Understanding Understanding by Design (UbD)
Remember when you were in college…
I mean…in college…
when you had to submit pages and pages
for 1 lesson…
and you got into the “real world” and had
1 box to fill out…
My first...
Though considerations about what to
teach and how to teach it may dominate
our thinking as a matter of habit, the
challeng...
Has anyone ever had a house built?
Has anyone ever built a house or had a
house built?
Anyone start out by pouring a slab ...
How many people went somewhere /
anywhere this summer that you have
NEVER been before?
Did anyone set out and say, “I hope...
They spend most of their time thinking,
first, about what they will do, what
materials they will use, and what they will
a...
end, not an end unto itself—it is unlikely
that all students will understand the book
(and their performance obligations)....
How did we get to the point where we
hope for good results rather than plan for
them?
ERA EW
GNITTEG
LLA TI
.SDRAWKCAB
We ...
A form of aimlessness goes by the name of
“coverage,” an approach in which students
march through a textbook, page by page...
Key Design
Questions
Design
Considerations
Filters
(Design Criteria)
Final Design
Accomplishments
Stage 1:
• What is worth...
What should students…
What should students…
What knowledge is worth understanding? UbD p. 10-11
What IS worthy of understanding?
WHAT KNOWLEDGE IS
WORTH UNDERSTANDING?
UbD p. 23
“If you wanted to teach all of the
standards, you would have to
change schooling from K-12 to K-22.”
Robert Marzano
Worth ...
The purpose of a unit of study, the age of
the learners, and the time available all
determine how much or how little teach...
Complete “How Do We Learn?” handout
activity.
Pair with your elbow partner.
You will need a “number” person and a
“word” p...
We’re going to repeat this process for your
other favorite unit.
This was a strategy that you can your in
your classroom called “Mix-Pair-Discuss.”
You have a handout on how to do this th...
Students can hit
any achievement
target they can
see and that will
sit still for them.
Rick Stiggins
“
”
Do the marshmallo...
Key Design
Questions
Design
Considerations
Filters
(Design Criteria)
Final Design
Accomplishments
Stage 1:
• What is worth...
“Students should be presumed
innocent of understanding until
proven guilty by a
preponderance of evidence
that is more tha...
Culminating projects in our units are often
“celebratory event” for students to
showcase their work.
From Great Performanc...
But, do we know who really learned what?Do we really know who learned what? Do we really know who learned what?
I taught S...
I said I taught him,
I didn’t say he learned!
Think “Photo Album” vs “Snapshot”
Sound instruction and assessment requires
...
Consider a range of assessment methods
on a continuum of assessment methods
Quiz & Test Items: These are simple,
content-f...
similar situation.
* Typically require the student to address
an identified audience.
* Are based on a specific purpose th...
Key Design
Questions
Design
Considerations
Filters
(Design Criteria)
Final Design
Accomplishments
Stage 1:
• What is worth...
was to watch each child hit a bucket of
balls before offering one tip.)
What do coaches do in practice prior to the
first ...
10%...what we READ
20%...what we HEAR
30%...what we SEE
50%...what we SEE and HEAR
70%...what we DISCUSS
80%...what we EXP...
through a whole book or unit, and end
up with no long-term memory of what
they studied at all.
We’ve got to find ways to m...
A child’s attention span is the
equivalent of his age
(give or take a few minutes).
What do students pay attention to? Wha...
showing a text message on a phone.
Poll: It is a teacher's job to entertain st...
Press F5 or use the tool bar to enter
pr...
INSERT CHARLIE BROWN’S TEACHER VOICE
This is known as the “sage on the stage.”
“Teaching is not young people watching
old ...
10-minute rule
Given the tendency of an audience to
check out 20% of the way into a
presentation, I knew I initially had o...
Vision
We do not see with our eyes. We see with
our brains. BR223
The amygdala is the major player in
emotions and their m...
Everyday experience and laboratory
studies reveal that emotionally charged
incidents are better remembered than
non-emotio...
What catches our eye?
The brain continuously scans the sensory
horizon, with events constantly assessed
for their potentia...
Unfortunately, most people never make
the jump from verbal expression—which is
what we were all taught in school—to
effect...
http://www.smithmag.net/sixwords/
Six-Word Memoirs: The Legend
Legend has it that Hemingway was once
challenged to write a...
poverty; two worlds; one friendship.)
Conclusion
You can get with this or you can get with
that.
Stickiness
What makes messages stick? Sticky ideas
have 6 key principles in common: simplicity
(if everything is important...
Understanding Understanding by Design
Understanding Understanding by Design
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Understanding Understanding by Design

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Deliberate and focused instructional design requires an important shift in our thinking; first, about the specific learnings sought, and the evidence of such learnings, before thinking about what we, as the teacher, will do or provide in teaching and learning activities. Understanding by Design (UbD) or "backward design" is the practice of looking at expected outcomes before designing curriculum units, performance assessments, and classroom instruction as opposed to the traditional methodology of teach, test, and move one. This session is designed to understand UbD.

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Understanding Understanding by Design

  1. 1. Understanding Understanding by Design (UbD)
  2. 2. Remember when you were in college… I mean…in college…
  3. 3. when you had to submit pages and pages for 1 lesson… and you got into the “real world” and had 1 box to fill out… My first week story…
  4. 4. Though considerations about what to teach and how to teach it may dominate our thinking as a matter of habit, the challenge is to focus first on the desired learnings from which appropriate teaching will logically follow. Our lessons, units, and courses should be logically inferred from the results sought, not derived from the methods, books, and activities with which we are most comfortable. Curriculum should lay out the most effective ways of achieving specific results. But many teachers begin with and remain focused on textbooks, favored lessons, and time-honored activities—the inputs— rather than deriving those means from what is implied in the desired results—the output. To put it in an odd way, too many teachers focus on the teaching and not the learning. They spend most of their time thinking, first, about what they will do, what materials they will use, and what they will ask students to do rather than first considering what the learner will need in order to accomplish the learning goals.
  5. 5. Has anyone ever had a house built? Has anyone ever built a house or had a house built? Anyone start out by pouring a slab of concrete and start hammering 2x4s in random points around the slab? The first step most take is to browse through photos of houses and floor plans, and then hire an architect and then a contractor.
  6. 6. How many people went somewhere / anywhere this summer that you have NEVER been before? Did anyone set out and say, “I hope I get there?” How did you get there? Curriculum should lay out the most effective ways of achieving specific results. It is analogous to travel planning. Our frameworks should provide a set of itineraries deliberately designed to meet cultural goals rather than a purposeless tour of all the major sites in a foreign country. We can best decide, as guides, what “sites” to have our student “tourists” visit and what specific “culture” they should experience in their brief time there only if we are clear about the particular understandings about the culture we want them to take home. The appropriateness of this approach becomes clearer when we consider the educational purpose that is the focus of this book: understanding. We cannot say how to teach for understanding or which material and activities to use until we are quite clear about which specific understandings we are after and what such understandings look like in practice. But many teachers begin with and remain focused on textbooks, favored lessons, and time-honored activities—the inputs— rather than deriving those means from what is implied in the desired results—the output. To put it in an odd way, too many teachers focus on the teaching and not the learning.
  7. 7. They spend most of their time thinking, first, about what they will do, what materials they will use, and what they will ask students to do rather than first considering what the learner will need in order to accomplish the learning goals. Consider a typical episode of what might be called content-focused design instead of results-focused design. The teacher might base a lesson on a particular topic (e.g., racial prejudice), select a resource (e.g., To Kill a Mockingbird), choose specific instructional methods based on the resource and topic (e.g., Socratic seminar to discuss the book and cooperative groups to analyze stereotypical images in films and on television), and hope thereby to cause learning (and meet a few English/language arts standards). Finally, the teacher might think up a few essay questions and quizzes for assessing student understanding of the book. This approach is so common that we may well be tempted to reply, What could be wrong with such an approach? The short answer lies in the basic questions of purpose: Why are we asking students to read this particular novel—in other words, what learnings will we seek from their having read it? Do the students grasp why and how the purpose should influence their studying? What should students be expected to understand and do upon reading the book, related to our goals beyond the book? Unless we begin our design work with a clear insight into larger purposes—whereby the book is properly thought of as a means to an educational
  8. 8. end, not an end unto itself—it is unlikely that all students will understand the book (and their performance obligations). Without being self-conscious of the specific understandings about prejudice we seek, and how reading and discussing the book will help develop such insights, the goal is far too vague: The approach is more “by hope” than “by design.” Such an approach ends up unwittingly being one that could be described like this: Throw some content and activities against the wall and hope some of it sticks. “Take hope out of schools.” Jane E. Pollack “This seems an incongruous slogan to employ in the quest to improve learning…” “Take hope out of schools.” What is your initial reaction to this statement? This seems an incongruous slogan to employ in the quest to improve “I hope students can identify the adverbs and adjectives on the test.” “I hope this lab works; I spent a lot of time setting it up for my students.” “I hope that tonight’s concert goes well. “I hope they learned it; I guess next year’s teacher will find out.” …but if you recall any number of comments you may have heard in school…
  9. 9. How did we get to the point where we hope for good results rather than plan for them? ERA EW GNITTEG LLA TI .SDRAWKCAB We are getting it all backwards. So, what’s your point? Answering the “why?” and “so what?” questions that older students always ask (or want to), and doing so in concrete terms as the focus of curriculum planning, is thus the essence of understanding by design. What is difficult for many teachers to see (but easier for students to feel!) is that, without such explicit and transparent priorities, many students find day-to-day work confusing and frustrating.
  10. 10. A form of aimlessness goes by the name of “coverage,” an approach in which students march through a textbook, page by page (or teachers through lecture notes) in a valiant attempt to traverse all the factual material within a prescribed time. The problem is great exacerbated by a world of high-stakes testing and grading. Teachers are often satisfied by signs of apparent understanding, such as when students deliver the right words, definitions, or formulas. What concepts are difficult for students to grasp in this unit? How will I check for understanding or misunderstanding? UbD p.40 1) Identify desired results. 2) Determine acceptable evidence. 3) Plan instruction and learning experiences. Stage 1: Identify desired results What should students know, understand, and be able to do? What content is worthy of understanding? What enduring understandings are desired? In Stage 1 we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, district), and review curriculum expectations. Because typically we have more content than we can reasonably address within the available time, we must make choices. This first stage in the design process calls for clarity about priorities.
  11. 11. Key Design Questions Design Considerations Filters (Design Criteria) Final Design Accomplishments Stage 1: • What is worthy and requiring of understanding? • National standards • State standards • District standards • Regional topic opportunities • Teacher expertise • Enduring ideas • Opportunities for authentic, discipline- based work • Uncoverage • Engaging • Unit framed around enduring understandings and essential learnings Stage 2: • What is evidence of understanding? • Six facets of understanding • Continuum of assessment types • Valid and reliable • Sufficient • Authentic work • Feasible • Student friendly • Unit anchored in credible and educationally vital evidence of the desired understandings Stage 3: • What learning experiences and teaching promote understanding, interest, and excellence? • Research-based repertoire of learning and teaching strategies • Essential and enabling knowledge and skill • WHERE: Where is it going Hook the students Explore and equip Rethink and revise Exhibit and evaluate • Coherent learning experiences and teaching that will evoke and develop the desired under- standings, promote interest, and make excellent perform- ance more likely. UbD p.18 What should students…
  12. 12. What should students… What should students… What knowledge is worth understanding? UbD p. 10-11
  13. 13. What IS worthy of understanding? WHAT KNOWLEDGE IS WORTH UNDERSTANDING? UbD p. 23
  14. 14. “If you wanted to teach all of the standards, you would have to change schooling from K-12 to K-22.” Robert Marzano Worth Being Familiar With Important to Know and Do Enduring Understanding UbD p.10 Stage 1: Identify desired results What should students know, understand, and be able to do? What content is worthy of understanding? What enduring understandings are desired? In Stage 1 we consider our goals, examine established content standards (national, state, district), and review curriculum expectations. Because typically we have more content than we can reasonably address within the available time, we must make choices. This first stage in the design process calls for clarity about priorities. Not everything we ask students to learn must be thoroughly understood.
  15. 15. The purpose of a unit of study, the age of the learners, and the time available all determine how much or how little teachers can expect students to understand. • When is it worth the trouble to get students to understand? • When is it sufficient for students to have only familiarity? We cannot go into depth on everything. Therefore, we must prioritize, by asking the extent to which the standard requires the students: • to be “familiar with” the textbook explanation…in which case a quiz on the textbook would be sufficient • to achieve a more complex and “enduring understanding”…through analysis, synthesis, and evaluation…culminating in their own performance. UbD p.22-24 I going to give you 1 minute to think of 2 of your favorite units that you teach (or will teach), and I want you to write down each of the units on a separate post-it note. At the end of 1 minute…I want you to get up and move about the room and when I say “pair,” I want you to pair with the closest person to you and share one of your favorite units with your partner.
  16. 16. Complete “How Do We Learn?” handout activity. Pair with your elbow partner. You will need a “number” person and a “word” person. Lay out 14 sticky notes in 2 columns and 7 rows of sticky notes. Read the directions. How? Why? Students must be accountable for learning. See “How Do We Learn” handout.
  17. 17. We’re going to repeat this process for your other favorite unit.
  18. 18. This was a strategy that you can your in your classroom called “Mix-Pair-Discuss.” You have a handout on how to do this that includes tips to consider when using this strategy. See handout 16.
  19. 19. Students can hit any achievement target they can see and that will sit still for them. Rick Stiggins “ ” Do the marshmallow activity but with the unit post-it notes. See p. 4 in How to Teach so Students Remember. 1) Identify desired results. 2) Determine acceptable evidence. 3) Plan instruction and learning experiences. Stage 2: Determine acceptable evidence How will we know if students have achieved the desired results? What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency? The backward design orientation suggests that we think about a unit or course in terms of the collected assessment evidence needed to document and validate that the desired learning has been achieved, not simply as content to be covered or as a series of learning activities. This approach encourages teachers and curriculum planners to first “think like an assessor” before designing specific units and lessons, and thus to consider up front how they will determine if students have attained the desired understandings.
  20. 20. Key Design Questions Design Considerations Filters (Design Criteria) Final Design Accomplishments Stage 1: • What is worthy and requiring of understanding? • National standards • State standards • District standards • Regional topic opportunities • Teacher expertise • Enduring ideas • Opportunities for authentic, discipline- based work • Uncoverage • Engaging • Unit framed around enduring understandings and essential learnings Stage 2: • What is evidence of understanding? • Six facets of understanding • Continuum of assessment types • Valid and reliable • Sufficient • Authentic work • Feasible • Student friendly • Unit anchored in credible and educationally vital evidence of the desired understandings Stage 3: • What learning experiences and teaching promote understanding, interest, and excellence? • Research-based repertoire of learning and teaching strategies • Essential and enabling knowledge and skill • WHERE: Where is it going Hook the students Explore and equip Rethink and revise Exhibit and evaluate • Coherent learning experiences and teaching that will evoke and develop the desired under- standings, promote interest, and make excellent perform- ance more likely. UbD p.18 BD calls for us to operationalize our goals or standards in terms of assessment evidence as we begin to plan a course or unit. BD begins with the question… “What would we accept as evidence that students have attained the desired understandings and proficiencies— before proceeding to plan teaching and learning experiences? We’re used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas – before clarifying our performance goals for students. By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results
  21. 21. “Students should be presumed innocent of understanding until proven guilty by a preponderance of evidence that is more than circumstantial.” Jay McTighe How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met the standards? What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency? UbD p.65 Think about a unit in terms of the collected assessment evidence needed to document and validate that the desired learning has been achieved, so that the course is not just content to be covered or a series of learning activities. UbD p. 12
  22. 22. Culminating projects in our units are often “celebratory event” for students to showcase their work. From Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks by Larry Lewin and Betty Jean Shoemaker
  23. 23. But, do we know who really learned what?Do we really know who learned what? Do we really know who learned what? I taught Stripe how to whistle. When we were honest with ourselves, we admitted that we operated under the maxim: “I taught, therefore, they learned.” From Great Performances: Creating Classroom-Based Assessment Tasks by Larry Lewin and Betty Jean Shoemaker I don’t hear him whistling.
  24. 24. I said I taught him, I didn’t say he learned! Think “Photo Album” vs “Snapshot” Sound instruction and assessment requires multiple sources of evidence collected over time.
  25. 25. Consider a range of assessment methods on a continuum of assessment methods Quiz & Test Items: These are simple, content-focused questions. They... * Assess for factual information, concepts, and discrete skill. * Use selected-response or short-answer formats. * Are convergent--typically they have a single, best answer. * May be easily scored using an answer key (or machine scoring). * Are typically secure (not known in advance). Academic Prompts: These are open-ended questions or problems that require the student to think critically, not just recall knowledge, and then to prepare a response, product, or performance. They... * Require constructed responses under school or exam conditions. * Are open. There is not a single, best answer or a best strategy for answering or solving them. * Often are ill-structured, requiring the development of a strategy. * Involve analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. * Typically require an explanation or defense of the answer given or method used. * Require judgment-based scoring based on criteria and performance standards. * May or may not be secure. Performance Tasks & Projects: As complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems faced by adults, they are authentic. Ranging in length from short- term tasks to long-term, multi-staged projects, they require a production or performance. They differ from prompts because they... * Feature a setting that is real or simulated: one that involves the kind of constraints, background noise, incentives, and opportunities an adult would find in a
  26. 26. similar situation. * Typically require the student to address an identified audience. * Are based on a specific purpose that relates to the audience. * Allow the student greater opportunity to personalize the task. * Are not secure. Task, criteria, and standards are known in advance and guide the student's work. 1) Identify desired results. 2) Determine acceptable evidence. 3) Plan instruction and learning experiences. Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction With clearly identified results and appropriate evidence of understanding in mind, it is now the time to fully think through the most appropriate instructional activities. Several key questions must be considered at this stage of backward design: What enabling knowledge (facts, concepts, principles) and skills (processes, procedures, strategies) will students need in order to perform effectively and achieve desired results? What activities will equip students with the needed knowledge and skills? What will need to be taught and coached, and how should it best be taught, in light of performance goals? What materials and resources are best suited to accomplish these goals? Note that the specifics of instructional planning—choices about teaching methods, sequence of lessons, and resource materials—can be successfully completed only after we identify desired results and assessments and consider what they imply. Teaching is a means to an end. Having a clear goal helps to focus our planning and guide purposeful action toward the intended results.
  27. 27. Key Design Questions Design Considerations Filters (Design Criteria) Final Design Accomplishments Stage 1: • What is worthy and requiring of understanding? • National standards • State standards • District standards • Regional topic opportunities • Teacher expertise • Enduring ideas • Opportunities for authentic, discipline- based work • Uncoverage • Engaging • Unit framed around enduring understandings and essential learnings Stage 2: • What is evidence of understanding? • Six facets of understanding • Continuum of assessment types • Valid and reliable • Sufficient • Authentic work • Feasible • Student friendly • Unit anchored in credible and educationally vital evidence of the desired understandings Stage 3: • What learning experiences and teaching promote understanding, interest, and excellence? • Research-based repertoire of learning and teaching strategies • Essential and enabling knowledge and skill • WHERE: Where is it going Hook the students Explore and equip Rethink and revise Exhibit and evaluate • Coherent learning experiences and teaching that will evoke and develop the desired under- standings, promote interest, and make excellent perform- ance more likely. UbD p.18 Everybody seems to have a “coach” story. What is your coach story? Or we might think of it as planning for coaching: What must learners master if they are to effectively perform? What will count as evidence on the field, not merely in drills, that they really get it and are ready to perform with understanding, knowledge, and skill on their own? How will the learning be designed so that learners' capacities are developed through use and feedback? What do 7th grade coaches do when a group of boys/girls first begin practice? • They gauge/preassess the boys’/girls’ skills. When a basketball coach has his/her players dribble with his/her dominant hand, what is he/she doing while the players are dribbling? • Observing the players’ skill level. What is a basketball coach doing when he/she has his/her players dribble with their non-dominant hand? • Challenging students on a new skill. What does the coach after introducing a variety of skills? • Tell story of the major league coach who was invited to teach a group of young children how to hit. (The first thing he did
  28. 28. was to watch each child hit a bucket of balls before offering one tip.) What do coaches do in practice prior to the first game? • Use skills in a practice game setting. You don’t see coaches doing weeks of direct teach prior to game one. What do coaches do during the game? During halftime? • Observe/make adjustments Complete “How Do We Learn?” handout activity. Pair with your elbow partner. You will need a “number” person and a “word” person. Lay out 14 sticky notes in 2 columns and 7 rows of sticky notes. Read the directions. How? Why? Students must be accountable for learning. See “How Do We Learn” handout. 10%...
  29. 29. 10%...what we READ 20%...what we HEAR 30%...what we SEE 50%...what we SEE and HEAR 70%...what we DISCUSS 80%...what we EXPERIENCE 90%...what we TEACH “A test is the weakest form of assessment.” Mike Schmoker Check The Batsmen were merciless against the Bowlers. The Bowlers placed their men in slips and covers. But to no avail. The Batsmen hit one four after another along with an occasional six. Not once did their balls hit their stumps or get caught. • Who were merciless against the Bowlers? • Where did the Bowlers place their men? • Was this strategy successful? • Who hit an occasional six? • How many times did the Batsmen’s balls hit a stump? You all got 100%. Congratulations! What did you learn? Now, you are seeing content-area reading from a kids-eye view: how students can read every word on a page without understanding; how they can sometimes pass tests on concepts they don’t really grasp; how they can go
  30. 30. through a whole book or unit, and end up with no long-term memory of what they studied at all. We’ve got to find ways to make content meaningful to our students. This passage is about cricket.
  31. 31. A child’s attention span is the equivalent of his age (give or take a few minutes). What do students pay attention to? What do students today pay attention to? •Possible topics include: music, movies, phones, internet Working in groups of 4, each person take 1 sheet of paper. Write 1 of the 4 topics listed (i.e. music on 1 sheet, movies on another, etc.). List as many ways students use that medium. When I say “pass,” pass the paper to the person to your right. Without duplicating an answer, continue to list ways students use that medium. Ready, “pass.” Poll: It is a teacher's job to engage stude... Press F5 or use the tool bar to enter presentation mode in order to see the poll. In an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser: http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple _choice_polls/MTY1OTY1NTMxOA If you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture
  32. 32. showing a text message on a phone. Poll: It is a teacher's job to entertain st... Press F5 or use the tool bar to enter presentation mode in order to see the poll. In an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser: http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple _choice_polls/ODcxNjc0ODM4 If you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone.
  33. 33. INSERT CHARLIE BROWN’S TEACHER VOICE This is known as the “sage on the stage.” “Teaching is not young people watching old people work.” How many people can participate at one time?
  34. 34. 10-minute rule Given the tendency of an audience to check out 20% of the way into a presentation, I knew I initially had only about 600 seconds to earn the right to be heard—or the next hour would be useless. I needed something after the 601st second to “buy” another 10 minutes. After 9 minutes and 59 seconds, the audience’s attention is getting ready to plummet to near zero. They need something so compelling that they blast through the 10-minute barrier and move on to new ground—something that triggers an orienting response toward the speaker and captures executive functions, allowing efficient learning. BR91 Hooks have to be relevant. If hooks are irrelevant, the presentation seems disjointed or listeners mistrust the speaker’s motives (as if trying to entertain at the expense of providing information)…if the hook is relevant, the group is moved from feeling entertained to feeling engaged. BR91 Must trigger an emotion: fear, laughter, happiness, nostalgia, increduility (amazement, doubt, skepticism, unbelief, wonder, or novel stimuli—the unusual, unpredictable, or distinctive—are powerful ways to harness attention) BR76)) BR91
  35. 35. Vision We do not see with our eyes. We see with our brains. BR223 The amygdala is the major player in emotions and their memories. Because the amygdala modulates both explicit and implicit memory…we remember poignant events better than boring or neutral ones. When the amygdala detects emotion, it essentially boost activity in the areas of the brain that forms memories, and that’s how it makes a stronger memory a more vivid memory. What are emotions? Most researchers refer to the six universal emotions: happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust.
  36. 36. Everyday experience and laboratory studies reveal that emotionally charged incidents are better remembered than non-emotional events. The emotional boost begins at the moment that a memory is born, when attention and elaboration strongly influence whether an experience will be subsequently remembered or forgotten. How to Teach So Students Remember p. 23 Complete 4 Corners activity. Go to the corner of the photograph that represents a time when you can specifically recall where you were the moment that it happened. Discuss in your group. Music Songs capture emotion. First date. 5 songs that define your life…your unit.
  37. 37. What catches our eye? The brain continuously scans the sensory horizon, with events constantly assessed for their potential interest or importance. BR76 Brain rules Regardless of who you are, the brain pays a great deal of attention to these questions: Can I eat it? Will it eat me? Can I mate with it? Will it mate with me? Have I seen it before? BR81 There’s no bigger rule in biology than evolution through natural selection: Whoever gets the food survives; whoever survives gets to have sex; and whoever has sex gets to pass his traits on to the next generation. BR34
  38. 38. Unfortunately, most people never make the jump from verbal expression—which is what we were all taught in school—to effective visual expression, which is neither easy nor natural. S:Oxviii Nonlinguistic Representation Ironically, the one thing that combines creative thinking, analytics, data assimilation, and the inherent ability to express oneself visually. S:O2 Nonlinguistic Representations is one of Robert Marzano’s nine essential high Level instructional strategies found within Classroom Instruction That Works & The Handbook for Classroom Instruction that Works. According to research, knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and visual. The more students use both forms in the classroom, the more opportunity they have to achieve. Recently, use of nonlinguistic representation has proven to not only stimulate but also increase brain activity. • Incorporate words and images using symbols to represent relationships. • Use physical models and physical movement to represent information. • Creating graphic representations. • Generating mental pictures. • Drawing pictures and pictographs. • Engaging in kinesthetic activity.
  39. 39. http://www.smithmag.net/sixwords/ Six-Word Memoirs: The Legend Legend has it that Hemingway was once challenged to write a story in only six words. His response? “For sale: baby shoes, never worn.” Starting in 2006, SMITH Magazine re-ignited the recountre by asking our readers for their own six- word memoirs. They sent in short life stories in droves, from the bittersweet (“Cursed with cancer, blessed with friends”) and poignant (“I still make coffee for two”) to the inspirational (“Business school? Bah! Pop music? Hurrah”) and hilarious (“I like big butts, can’t lie”). (i.e. Same Kind of Different as Me: Wealth,
  40. 40. poverty; two worlds; one friendship.)
  41. 41. Conclusion You can get with this or you can get with that.
  42. 42. Stickiness What makes messages stick? Sticky ideas have 6 key principles in common: simplicity (if everything is important, nothing is important), unexpectedness, concreteness, credibility, emotions, and stories. PZ76 (See also Made to Stick (MtS) by Chip and Dan Heath)

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