LTHE about PBL


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  • Prepare activity envelopesPete: feedback sheetChrissi: PBL quiz, will do crossword
  • 2min
  • Accelerated using all senses, props etc, immersing
  • Unfortunately, our traditional educational system has worked in a way that discourages the natural process of inquiry. Students become less prone to ask questions as they move through the grade levels. In traditional schools, students learn not to ask too many questions, instead to listen and repeat the expected answers.Some of the discouragement of our natural inquiry process may come from a lack of understanding about the deeper nature of inquiry-based learning. There is even a tendency to view it as "fluff" learning. Effective inquiry is more than just asking questions. A complex process is involved when individuals attempt to convert information and data into useful knowledge. Useful application of inquiry learning involves several factors: a context for questions, a framework for questions, a focus for questions, and different levels of questions. Well-designed inquiry learning produces knowledge formation that can be widely applied.Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer -- because often there is none -- but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues. For educators, inquiry implies emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes or habits of mind that will enable individuals to continue the quest for knowledge throughout life.Content of disciplines is very important, but as a means to an end, not as an end in itself. The knowledge base for disciplines is constantly expanding and changing. No one can ever learn everything, but everyone can better develop their skills and nurture the inquiring attitudes necessary to continue the generation and examination of knowledge throughout their lives. For modern education, the skills and the ability to continue learning should be the most important outcomes.
  • Problem presented first (at the start of the learning process)Students define issuesResponsible for their learning Mainly applied in small groups
  • Additional criteria: Quality of knowledgeQuality of presentationScenarios in envelopes: blendedto print – apply peer assessment! feedback sheet
  • Prepare activity envelopesPete: feedback sheetChrissi: PBL quiz, will do crossword
  • LTHE about PBL

    1. 1. PGCAPLTHE module @pgcap 1
    2. 2.  Explain the basics of PBL Discuss how PBL could be used in own practice 3
    3. 3.  Discuss common characteristics and differences in pairs 4
    4. 4. passive > active > accelerated 5
    5. 5.  broad umbrella term Individual students/groups of students seeking resolutions to questions/issues, following own line of enquiry contextualised questioning (building on existing knowledge) leading to knowledge formation develop problem solving skills, inquiring attitudes and lifelong learning habits tutor facilitates learning PBL main differences •Problem first •Structure and process •Small groups 6
    6. 6. Grown since 1960s pioneered at McMasterUniversity medical students (Howard Barrows)Strong evidence that it works well!!!Whole university approach: Maastricht University 7
    7. 7. Can be used: Small •Face-to-faceTraditional lecture group •Blended learning •Fully online Subject Problem based based Co- Competitive operative learning earning 8
    8. 8.  Developing ‘skills’ and subject specific reasoning skills Learning takes place in ‘context’ for students Self-directed learning is promoted Savin-Baden (1996) source: Busfield, J & Peijs, T (2003) Learning Materials in a Problem Based Course 9
    9. 9. ill-structured threshold content scenarios/triggers concepts Problems embedded in scenarios Students discover problems Learner ownership In small groups (PBL tutorials) Search for solutions PBL tutor 10
    10. 10.  Authentic, genuinely problematic Trigger learning Media 11
    11. 11. stage 1: explore the problem stage 2: discover known and unknown, plan stage 3 : research and share stage 4: apply stage 5: present based on Mills, D (2006) Problem-based learning: An overview, available at [accessed 5 March 2010] 12
    12. 12. McLoughlin & Darvill (2006)Part 1: trigger introductionSearch the problemAsk each otherList what you knowFind out what the group doesn’t knowOutcomes and goals to be setPart 2: trigger reviewReview group learningPart 3: presentationDisseminate 4NCK23P-1- 5&_cdi=6974&_user=899537&_pii=S0260691706000621&_origin=searc h&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2007&_sk=999729995&view=c&wchp=dGL bVzb- zSkzV&md5=e5d5743a7dd6f2102fc36a75e6cdbb3f&ie=/sdarticle.pdf 13
    13. 13. stage 1: Focus stage 2: Investigate stage 3 : Share 14
    14. 14. 15
    15. 15. I facilitate team meetings/tutorials, I record what is stimulate debate said/agreed during make sure that everybody is meetings, participating and that record any issues the PBL process is used. summarise and I also co-ordinate learning and synthesise tasks (who does what and by when)I facilitate the PBL process and reflection, ask open questions. I need toremember to step I keep track of time back and not during lecture! I share/read the meetings/tutorials, problem remind team scenario, members how draw attention much time is left to key elements of the scenario 16
    16. 16.  Resource intensive Stressful for staff and students Time intensive (Des Marchais, 1993) Covering less curriculum content 80% (Albanese and Mitchell, 1993) Scenarios too ill-structured: students disorientated (McLoughlin & Oliver, online) 17
    17. 17. In your group explore thephotograph/scenario provided.Apply the PBL approach to identifythe problem(s), define intendedlearning outcomes and come upwith solutions.stage 1: Focus stage 2: Investigate stage 3 : Share Assessment criteria •Issues identified •Solutions 18
    18. 18. Think about the following:•Could PBL features be used within your sessions?•Could PBL be used for large-group teaching?•Could you use it as a curriculum design approach and/or forassessment? 19
    19. 19.  Students and facilitators to familiarise with PBL before using it! 20
    20. 20. UK Centre for Legal Education and-learning-practices/pbl/PBL collection 21
    21. 21. Albanese M A & Mitchell S (1993) Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementationissues. Acad Med, pp. 68: 52-81.Barrows, H S (2000) Problem-based learning applied to medical education, Southern Illinois School of Medicine: IllinoisDes Marchais, J E (1993) A student-centred, problem-based curriculum: 5 years experience. Can Med Assoc J, pp.1567-1572.McLoughlin, M & Darvill, A (2007) Peeling back the layers of learning: A classroom model for problem-based learning,in: Nurse Education Today , 27, pp. 271-277.McLoughlin, C & Oliver, R (online) Problem-based learning (PBL):Developing learning capability through the WWW,available at [accessed 11 February 2011]Mills, D (2006) Problem-based learning: An overview, available at [accessed 5 March 2010]Savin-Baden, M, (1996) Problem-based learning: a catalyst for enabling and disablling disjunction prompting transitionsin learner stances? Ph D thesis University of London. Institute of EducationWoods, D R (1994) How to Gain the Most from PBL, Hamilton: McMaster University 22
    22. 22. The LTHE Module TeamUniversity of Salford, Academic Development Unit Twitter @pgcap 23