20121210   Access to IT in Indigenous Populations
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20121210 Access to IT in Indigenous Populations

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    20121210   Access to IT in Indigenous Populations 20121210 Access to IT in Indigenous Populations Presentation Transcript

    • Update on information use in Indigenous Populations https://sites.google.com/site/crauchlethesis/documents/MDCD2012presentation%20outline.pptx?attredirects=0&d=1 Student: Christopher Rauchle Supervisor: Stephen Cassidy Snum: 41958209 Slide 1 of 15
    • Population –Indigenous differencesThe Indigenous population may be back to Pre-Colonial levels within the next 30 years. Year PopulationWith the new data from 2011 this looksmore like in the next 50 years so what 1920-30 (1) ~65,000gives? 1991 351,000Optimistic projections for 2011 data are 2006 517,000575K pop. but there are around 5% (over1M) who did not attribute their 2011 (6) 548,370Indigenous/Non-Indigenous status on thelast census and ABS make a more 2021 (2) ~715,000accurate survey every six years (2014National Aboriginal and Torres Strait 2040 (3) 1,000,000Islander Social Survey(10)) Slide 2 of 18
    • Population –Indigenous Pop to 2021And something distinctive is happening to the Indigenous population Slide 3 of 18
    • The Non-Indigenous PopulationThat is different to the Non-Indigenous Population Slide 4 of 18
    • Population –Indigenous differencesThe Indigenous population may be back to Pre-Colonial levels within the next 50 years.Indigenous people have a demography that closely resembles a developing country population pyramid while the non-Indigenous population resembles the rest of the Western world. (5) Slide 5 of 18
    • Population –Indigenous differencesIndigenous people have a demography that closely resembles a developing country population pyramid “Younger people were more likely to engage in socialThis emerging population is exactly networking than those in older age groups. The average age of social networkers was 35 years, the sort that uses social media to whilst those who didn’t use social networking share information sites had an average age of 53 years.” ABS Online @ Home study 2011Regardless of whether it’s facebook, twitter, G+ or something else it will be SOCIAL Slide 6 of 18
    • 2011 Indigenous Households Indigenous Number of Households HouseholdsDial Up 5,552Other 14,205No connection 65,668Broadband 111,588 ‘Other’ includes mobile broadband and is almost twice as high in Indigenous households, perhaps due to those households being in areas that cannot connect to broadband (40Km from a main road) Slide 7 of 18
    • NIHH are still on average more broadband connectedNon-Indigenous Number of Households HouseholdsDial Up 229,850Other 288,839No Connection 1,459,444Broadband 5,312,921 Percentage of Dial Up users the same in Indigenous and Non- Indigenous Households Slide 8 of 18
    • Difference in Indigenous Internet use since 2006 censusWhen that internet connection is reliable and ubiquitous the gap more than halves(4)The difference between the 2006 figuresand 2011 figures: Table 1. Internet connection by Indigenous status of household (based on Census 2006)• Difference between Internet connections in Sydney in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous households has Households Households been cut in half from 15% to 7% with Other with Other Households Gap Indigenous households Indigenous %• Difference between Indigenous and Persons Persons % Non-Indigenous households in all of Australia has dropped from 21% to Internet connetions in 18,502 1,196,403 73% 80% 7% 14%. Sydney Internet connections in Australia 131,345 5,831,606 63% 77% 14% GAP 10% 3% Table 2. Internet connection by Indigenous status of household (based on Census 2011) Slide 9 of 18
    • Internet use is rising as a function of cheaper computing and flat telecoms costsWhile other costs have risen in the last twenty years. The cost of computing equipment has dropped exponentially while communications costs have hardly risen.Although lower than non-Indigenous households, Indigenous households still have comparable internet penetration.Broadband in particular is beginning to be a free good and may not be chargeable in the future Slide 10 of 18
    • Population questions – Internet Use Future ConceptIndigenous Internet use is moving Egyptian beyond charity and government Spring Wifi controlled programs to BYOD RoutersThe rise of smartphones and cheap mobile plans is making access to expensive devices for Merkai using media less of an issue Free Community Wifi Slide 11 of 18
    • Population questions – Internet Use Future RealityIndigenous Internet use is moving Ubiquitous beyond charity and government internet access controlled programs to BYODThe rise of smartphones and cheap mobile plans is making access to expensive devices for Rise of the Smartphone using media less of an issue iPads in schools Laptops in schools Slide 12 of 18
    • Summary• Differences between the types of internet in households in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous communities is diminishing• The indigenous population continues to increase though perhaps not in line with the most optimistic projections• The cost of access to the internet continues to drop such that there should be no cost barrier to access to social media in the next census• The NBN may erode the last mile disadvantage for those in remote communities that are more than 40km from a highway• It seems there will be no further development of some of the technologies that are a key part of my research into digital rights management – MPEG7 and MPEG21 Slide 13 of 18
    • Stream control wins in the end and MPEG ‘declares victory’MPEG industry forum ceases developmenton media codecs with H.264 now thedefacto standard in the industry…futuredevelopment is over to the Open IP TVForum(7) ABC stops development of Android App because, in the absence of Flash, there is no way to DRM the stream to prevent copying as they do with Apple Fairplay (8) Slide 14 of 18
    • YouTube Face blurring tool Slide 15 of 18
    • Censoring videos for publicconsumption out of your area Slide 16 of 18
    • Censorship to control dissent but video still has a ‘man in the middle’ problem"Nothing with vulgar or violent materials will pass," said the woman, who did not give her name because she said she was not authorized to speak on the record. "Political speech? If it is anti-party and anti-society, it definitely will not pass. No website will allow such content.“ (9) Slide 17 of 18
    • Conclusion• Evolution of the demographics and the access method for the internet in Indigenous communities presents opportunities for new social media platforms to erode facebook and twitter’s first mover advantage• Existing technologies will be the platform of choice with a strong bias to continuous network connection rather than a set of media repositories loosely connected by a sometimes-on connection Slide 18 of 18
    • References(1) Korf, Jens, Aboriginal timeline (1900 – 1969), http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/aboriginal-history-timeline-early-20th.html(2) 32380_1991 to 2021 - Experimental Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/cat/3238.0(3) N. Biddle and J. Taylor, Indigenous Population Projections, 2006–2031: Planning for Growth, 1996(4) A History of Aboriginal Sydney…digitally delivering the past to the present http://dev.information- online.com.au/sb_clients/iog/data/content_item_files/000001/paper_2011_B1.pdf(5) Closing the gap, 2011 , Prime Minister’s report http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/sa/indigenous/pubs/closing_the_gap/2011_ctg_pm_report/Pages/default.aspx(6) 2011CensusI01A table – Australian Census Datapack(7) MPEG forum declares victory(8) Why there will never be an Android iView(9) China wants to censor online video content(10)(11) Skin groups in Arrente communities