STEP, XML, and UML: Complementary Technologies1 Russell S. Peak, Georgia Institute of Technology Manufacturing Research Center Joshua Lubell, National Institute of Standards and Technology Vijay Srinivasan, IBM Corporation ASME Member Stephen C. Waterbury NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Submission for JCISE Special Issue: From Engineering Information Management to Product Lifecycle Management.
LUCIANO FLORIDI, Wolfson College, Oxford University Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LXX, No. 2, March 2005
Issues in long-term knowledge retention in engineering
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation “Funes the Memorious” Issues in long term knowledge retention in engineering Chris Rusbridge Funded by:This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5UK: Scotland License. To view a copy of this license, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/scotland/ ; or, (b) send a letter to CreativeCommons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Contents• DCC• Last year?• Funes, and the cobbler• Knowledge, engineering, information, longevity• Next… Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Mission“The over-riding purpose of the DCC is tosupport and promote continuing improvementin the quality of data curation, and ofassociated digital preservation” Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Goals• Strategic leadership in digital curation• Influence and inform policy• Provide advocacy and expert advice• Provide resources and tools• Raise levels of awareness and expertise• Strengthen the community• Continue links with leading edge research Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Status of DCC• Phase 2 funded 3/2007 to 2/2010• Associated project DCC SCARP to 4/2009 • Includes immersive case study approach including engineering/architecture at Bath • Just starting! Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Last year at LTKR…• Established importance of problem• Critical standards exist (STEP, OAIS)… helpful but not sufficient?• Identified some issues & limitations• Wanted engineering information in (format) registries• Identified some archiving problems• Listed some requirements Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation “Funes the Memorious”• Story by Jorge Luis Borges  • Funes remembers everything • 70,000 memories a day… how to classify? • Puzzled why “the dog at 3:14 (seen from the side) should have the same name as the dog at 3:15 (seen from the front)” • “I suspect, however, that he was not very capable of thought. To think is to forget differences, generalize, make abstractions. In the teeming world of Funes, there were only details, almost immediate in their presence.” Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation The cobbler? •People QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. •Organisation•Knowledge •Processes •All in one person! •Un-scalable, and mortal Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Abstraction and domain areas•Peak, Lubell,•Srinivasan &•Waterbury,•JCISE 2004  Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservationScalability: bring on the “M” names? • ILM? • Digital curation? No, 3rd party storage management • KM? • Integrate processes and agents through shared knowledge? • With added requirements for long-term? • “death/autism of KM?” • Cultural change barriers: knowledge sharing still… • Person to person • Just in time (if you’re lucky) • Problem-oriented • PLM? • Proprietary 3rd party? “Trust me…” • Standards-based… Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation What’s going on? •Economic period •Compliance period •Product database •archival •Maintain •Retain•Design •Build •during life •After life •Product information repository •Completeness, accuracy, •+ provenance, •versions, process, efficiency •longevity •Continuing interpretability Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Archive/repository• Preserves “information” (OAIS)• For a Designated Community• Receives Submission Information Packages (SIPs) • Negotiated • Data in files • Metadata • Context & provenance, etc Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Designated Community• An identified group of potential Consumers who should be able to “understand” a particular set of information• Here: future engineers (and accident investigators!)• Will 22nd century engineering concept set & vocabulary be superset of today’s? • No! Gradual concept drift… • But likely discoverable by determined investigator. Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Slippery words• “Polysemantic concepts such as information can be fruitfully analysed only in relation to well-specified contexts of application” Floridi  • Understand • Knowledge • Knowing that, knowing how • Information • Factual, instructional, process • Data • “difference that makes a difference” • Files Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Files, databases, packets• No naked data • In any independent existence the data are always packaged in some way • Encoded serialisation of data representing information linked to an information model and/or conceptual schema? • Packaging adds extraneous “information” • Confuses the archivist! (Most digital preservation discussions relate to preserving “files” or at best “digital objects”) Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation ISO 19101 model•ISO 19101 Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Information• “Standard definition of information” Floridi • Comprises data that • … is well-formed • … and meaningful• OAIS definition • “Any type of knowledge that can be exchanged. In an exchange, it is represented by data.” Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservationRepresentation information• Heavy load!• “Representation Information accompanying a digital object, or sequence of bits, is used to provide additional meaning. It typically maps the bits into commonly recognized data types such as character, integer, and real and into groups of these data types. It associates these with higher-level meanings that can have complex inter-relationships that are also described.” Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Interpreted using…• Today: software tools • (although OAIS implies RepInfo often a text description…)• Tomorrow: • Same software running on a VM (emulation)? • Different software specially built using the RepInfo? • Maybe tool to “interpret” RepInfo eg in EAST? • Maybe new software implementing legacy forms? • Maybe transform old data for new software (migration)?• Outcomes enhanced if information in widely-used standards-based form! Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservationOAIS a Reference Model…• Not a design• Not an architecture• There need be no element labeled RepInfo• … but the CONCEPT of RepInfo should exist!• Ie explicit relationship between data/files and information according to a recorded information model Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Engineering RepInfo?• Do you have an underlying engineering information model?• What would representation information be for engineering information (say encoded in STEP)? • Definitions of appropriate STEP elements (eg the standard) • Additional refinements added by the tools used • +???• What about what cannot be encoded in STEP?• Or… what information would an engineer need who had never used STEP or your analysis tools? Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation Final questions• What else makes your encoded product information fragile?• What can you do to make it more robust?• What further tools, techniques, training and infrastructures do you need to do a better job? Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
a centre of expertise in data curation and preservation References•  Borges, Jorge Luis. (1962) Labyrinths, Selected Stories & Other Writings. Penguin Books•  Peak, R., Lubell, J., Srinivasan, V., Waterbury, S. (2004). STEP, XML, and UML: Complementary Technologies. Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering 4 (4), 379-90•  Floridi, L. (2005). Is Semantic Information Meaningful Data? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. LXX, No. 2 Atlantic Workshop on LKTR 2
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