal, reminisces of his life, we understand how he knew the answers. Jamal constructed his knowledge of life, and the answers to the quiz questions, throughhis experiencesand his culture, resulting in aparadigm ofhis reality. I put a backpack on my back and I travelled the world for 5 years straight, through 75 countries. I travelled alone, but was NEVER alone (I kissed the Blarney Stone so I have the gift (is it a gift?) of the gab). I saw how many different cultures create their own reality. I learned there is more than one right answer along life‘s path. I definitely believe we control the lens in which we view life. The culture we live in, geography, socialvalues and habits and languagecontribute to our internal thoughts and how we construct our own mosaic called life. This aligns with the constructivism theory. This is why I believe in points in the Constructivism theory. I agree with many of the points of the constructivism theory.I subscribe to the application of hands-on, experiential, collaborative, project-based, and task-based learning.―Both theories agree knowledge is a result of mental construction, and learning is influenced by the context in
  • 13. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 12 which it is taught. Both agree societal influences have a great impact. Cognitive theory concentrates on the brain mechanism that help create knowledge, and constructivism concentrates on language and societal influences to create knowledge.‖(Zheng, n.d.slide 19) I still feel I have not found the ultimate definition of my pedagogy, I trudge on….. I remember all through college, being drilled about Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs. I even emphasized this to my students in my Marketing class. We need to understand motivation of people and what gets them to respond. ―The pyramidhas five levels. The four levels (lower- order needs) are considered physiological needs, while the top level is considered growth needs. The lower level needs need to be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior. Physiological stage includes air, food, water, sex, sleep, other factors towards homeostasis. The second state addresses Safety – includes security of environment, employment, resources, health, property. The third level highlights the need for Belongingness – includes love, friendship, intimacy, family. This base lead to Esteem – includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, respect. It is the hope that we all rise to the top level of Self-actualization of morality, creativity, problem solving‖. (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, n.d.) I have always considered the motivation of a person‘s action or inaction, justas important as the outcome of the action or inaction. If a child is unmotivated to learn, I can apply a heuristic approach. I will teach sensitive to their needs. This was the concept fellow classmates, Julie and Lisa of ED731 advocated in their creative inquiry.Teachers‘ reactions to divorce and ADHD in females are important elements in the teaching equation.
  • 14. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 13 As a child, I lived in a very abusive home. This unhealthy atmosphere affected many aspects of my life, including my academic performance. I was kept in for recess to go over homework and assignments. It was stated that I was a slow learner and probably would not graduate from high school. (of which none of my 6 siblings did.) When I was 8 years old, my parents died in a violent manner and we kids were shipped off to separate homes all over Canada. In my new home, I excelled so well in schoolthat I was put in the advanced class. Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs certainly applied to my learning. When I lived in an abusive home, my sense of safety and self-esteem were violated. I could not and did not care about e.g. how to construct a sentence, when I had to worry about rape and guns in my life. I could not rise to the next level, until the lower levels were met. This was exemplified when I was removed from this unhealthy atmosphere into to a healthier environment. I excelled in school. Now, I was able to concentrate, and actually wanted to know how to e.g. construct a sentence, to be creative and cathartic about my experiences. I carry that memory with me in all aspects of my teaching. I care about the WHY of a person‘s actions, as much as I care the end product of their actions. Once I was out of the abusive environment, and my basic needs of Maslow‘s hierarchy were met. I rose above the physiological level concerning food and sleep, and the safety level, to the love and belonging level. I could concentrate and have freedom to learn. This revelation made me wonder, how many other children out there have the ability to learn, express and be a critical thinker, but this ability is blocked due to their environment? This was my stimulus to take Social Work as an undergrad. I wanted to understand more than just the action, but also the reasoning behind a student‘s actions. The Teddy Stoddard story also mirrors the same sentiment. A young boy‘s life is changed when his teacher decided to stop teaching math and science, and started teaching children. The teacher‘s sensitivity to the student‘s total environment provided a
  • 15. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 14 springboard for success. This is why I believe in Maslow‘s theory and is a major contributor to my pedagogy. As I look at my emerging pedagogy I see development. I understand the cognitive mechanisms, the societal and cultural elements, and emotional intelligence. I still I have not quite solidified my pedagogy. Gardner created a theory of multiple intelligences.Gardner postulated, we all digest, sort, understand and express our intelligences in different ways. Gardner describes different intelligences. Spatial and visual intelligence demonstrates the ability to think in images and pictures, concretely and abstractly. These students tend to be good with art and design and delight when this is offered as a form of expression. Another intelligence discussed is verbal- linguistic intelligence. Students who display well-developed verbal skills also have sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words. These students are good with words. Essays and or poems are popular forms of expression. Logical-mathematical intelligence is another addition to Gardner‘s list. These students display the ability to think conceptually and abstractly. They can discern logical and numerical patterns and are good with numbers and math. Charts, timelines and deduction are prevalent choices for expression. Another intelligence on the list is, bodily- kinesthetic intelligence. Students with this ability can control their body movements and handle objects skillfully. These students are comfortable with action, movement and sports. Students often use plays, re-enactments or dance to express themselves. Sports are also an important avenue for these students to excel. Gardner also submitted another intelligence, musical intelligence. Students with this ability are able to produce and appreciate rhythm, tone and pitch. Students with this intelligence gravitate towards, instrumental, and vocal forms of
  • 16. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 15 communication. Interpersonal intelligence is another of Gardner‘s intelligences. Students with this capacity can detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Students with this intelligence are good at communicating with others. These students work great in groups and can adapt to the temper of situations. Another intelligence of Gardner‘s is intrapersonal. Students with this aptitude are good at self-reflection. This skill reveals the capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes. This intelligence affords the student to read themselves, and understand their limits. Another intelligence opined by Gardner is existential intelligence. Students have sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence. These students often think beyond the concrete and wonder of the meaning of life, birth and death. Lastly, Gardner states a Naturalistic intelligence. Students with this intelligence are good at appreciating the world and nature. These students often gravitate towards outdoor projects involving plants, animals and nature.(Workshop: Tapping into Multiple Intelligences, 2004) I concur with the idea of multiple intelligences. As a mother of 2 children, I have the opportunity to intimately see how my children learn. My son displays a logical-mathematical intelligence and can think conceptually and abstractly, and he excels in school. My son is a talented hockey player and playmaker and at ease on the ice, displaying bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. My son is not as astute in interpersonal intelligence. My daughter on the other hand, does not excel in the traditional education system. My daughter displays spatial-visual intelligence and is gifted with the capacity to think in images abstractly. My daughtercan see beads in loose form and then create beautifulnecklace. She has a wonderful sense of color combination. My daughter also has interpersonal intelligence and is able to read a situation and
  • 17. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 16 respond with sensitivity. I remember a time my back went out and I was flat on the floor. My young daughter immediately brought a freezer full of frozen foods and put them on my back to soothe my pain. My older son asked me if I could drive him to his friend‘s house. My son‘s action displayed a lack of sensitivity and interpersonal skills. As a teacher I have also seen different intelligences in the classroom. In my marketing class, I had a student who did not offer much in discussions in class. I knew he knew the information through tests, but he did not contribute in class. I asked the students to do a marketing project, following the 4 p‘s of marketing. They could create their own product. This student created an amazing project. This student‘s fictitious product was retinal activated remote control for the home media center. He created a mock devise, advertising, and fake research to express the value of his product. He highlighted the spectrum of advantages. An unmotivated sports viewer would enjoy the option of not lifting their arms. A handicapped or senior person would benefit from retinal activation due to mobility challenges. I could see his visual intelligences through his detailed artwork of his product, and thorough effort. I could also see his intrapersonal intelligence. He knew his own capabilities, and once he was given the floor to speak, he was in command and did a fantastic job. I definitely see the application of Gardner‘s intelligences, by understanding them, and recognizing them in my students, and my children, I can better address, inspire and communicate with them. This is why I believe in Gardner‘s multiple intelligences.
  • 18. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 17 I have researched many scholarly articles, with well-educatedtheorist‘s presentation of their version of the learning process. I do not know why I cannot subscribe to a particular theory. The aesthetic element I chose for my first chapter of my academic journey was painting. I chose to paint, specifically on slate. I chose slate, because slate was one of the original ―interactive tools‖ used in schools. Students would write on slate to communicate with the teacher. I chose to paint garden scenes. This inspiration comes from our very first introduction to formal schooling. The word kindergarten comesfrom German, meaning children's garden. Kinder is plural for childrenand Gartenmeans garden.(Kindergarten, n.d.) I chose to paint flowers, inspired by Bloom‘s (as in flowers) taxonomy, and Gardner‘s (as in gardener) intelligences.Each slate I paint on is different in shape, color, size and condition. No child comes to us as a blank slate. Some students have paint strokes already painted on their slate in life. Some have beautiful flowers, some have weeds and some have broken parts to their slate, all come to us with some paint strokes of life already applied. It is this slate of variety the teachers starts with, thus creating a new painting WITH every child. Each paint stroke applied, is symbolic to adding knowledge to the canvas (or slate) of the student‘s mind.
  • 19. Aesthetic expression painted garden slate It is through this aesthetic exploration I realized, there is one more theorist I need to examine. This theorist is not documented in any library, and not studied in school and certainly cannot be cited with APA. The contributing source…ismeand my past.No child is a blank slate.I am no exception. There is a reason I have an eclectic definition of how I want to lead a child. There is a reason I feel we need to present, collaborate, assess, care and express in different ways, because that is what I needed in school and life. We do not form our pedagogy just from scholarly books, but also from our own past, reflective and intuitive.―We teach who we are.‖(Philosophical insights from Parker Palmer, n.d.) So, true to Christine Michael fashion, I am eclectic in all I do in life; this is also true with my pedagogy. I put into practice the very element I wish to teach. I am a critical thinker. I processed all the scholarly information, Cognitive, Constructivism, Blooms taxonomy,Maslow‘s Hierarchy, and Gardner‘sIntelligences and my experiences. I took my ability to make a judgment to separate the information and to decide my definition and restate into my own words.I then took this information and used it to understand mycreative inquiry, defining my pedagogy.
  • 20. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 19 Created in exploratree. I went from conception, to reflection, to perception and then articulation.I now own my own pedagogy. My journeys lead me from logistics, to philosophy, to my own personal pedagogy. Here is what I discovered to be my pedagogy in relation to what I learned. I think ateacher is a facilitator to the learning process. I want students to be critical thinkers, to contribute to themselves and to society. I feel students construct knowledge through past experiences and through their culture. I know this through my travels. I feel the cognitive process does follow a path through remember, digesting, restating, synthesizing and creativity. I know this through from my own schooling. I feel our emotional state contributes to our learning. If we feel secure, in our basic needs, we will have the freedom to reach further along the learning path. I know this from my own abusive past. I feel we all demonstrate tendencies towards different modes of learning, digesting and sorting and expressing knowledge. We all have different preferences in learning and different intelligences.I know this from being a mother, and a teacher. So, I tap into the Constructionist, Cognitive, Blooms, Maslow and Gardner theories and my own experiences to create the sum of my final pedagogic definition. Students should be curious, collaborating,
  • 21. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 20 creating, contributing, conversing, connecting, and critical thinkers. . It is my hope that my teaching pedagogy will contribute to that ongoing goal.This film clip from the movie Accepted, eloquently states we all learn about different things and different ways. Let‘s celebrate this and not look to pigeon hole everyone, to a one-size-fits-all education. I want to be a part of that process! We all learn in different ways Found in Wingclips Educational Technology, an Evolution not a Revolution I now understand my pedagogy and the end goal I want from education. Now, what do I do with this knowledge? How do I apply my understanding of my pedagogy to my style of teaching? I decided assistive educational technology is a tool I want to use, to enhance my pedagogy. ―Do not confine your children to your own learning, for they were born in another time.‖ – Chinese proverb. I use the term tool, not as an instrument to fix but as an instrument to create. In line with the constructivism theory, I constructed this meaning of toolthrough my experiences. I am a creative person, and immediately associate a tool as an instrument used to craft, expand and explore and create. Technology can be useful and an integral part of the educational practice. I do not wish to valorize educational technology, and suggest is as a panacea, but wish to express its great value. Technology is the pen and paper of our time; it is the
  • 22. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 21 language this generation speaks and the lens (or Instagram) in which they see the world. I feel educational technology is not the future; it is the present, an evolution, not a fad or revolution.Technology in the classroom should be used as an instructional tool, an assessment tool, and motivational tool―Learning is enhanced by communication, resulting in new knowledge, re-organized knowledge or additional understanding, with groups of students learning how to use the tools of their culture in a collaborative learning environment.‖(Cox & Cox, 2009) However, for technology to be a useful instrument, it must be used in conjunction with teacher skills, to enhance the learning experience. So, just like the introduction of the calculator into the classroom, which had resistors at first, we learned to use it as a tool. Now, it is hard to think of a math class without a calculator. Technology, is not an add-on, but an add-in. The technology we use, must be strategically chosen and applied in conjunction with our teaching skills, to be truly beneficial. ―The first rule of technology …automation applied to an efficient operation will magnify the efficiency. The second rule….automation applied to inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency‖(Gates, n.d.) The use of computers for basic skill instruction, traditionally done with paper and pencil,helps the student increase in efficiency. Students take less time to learn the same things with help of a computer. Access to a plethora of knowledge through internet and real time response and feedback propel the student along their learning curve.Technology for real communication with a real audience fosters ease with communicating. The use of technology
  • 23. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 22 facilitates cooperative learning, encourages new roles for learners and the ability to work independently I do not want technology to be this…. I do not want technology to replace, but to enhance. The Chinese proverb states we cannot teach as we were taught, because the world is a different place now, with new knowledge. We should be changing; it is our way of incorporating new learned knowledge, to ensure we are not stagnate. We are evolving so we must speak the language that students speak, in this case, technology. ―Students grew up in a world of technology. Descriptors are used to differentiate the generations, digital natives to describe students and digital immigrants to describe teachers. Today‘s students have also been called the Net Generation‖(Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005). ―Anecdotal evidence suggests that technology- heavy instruction can lead to important improvements in student performance and understanding… For their part, schools generally put faith in the promise of technology. Since the early 1980s, few schools have failed to sink vast quantities of capital into developing technological infrastructure and large amounts of staff time into technology training‖ (Gow, 2004). The fact that school districts are allocating part of the budget for technology expansion,
  • 24. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 23 and even creating BYOT , Bring Your own Technology, shows this is a valid direction in the education system.―We would also like to show that the use of technology has a positive effect on students' ability to think critically.Measured levels of critical thinking demonstrated by students using educational technology by using student questionnaires and a sophisticated content- analysis technique‖ (Newman, Johnson, Webb, & Cochrane, 1995). Teachersare the digital immigrantsand need to become comfortable with technology. Technology is only a tool; it is the user that can determine if it is used to its fullest effectiveness. ―The results indicated that the differences between teachers and students with regard to technology lie in how they utilize technology and how important they perceived it to be. The results of this study may help us better understand new millennium learners and provide them proper classroom technology products‖ (Gu, Zhu, & Guo, 2013). This provides a bridge for me, between the generation I come from and the generation I teach. ―Teacher and cognitivist theory go hand in hand with education computer games, information mapping/webbing software, internet research tools, audio/video presentation software, interactive software, and interactive whiteboards‖(Gee, n.d. slide 5).
  • 25. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 24 Why I think technology in the classroom supports my pedagogy. Created in -Mindmap Technology allows for individual, self-paced instruction. ―A primary advantage that CAI (computer assisted instruction) offers to the instructional process is that it permits students to proceed through curriculum objectives at a pace that they find comfortable. Classroom settings that move in lock-step at a pace determined by a teacher can either bore students by moving too slowly for them, or lose students by moving on to new material before mastery has been acquired on that which has already been covered. CAI software, however, permits students to dwell on material or return to it until they have reached a mastery level. It allows the student to do so in a more private context than a classroom, where students who learn more slowly may be subjected to embarrassment or ridicule from classmates. It also permits students who learn more rapidly and who have mastered a set of objectives to progress without waiting. Thus, CAI permits customization that is usually not possible to attain for all students in a classroom. This
  • 26. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 25 individualization is crucial to understanding why CAI is considered a powerful educational strategy‖(Mevarech & Rich, 1985). Students are now an active part in the pace of learning. Students can control the pace of their learning. ―Another important advantage involves what educational psychologists refer to as "locus of control" - students have a greater sense of control over their learning experience and how it is paced; they have less ambiguity about their performance because CAI systems furnish frequent feedback. It also permits continuous feedback to the learner and positive reinforcement for successful completion of instructional tasks and for mastery of objectives‖ (Mevarech & Rich, 1985). ―Metastudies continued to suggest that students from disadvantaged environments especially benefit from CAI. That is, CAI may contribute a structure that is especially effective with schools in different types of disadvantaged or low-SES settings‖ (Mevarech & Rich, 1985). This levels out the field of access to information, for all students. Technology can also be a tool for students with physical challenges. ―Students with health impairments who are unable to attend school regularly can keep up with their classmates by using online learning programs and mobile technologies. Students with physical disabilities can use alternative keyboards and computers to access learning materials with greater ease and independence. Students who struggle with reading can use special computer programs that read text out loud to them. Students who have difficulty with writing can use word processors to check for grammar and spelling errors and assist them with editing. Confidence and success are improved when questions can be answered quickly and independently‖ (Karlan, Hourcade, & Parette, n.d.).
  • 27. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 26 Technology also helped studentswith special needs and learning challenges such as Dyslexia. With technology they can improve their understanding. ―Improved writing is not the only area in which students with special needs benefit from technology. One study found that students with Dyslexia improved significantly in reading ability when a computer remediation program, fast forward language, was used and that in some cases dyslexic student scores were raised into the normal range‖ (Temple, et al., 2003). It was found that such remediation led to ―improved language, reading performance and increased activation in multiple brain regions during phonological processing.‖ (Temple, et al., 2003) Self-paced study and summary prompts helped the students. Technology can also be used in a blended classroom. The blended classroom incorporates in class and online learning. Blended classrooms are a reality and creative option in the teaching arena. The use of online learning allows time to self-reflect and prepare thoughtful responses to discussion topics and receive feedback from peers in written form and in real time. This does not replace discussions face-to-face, but we can have amazing discussions online that are lively and thoughtful. . "Blended learning gets at our mission of teaching our students to think critically, to collaborate, and to be creative problem-solvers.""I love the screen-casts because I get to do the lecture at my own pace and take notes in better handwriting," said junior Halle Zander. "And when it comes to tests and quizzes, I can watch the lectures again to help me understand any section I had difficulty with"(Mamenta, 2011). These testimonies, cement my appreciation of educational technology.
  • 28. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 27 As an aesthetic expression for this chapter of my inquiry I chose to make a birdbath. I made it out of cement, to symbolize cementing my understanding and affirmation of the benefits of technology in the classroom. Cement birdbath Leaf formed cement birdbath
  • 29. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 27 The Blooms are in the Garten(as in kindergarten) Now, I know I want to use technology, but which ones support my pedagogy. I will use Bloom‘s taxonomy as a structure for my examples of technologiesto support my pedagogy. I originally spent quite a while writing my response to each category for Blooms technology. I described in great detail, the goals, actions, applications and technology that supported each level. I am from old school and immediately thoughtessaywriting as my first response. The very message of this chapter is using technology to express, and present informationin an efficient and creative manner. So, I created this embedded Exploratree visual chart. I feel it says what I want to say in a visual and immediate form. This application is most beneficial to those who absorb and categorize visually. This taps into Gardner‘s multiple intelligences, and address those who learn logical-mathematical and visual/spatial. (like me) Blooms taxonomy embedded progressive chart created in Microsoft word
  • 30. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 28 Symbaloo visual favorites chartCreated inSymbaloo Students can use Symbaloo to form a visual collection of favorites and instant access to sites when doing a project.This helps in the remembering stage. The name Bloom’s revised Taxonomy makes me think of a garden full of flowers, blooming before my very eyes. Like a garden, Bloom‘s revised Taxonomy theorizes we blossom, through stages until our full flower is realized. Bloom‘s revised Taxonomy starts with remembering. In this level of cognition the student‘sretrieveknowledge by remembering to produce definition, facts, lists or recite information. Technology adds a digital pen, to aid in recalling information. Bullet pointing, highlighting, bookmarking and social bookmarking and Googling all help in the process. Symbaloo is a visual creation of your favorite sites. You can make as many pages as you want, and categorize and sub categorize according to your logic. This assembly can be private, or access can be public. My Symbaloo is public; anyone can look
  • 31. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 29 at my collaboration. I used this extensively while doing this inquiry, to aid in the remember stage. Understanding is the next stage inBloom‘s revised Taxonomyand highlightshow students interpret, summarize, classify and explain. Technology opens up access to knowledge beyond what the teacher knows. The internet is a highway of information, from all over the globe. In this level, technology helps with interpreting, summarizing, comparing, explaining and classifying. An example of a source of understanding is Khan Academy. Khan provides brain snacks for the student. The creation of Khan Academy is an interesting story. Salman Khan created math explanatory videos on You Tube for his cousins who needed math tutoring but lived across the country. He made these videos public access, and soon found teachers were using them too. He realized videos were a great aid in teaching.Students could play and replay the instruction in their own privacy, until they understood the material. This allowed them to question, without fear of looking imprudent.Khan has posted more than 2.000 tutorials, which are viewed nearly 100,000 times around the world each day.(Khan, 2011) Other great sources are You TubeEd, TED. C.G. Grey, and Wikipedia. ―The term wiki is from the Hawaiian language and means fast. A wiki allows anyone to edit content, and therefore it is a collaborative Web site‖(Gilbert, 2005). Another great tool is a Wordle. A Wordle is a tag cloud or word cloud and is a visual depiction of prominent words the students associate with their thoughts. Many sites create these.―A picture is worth a thousand words. As teachers, we know that graphing is one of the great organizational skills in learning. Graphs and charts work well because they communicate information visually. … Sometimes, complicated information is difficult to understand and needs
  • 32. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 30 an illustration. Other times, a graph or chart helps impress people by getting your point across quickly and visually‖ (Berry & Hess, 2013).Schools‘ implementation of technology can offer opportunities to expand efficient teaching and student learning. The teacher becomes a lattice in the learning process, not just a ladder in the prescribed academic journey. I made a Wordle in the shape of the USA, with my words about American Education. I then made a Wordle in the shape of a maple leaf, to represent words that come to my mindabout the Canadian education system. I was educated in the Canadian public school system, and the American post graduate school system. I thinkthe two systems operate with different philosophies of education. American Wordle Words used: Ted, deconstruct, remembering, interpret, understanding, ideas, applying, analyzing, list, blackboard, whiteboard, new, Khan, cumulative, critique, create, learning, Google
  • 33. Canadian Wordle Words used: Bilingual, environmental stewardship, French immersion, sustainable, compulsory volunteer service, alternative lifestyles, quality daily physical activity, success criterion, learning goals, snapshot, collaborative and expectations. Created in TagxedoStudents can use Tagxedo when brainstorming, individually or in groups. Bloom‘s next level is applying. In this level, the students use their knowledge to show, exhibit, implement and execute through models, presentation, simulation or interviews. The student can use Picaboo or Picasa, photo editing sites, Wiki or Avatar and ToonDoo and VizZle as tools. They can do a webinar which is a seminar conducted over the Internet. Providing different options Created in ToonDoo
  • 34. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 27 ToonDoo affords students to create multimedia-rich digital stories in a comic format. A student can use this, with as many cartoon panels as they need to communicate their message. They can create any figures, dialogue and scenery they want. This could be used for a book report, presentation, advertisement etc. Technology is also important for teaching in the learning support environment. Technology is used to help students apply and understand information. ―Assistive technology refers to devices that assist special needs students with physical or intellectual impairments in adapting to a standard classroom environment. These devices include alternate keyboards, Braille displays, voice recognition software, reading comprehension programs and speech synthesizers. Such devices are but the latest in a series of advances - encouraged financially and legislatively by states and the federal government - to harness the power of technology to enrich the lives of the disabled. By using assistive technology, students who would previously have been unable to go to school, or to do so with great difficulty, have been able to learn along with the rest of their peers‖ (Donnelly, 2008). Technology is used extensively in learning support classrooms. VizZle is a visual technology that is web based and can be accessed and used interactively anywhere. This technology can be used in many arenas, but is very beneficial in Autistic support. Visual books and games are available, which allow review and practice and application. Each program is customizable. Embedded reinforcement, for each success, is an option (e.g. visual and auditory clapping hands). Teachers can also create their own behavioral support charts and lesson plans. I have a friend in Autistic support that loves this program and uses it every day. She can create and prepare from home, and students can use this at home with
  • 35. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 28 caregivers. This is an affordable technology, that automatically updates, and easily reachable making it an excellent addition as a teaching tool. It aids greatly in the remembering and applying stage. Learning Support Technology VizZle The next level is analyzing. The goal of this level is to compare, organize, deconstruct, outline, find, and integrate learned knowledge. Students can do this through breaking concepts into parts, and understanding which parts are applicable to their stance. They then relate, or inter-relate their collected knowledge. Technologies that can be used in this area are Popplet, and Padlet, Google Docs, Mindomo and online quizzes to name a few.I used Popplet to create this deconstruction of my thoughts on an assignment for ED731. This helped breakdown and outline what was asked of me. I could make sure I answered each question.
  • 36. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 29 Breaking down my thoughts Created in Popplet The next level is evaluating. In this level of Bloom‘s taxonomy the students need to check, critique, experiment, test, judge and monitor their new knowledge. Excellent technologies to use for this are Polldaddy, Survey Monkey, Google Alerts, and Blackboard discussion. Teachers can useRubstar and Turning Point I-clickers.Teachers can have students create their own questionnaire about a unit of work.They have to extend and strengthen their understanding to create effective questions. Next, they could do other classmates‘ surveys to boost understanding. Quizzes are also effective for learning. My daughter was asked to memorize a list of prefixes and give examples of words with those prefixes. She struggled. Wefound prefixquizzesonline; she played the games of matching. At the end of each game, it let her know her results. She then became motivated to better her own score each time. This technology propelled her learning faster than any worksheet of memorization could do. Another device is the Classroom Response System. Students are given a remote control device, similar to a TV remote. The students could register an individual response to a question, posted at the front of the class, using the remotes. The teacher could set up the system to be
  • 37. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 30 anonymous responses, or tracked responses. The results of the students' votes are instantly available and visible. This device allowed for more student participation. The anonymous feature allowed survey responses to sensitive topics (Gilbert, 2005). I used this in my college classes. I would use this as a review for tests. I would ask questions and the students would see the true answer. It wasconducted anonymously, permitting the students to take a personal inventory of their knowledge. The students said in a Survey Monkey, they like using them because they learned what they did not know without embarrassment. There are many uses beyond review. A teacher could also embed it in PowerPoint through the lesson, to stimulate discussion. Our ED731 class uses Blackboard to have class discussions. This allows the author to post their work and have constructive feedback on the material. I found this feedback useful and incorporated on my academic journey. This endorsed me to read and critique others‘ work. Here is an example of a discussion, with a response from my classmate Lisa about the assignment I submitted. Black board discussion
  • 38. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 31 Here is a survey done in Survey Monkey. A teacher can use this to survey her students and create discussion. I used different styles to use to answer… open ended, multiple choices, yes/no and ranking. Class survey Created with Survey Monkey The last stage of Bloom‘s taxonomy is creating. Creating involves designing, constructing, planning, inventing, and making, in order to produce what they were trying to accomplish. Students must put together all the elements to form a coherent summation of their studies. Technologies they can use are Voicethread, Prezi, Power Point, Blackboard, video, podcast, Picaboo, or Storybird.To subscribe to Gardner‘s theory, a teacher can provide different modes of expression to align with different intelligences. The kinesthetic student can model, act out, demonstrate, dance, cook, or draft to produce their understanding. For the visual student they can diagram, chart, illustrate, graph, cartoon, timeline, mindmap their discoveries. For the oral student they can recite, discuss, debate, argue, webinar, speech, sing, do a commercial to illustrate their knowledge. For the auditory student, a radiocast or a podcast are excellent tools to communicate their scholarship. I created a story about my studies. Students could use this to
  • 39. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 32 show their knowledge of sequencing, by making up their own story. You can find my full story online. Here is a Greenshot of one of the pages. My story Created in Storybird- In closing, here is a short example a teacher can use following Bloom‘s taxonomy in a reading class. This sequence is used in the classic story Cinderella. (There are over 1500 different cultural versions of Cinderella) Remember – Describe who Cinderella is and her situation. (charts, lists, blackboard, Symbaloo) Understand – Summarize thestory Cinderella (show and tell, summary, Khan, Mindmap) Apply – Create a story about why the evil stepmother hated Cinderella. (interview, role play, Voki, wikispaces) Analyze - Differentiate between how you and Cinderella would react to the evil stepmother. (survey, chart, plan, Popplet, survey monkey, Toondoo) Evaluate – Decide if this could happen in real life. (opinion, evaluation, report, Polldaddy, Blackboard) Create – Create a poster, poem, song, webinar, cartoon strip, or Prezi of the Cinderella story. (construct, plan, present, Prezi, Picaboo, Glogster)
  • 40. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 33 As an aesthetic expression for this chapter I created a lighted bottle. This signifies the light that goes off in my head, now that I understand which technologies I want to use in my classroom. I see the light
  • 41. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 34 “You must be the change you want to see in the world" –Gandhi I discussed in great detail what technologies a teacher can use and provide for the students to enhance the classroom experience. The teacher also needs to be an active participant in this learning process. The teacher needs to be proactive and investigate what is available and applicable to the studies. Thedigital immigrant needs to be comfortable with the technology. ‖It's not what the software does it's what the user does"(Technology at Southside Virginia Community College, 2013). To practice what I preach, I am learning about technology. Even as I looked for recommendations of which technology to use, some were outdated or shut down by the time I accessed the website. This exemplifies how much technology is changing and to what speed. We need to know what is out there, how to use it and be comfortable using it. We are preparing the students for the future. The top 10 jobs of today did not even exist in 2004. We are educating the students for some jobs not even created yet.We are makingstudents technologically savvy.We are giving them transferrable skills to solve problems of tomorrow that we don‘t even know exist yet.
  • 42. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 35 I wanted to have the full experience of the technological integration, so I used several technological tools in this inquiry. I used tools that were visual, interactive, and audioand varied in nature. I wanted the student and the teacher experience. I am taking an online course… a MOOC – (massive open online course) offered by CanvasNetwork. Best of Both worlds – Hybrid Teaching. ―The term Hybrid isused to describe courses that are a mix of in-class and out- of-class combinations. When people talk about ―blended learning,‖ they are usually referring to the place where learning happens, a combination of the classroom and online. The wordhybrid has deeper resonances, suggesting not just that the place of learning is changed but that hybrid pedagogy fundamentally rethinks our conception of place. So, hybrid pedagogy does not just describe an easy mixing of on-ground and online learning, but is about bringing the sorts of learning that happen in a physical place and the sorts of learning that happen in a virtual place into a more engaged and dynamic conversation.‖.(Falconer, 2013)
  • 43. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 36 Course description My first week of assignments consisted of using a webcam to introduce ourselves. We then had to view You Tube documentaries about the philosophy of hybrid teaching from different sources and make comments. We had to look at others comments and give feedback. We have other assignments and a final project. We, as teachers need to embrace technology and add it to our toolbox. ―Correct implementation of education technology is key. The research demonstrates the need for thecorrect implementation and use of education technology. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) has identified seven factors for successfultechnology implementation:Effective professional development for teachers in the integration of technology into instruction is necessary to support student learning. Teachers‘ direct application of technology must be aligned to local and/or state curriculum standards. Technology must be incorporated into the daily learning schedule (i.e. not as a supplement or after-school tutorial).Programs and applications must provide individualized feedback to students and teachers and must havethe ability to tailor lessons to individual student needs. Student collaboration in the use of technology is more effective in influencing student achievement thanstrictly individual use. Project-based learning and real-world simulations are more effective in changing student motivation andachievement than drill-and-practice applications. Effective
  • 44. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 37 technology integration requires leadership, support, and modeling from teachers, administrators,and the community/parents.‖ (Technology and Student Achievement - The Indelible Link, 2008) Here is a word wall I created about technology tools teacher would benefit in knowing. Everyone contributes to the word wall Created in Padlet A teacher could use this and have each student add to the word wall about a certain assignment. ―Lastly, as educators hold strong to their learning theory beliefs and design their classroom around those theories, it is important to note that technology is not an instructional choice anymore, but a necessity in today‘s classrooms. Global competition is making technological skills a requirement for the work force we are preparing our students to enter in to.Teacher willingness and commitment to integrating technology is the first must. To be more specific, teachers need to be involved in two changes.
  • 45. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 38 They must first learn how to use technology themselves, and second, they must fundamentally change how they teach‖(Semple, 2000). This is my personal goal in understanding educational technology. Teachers need to keep up with the times. As an aesthetic modality for this chapter I created a collage out of scrap paper. The pieces of paper represent the scattered thoughts inmy mind. As I work in my academic garden, the pieces and thoughts come together to a final mental collage. I learned more about the blended/ hybrid classroom and educational technologies. I created my collage in a flower theme, in keeping with the garden idea. The saying in the collage is the saying I used as the chapter title. Be the Change you want to see in the World
  • 46. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 39 Summary ―Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten.‖ B. F. Skinner This is my timeline of my academic expedition, into my creative inquiry of Ways to Integrate Educational Technology into my Teaching to Enhance my Pedagogy. My scholarly timeline Created in Dipity 1. Curious Student - Creative Inquiry -Final task of obtaining my Masters... Hmmm, what will be my subject of inquiry? I am very interested in educational technology and how it can help my teaching style in the classroom. 2. What is my pedagogy? I am ready to soar and explore!–(picture of me flying over volcanoes in Hawaii) I studied theorists in school, but who do I most agree with...Bloom, Gardner, Maslow, Constructionism, Cognitive theory? No one theory satisfies me. I am a critical thinker...I can create my own theory encompassing what I believe in! 3. Educational technology, an evolution - Teachers can no longer just deliver and transfer knowledge... they need to be a facilitator. Educational technology used in
  • 47. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 40 conjunction with teaching skills, will prepare and expose the students to a world of opportunities 4. Where are my roots? –(picture of Banyan tree roots we saw in Hawaii) BMG2C and me theory - We teach who we are - I am sensitive to Maslow because our base needs need to be met. I know that from my childhood. Gardner's multiple intelligences speak to me; I know that as a mother. Constructive theory has great points; I know that from my travels. Bloom and Cognitive theory work for me. I know that from being a student myself. I call it my BMG2C and me theory. 5. Talk the talk, now walk the walk - Now I know, what I know...what to do with this knowledge. I will apply this theory using Bloom's taxonomy and educational technology. I will state each stage, motivational prompts, concrete projects, recommended technology, and an example of one technology applied to this inquiry. 6. Aesthetic expression - Kindergarten - garden of children Slate - original interactive tool Me -painter/teacher adding paint strokes to the slate of the students' mind 7. Special Education - Regular education benefits from educational technology... but what is 'regular' today? Inclusion necessitates understanding all learning paths. Technology can help greatly with those with physical and learning disabilities. 8. How did you do that?–(picture of my daughter suspended in air on trampoline) I realized I needed to understand technology,which ones were best, and how to use them effectively. I took a MOOC course, about Blended Learning. More homework yeh! 9. Up a paddle, with no creek–(picture of my son in melted ice rink, with a paddle but no creek) Many raise valid concerns. I address concerns briefly, not to solve them, but to acknowledge I know are some areas of concern, that we should monitor.
  • 48. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 41 10. Go ahead – climb that wall and explore–(picture of my family on the Great Wall of China) Through my academic journey I refined my pedagogy. My teaching is multi layered - taking into account the emotional, psychological, cognitive, and cultural, multiple intelligences and basic needs of all students. I use educational technology in effective ways, to give a well distributive knowledge base. I have been the instrument of my own study.I journeyed through the 3 levels of reflection. I tapped into my reservoir of experiences to recall and have retrospection of my past learning, as a base for my exploration of the creative inquiry. I then had a cathartic introspection of my new discoveries of learning theory and technology and answered ―what does all this mean to me?‖ Finally, I advanced to conception. I theorized, and synthesized my thoughts. My knowledge moved 12 inches, from my mind to my heart. I now own my own pedagogy, and I am able to share my beliefs and story. As I look over my creative inquiry, here is what I come to understandis my pedagogy in relation to what I learned and how I want to express this unearthing with educational technology. I do not think education should be a labyrinth, with only one entrance, one exit and a set and sequential path. I feel education is a maze, a wonderful collaboration of paths, with many entrances and exits. Students and teachers can pass each other on this learning expedition. There is no ―best‖path, and no spot on the maze that is better than another. Each step we take in the maze is just one step closer to discovering a new step. (Labyrinth vs. Maze, n.d.)Educational Technology and my personal pedagogy will guide me along my teaching and learning path. Whatever the future holds… I know it will be a-MAZE-ing.
  • 49. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 42 My easel in my garden This aesthetic modality is my final expression, my easel of knowledge. I created an easel out of tree and wood parts. I put an old empty window frame on it and suspended flowers spilling out from the frame. I put this in my back garden. This represents the final picture in my mind. The easel is the support, which has been extended to me and which I extend to my students along their learning path.Technology also gives support to the teacher and students.The frame represents how I look and frame my thoughts and pedagogy. The garden represents we are all children in the garden of learning, me included. The flowers and blooms represent Bloom‘s taxonomy and itscontribution to my inquiry. The flowers spilling forward represent how, as a teacher, I wish to spill forth my knowledge to my students to facilitate critical thinkers. Ultimately, when the seeds are sown, much will bloom in this big garden we call life.
  • 50. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 43 References Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing. New York: Longman. Berry, B., & Hess, F. (2013). Expanded learning, expansive teacher leadership. Phi-Delta- Kappan, 94(5), 58-61. Bloom, B. (. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. In The classification of educational goals: cognitive domain. New York: Longman. Bloom, B. (1984). Taxonomy of educational objectives (Vol. book 1). New York, New York, USA: Longman. Concept and Definition of Critical Thinking. (2013). Retrieved from The Critical Thinking Community: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/our-concept-of-critical-thinking/411 Cox, J., & Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. In Peer Reviewer. Boise: Laurens Koonce Boise State University.. Critical thinking. (n.d.). Retrieved from Online Etymology Dictionary: http://etymonline.com/index.php?term=critic&allowed_in_frame=0 Designing Effective Projects: Thinking Skills Frameworks Bloom’s Taxonomy: A New Look at an Old Standby. (n.d.). Retrieved from Intel.com: http://download.intel.com/education/Common/in/Resources/DEP/skills/Bloom.pdf Dobransky, P. (2009, March 16). Slumdog Therapy. Retrieved from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-urban-scientist/200903/slumdog-therapy Donnelly, M. (2008). Assisstive technology in education. Assistive Technology in Education - Research Starter Educaiton, 1-1.
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  • 55. PEDAGOGY AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 48 Symbaloo - http://edu.symbaloo.com/index.html Tagxedo - http://www.tagxedo.com/ ToonDoo - http://www.toondoo.com/ Wingclips - http://www.wingclips.com/movie-clips/accepted/education-speech VizZle - http://www.monarchteachtech.com/vizzle/