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PGCAP DAPP141 session 1
 

PGCAP DAPP141 session 1

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    PGCAP DAPP141 session 1 PGCAP DAPP141 session 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Reflection The UK PSF Observations of Teaching Chrissi Nerantzi @chrissinerantzi & Haleh Moravej @halehmoravej PGCAP > DAPP http://www.celt.mmu.ac.uk/ @mmu_celt
    • intended learning outcomes By the end of this theme, you will have had the opportunity to: • discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • recognise the importance of observation of teaching and discuss key characteristics of how to conduct effective observations • examine the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and recognise its importance for own professional development 2
    • Reflection
    • Let’s try it!  Think of something complex (good/bad) that happened  How did you feel?  What did you learn?  If it happens again, what would you do differently? 4
    • Who? “Sharing your professional and personal skills and experiences with another promotes growth and development that might not otherwise be possible. It is based upon encouragement, constructive comments, openness, mutual trust, respect and the willingness to learn and share”. (Schulte, 2008, p. 1) Moran & Dallat (1995) see a danger in practising monopolised self-reflection and recommend the use of reflection as a collegial activity. own perspective colleagues, peers, mentors, students, etc. link to theory 6
    • How? Reflective Cycle (Gibbs, 1988) Turning experience into learning! 6. Action plan If it arose again, what would you do? 1. Description What happened? 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings What else could you have done? What were you thinking and feeling? •The role of emotions •Emotional reactions •Emotions can distort events (Moon, 2004) http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=leIPj3SIbNU 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation What sense can you make of the situation? music and emotions What was good and bad about the experience? 7 http://www.hcc.uce.ac.uk/dpl/nursing/Placement %20Support/Model%20of%20Reflection.htm
    • describing feeling Deepening reflection analysing reasoning stepping back challenging own ideas being self-critical linking to theory exploring options linking to action 8 Kolb (1984), Gibbs (1988); Moon (2004)
    • When? • Schön D A (1987) reflection reflection in action on action 9
    • How else? different media 10
    • small group activity Giving feedback • Read the reflection carefully and make some notes. • Write feedback on the reflection. • Use the classification model to help determine the ‘depth’ of reflection. • Share and compare your feedback with another group. 11
    • Moon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory and Practice, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 190-191. a comparison Essay/report Reflective writing The subject matter is likely to be clearly defined. The subject matter may be diffuse and ill-structured. The subject matter is not likely to be personal. The subject matter may be personal. The subject matter is likely to be given. The subject matter may be determined by the writer. The purpose of this kind of writing is set in advance, usually fairly precisely in a title/topic. There may be purpose, but it is more of the nature of a ‘container’ or direction, not a precise title that predicts the outcome. Most of the ideas drawn into an essay/report will be predictable and will be determined by the subject matter. Ideas will be drawn into reflective writing from anywhere that the writer believes to be relevant. What is drawn in will be determined by the sense being forged by the writer. There will be a conclusion. There may be a conclusion in that something has been learnt, or there may be a recognition of further areas for reflection. Essays/reports are more likely to be ‘one off’ – finished and handed in. Reflective writing may be a part of a process that takes place over a period of time. There is likely to be a clear structure of introduction, discussion and conclusion. There is not necessarily a clear structure other than some description at the beginning and some identification of process made. Structures, such as questions to prompt reflective activity may be given. The writing style is likely to be relatively objective – probably without use of the first person. The writing style is likely to be relatively subjective, using the first person. An essay or report is usually intended to be a representation of learning. The intention underlying reflective writing is likely to be for the purpose of learning. An essay/a report is likely to be the product of a thinking process, tidily ordered. Reflective writing usually involved the process of thinking and learning, and it is therefore not necessarily ‘tidy’ in its ordering. 12
    • Classification, a model for assessment abbreviation/title characteristics 3 CritR Critical Reflection Critical exploration and reasoning of practice in a wider context, link to theory and thinking about the effects upon others of one's actions. 2 DialR Dialogic Reflection Stepping back, practice analysed, reasoning well developed, linking own viewpoints with these of other, exploring problem solving. 1 DescR Descriptive Reflection Own practice is analysed, some reasoning for decisions and actions, limited to own viewpoints and perspective. 0 RepoR0 Reporting, no reflection Accounts limited to reporting events sporadic evidence of reflection. criteria based on Hatton’s and Smith’s (1995), also adapted by Moon (2004) 13
    • 14 Your portfolio • • • • • • • digital, online, mobile reflect on your journey use/create media-rich artefacts share with tutor and peers commenting assessed receive feedback throughout The same portfolio for the whole PGCAP programme http://asboallstar.wordpress.com/
    • Making a start with your portfolio: capture your educational autobiography and teaching philosophy • • • • • • • • • • Start capturing your educational autobiography and outline your understanding of your own approach to learning, your own learning journey and experiences. Your teaching philosophy will emerge through your educational autobiography. Include a needs analysis and an action plan: to describe existing skills and areas for further development through the module (eg from an analysis aligned to the unit’s learning outcomes). You might ask yourself the following questions: What personal learning experiences have influenced my thoughts about teaching? How do I learn? How do my students learn? What does university teaching and learning mean to me? What do I want my students to learn? What do I love about teaching? What are my strengths as a teacher? What areas do I need to develop further? What will I do and by when? Complete this by the end of theme 1 15
    • The UK PSF
    • UK Professional Standards Framework (UK PSF) • • • • • • • • A framework for standards! for teaching and supporting learning in HE proposed in the White Paper The Future of Higher Education (2003) Introduced in 2006 Reviewed in 2011 areas of activity, core knowledge and professional values derived from the Higher Education Academy’s existing Accreditation Scheme professionalisation of teaching and supporting learning in HE for Fellowship of HEA & PGCAP need to engage effectively with all of these http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/ukpsf/ukpsf.pdf 17
    • 18 The PGCAP and the UK PSF Areas of Activity (WHAT) • Design and plan • Teach/support • Assess/give feedback • Develop effective learning environments and approaches to student support/guidance • Engage in CPD incorporating research, scholarship and evaluation of professional practices Core Knowledge (HOW) • Subject • Appropriate methods of teaching and learning • How students learn • Use and value appropriate learning technologies • Methods for evaluating effectiveness of teaching • Quality assurance and quality enhancement Professional Values (WHY) • Respect individual learners and learning communities • Promote participation and equality of opportunities • Use evidence-informed approaches and the outcomes from research, scholarship and CPD • Acknowledge the wider context in which HE operates recognising implications for professional practice for Fellowship of HEA - evidence engagement with all of these http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/re wardandrecog/ProfessionalStandardsFramework.pdf
    • observations of teaching/ supporting learning
    • “Though we teach in front of students, we almost always teach solo, out of collegial sight – as contrasted with surgeons or trial lawyers, who work in the presence of others who know their craft well. Lawyers argue cases in front of other lawyers, where gaps in their skills and knowledge are clear for all to see. Surgeons operate under the gaze of specialists who notice if a hand trembles, making malpractice less likely. But teachers can lose sponges or amputate the wrong limp with no witness except the victims.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life, San Francisco: JosseyBass, p. 146. 20
    • “When we walk into our workplace, the classroom, we close the door on our colleagues. When we emerge, we rarely talk about what happened or what needs to happen next, for we have no shared experience to talk about. Then, instead of calling this the isolationism it is and trying to overcome it, we claim it as a virtue called ‘academic freedom’: my classroom is my castle, and the sovereigns of other fiefdoms are not welcome here.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 147. 21
    • “If… … I want to teach well, it is essential that I explore my inner terrain. But I can get lost in there, practising self-delusion and running in self-serving circles. So I need the guidance that a community of collegial discourse provides – to say nothing of the support such a community can offer to sustain me in the trials about this craft that can be found in every faculty worth its salt.” Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 146. 22
    • observations of teaching 4 in total 23
    • observing & being observed: how do you feel? being observed 24
    • Preparing for an observation Work in small groups and come up with your top 10 tips and share with the whole class. 25
    • observation checklist (observing) • • • • • • • • • What went well Achievement of the aims and learning outcomes Effectiveness of teaching methods used Meeting of learner needs Use of resources Assessment/feedback considerations Opportunities for student interaction Timing Comment on focus/aspect given The observer comments on these! If you can meet after the observation, this would be great! Otherwise try and speak remotely. • Reflection on the observation should include reflection on feedback received/provided. 27
    • Needs analysis and action plan • • • • Where am I now? What are my strengths? On what am I going to work on during this unit? What am I going to do and why? Use, if you like the • UK PSF diagnostic proforma • Wheel of Teaching 28
    • The wheel of teaching Where are you now? Date: 29
    • 30
    • intended learning outcomes By the end of this theme, you will have had the opportunity to: • discuss experiential learning and learning through reflection to enhance practice • recognise the importance of observation of teaching and discuss key characteristics of how to conduct effective observations • examine the UK Professional Standards Framework (PSF) and recognise its importance for own professional development 31
    • Remember! Next week online webinar 4 Feb 4-5pm PGCAP > DAPP http://www.celt.mmu.ac.uk/ @mmu_celt
    • “Teaching and learning in higher education is a shared process, with responsibilities on both student and teacher to contribute to their success. Within this shared process, higher education must engage students in questioning their preconceived ideas and their models of how the world works, so that they can reach a higher level of understanding. But students are not always equipped for this challenge, nor are all of them driven by a desire to understand and apply knowledge, but all too often aspire merely to survive the course, or to learn only procedurally in order to get the highest possible marks before rapidly moving on to the next subject. The best teaching helps students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which their existing model does not work – and in which it matters to them that it does not work and in which they come to see themselves as authors of answers, as agents of responsibility for change. That means that students need to be faced with problems which they think are important. They need to engage with new questions which are bigger than the course itself, which have relevance to their own lives and which provoke a lively participation far beyond simply getting through assessment or exams.” p. 18
    • How? Reflective Cycle (Gibbs, 1988) 6. Action plan If it arose again, what would you do? 1. Description What happened? 5. Conclusion 2. Feelings What else could you have done? What were you thinking and feeling? 4. Analysis 3. Evaluation What sense can you make of the situation? What was good and bad about the experience? 34
    • references     • •              Brown M, Fry H & Marshall S (2006) Reflective Practice, in: Fry H, Ketteridge S & Marshall S (2006) A Handbook for Teaching & Learning in Higher Education. Enhancing Academic Practice, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 215-225. Ghaye T & Lillyman S (1997) Learning Journals and Critical Incidents: Reflective Practice for Health Care Professionals, London: Mark Allan Publishing. Gibbs G (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Further Education Unit, Oxford: Oxford Brookes University. Hatton, N & Smith, D (1995) Reflection in teacher education – towards definition and implementation, Teaching and Teacher Education,11 (1), pp 33-49. Imel, S (1992) Reflective Practice in Adult Education, Columbus OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education, ERIC Digest No. 122 Kolb D A (1984) Experiential Learning, Prentice Hall, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Lisewski, B & Cove, G (2007) Peer Observation for Teaching Code of Conduct University of Salford. McFarlane, B & Gourlay, L (2009) The reflection game: enacting the penitent self, Teaching in Higher Education 14/4, pp. 455-459. Moon, J (2005) Learning through Reflection, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id69_guide_for_busy_academics_no4_moon [accessed 15 September 2010] Moon, J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. Theory and Practice, Oxon: Routledge. Moon, J (2004a) Reflection and employability, available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/detail/resource_database/id331_Reflection_and_employability [accessed 15 September 2010] Moran A & Dallat J (1995) Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training, International Journal of Educational Management, MCB University Press Limited, Vol. 9 No. 5, pp. 20-26. Palmer, P J (2007) The Courage to teach. Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Peel, D (2005) Peer Observation as a Transformatory Tool? Teaching in Higher Education, 10 (4) 489-504 Ramsden, P (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education London: Routledge. Schön D A (1987) ‘Educating the Reflective Practitioner’ , San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Schön, D A )1983= The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action, Ashgate. Schulte, J (2008) Give Back – Be a Mentor!, www.ezinearticles.com [accessed 10 September 2010] UK Professional Standards Framework, HEA available at http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/rewardandrecog/ProfessionalStandardsFramework.pdf [accessed 9 Sep 2010]