COMPUTER VIRUSES WORM A potentially A program that copies damaging computer itself repeatedly, using program that affects, up resources and or infects, a computer possibly shutting down negatively by altering the computer or the way the computer network. works without the user’s knowledge or permission.
ROOTKITTROJAN HORSE A program that hides A program that hides in the computer and within or looks like a allows someone from a legitimate program. remote location to A certain condition or take full control of the action usually triggers location. the Trojan Horse Once the rootkit is It does not replicate installed, the rootkit itself to other author can execute computers. programs, change settings, monitor activity and access files on the remote.
Step 1Unscrupulous programmers create a virus program that deletes all They hide the virus in a word processing document and attach the files. document to an e-mail message. Step 2 They send the e-mail message to thousands of users around the world Step 3 b) Other users do not recognize the name of the sender of thea) Some users open the attachment and their computers become message and they do not open it – instead they immediately infected with the virus delete the e-mail message.So, the computers not infected.
Many application programs such as Microsoft Word can beconfigured to display a warning if a user attempts to open a file thatcontains a macro.
Protects a computer against viruses by identifying andremoving any computerviruses found in memory on storage media. Is a known specific pattern of virus code.
Is an e-mail messagethat warns users of a non-existent virus or other malware.
BOTNETS•Is a group of compromised computers connected tonetwork that attacks other network.•compromised computer is known as zombie whereowner is unware the computer is being controlledremotely by an outsider.•Bot is a program that performs a repetitive taskon a network.•cybercriminals install malicious bots onunprotected computers to create botnet.
•is an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer accessto Internet service.•DOS attack carried out in many ways: Using unsuspecting computers to DDoS(Distributed DoS) attack send influx of confusing data •Zombie is used to attack computer messages or useless traffic to a networks. computer network. •Able to stop operations temporarily at numerous websites.There are few motives for doing Dos/DDoS attacks: Claim As a vehicle Simply for political for extortion recognition even it anger is negative.
•is a program/set of instructions in aprogram that allow users to bypasssecurity controls when accessingprogram.•Rootkit can be a back door.•programmers usually build back doorsinto programs during systemdevelopment to save development time.•computer repair technician may install aback door while troubleshootingproblems on a computer.
•is a technique intruders use to make theirnetwork or Internet transmission appearlegitimate to a victim computer or network.•types of spoofing computers schemes: E-MAIL SPOOFING IP SPOOFING•Occurs when sender’s address •Occurs when an intrudersor other components of e-mail computer fools a networkheader are altered. into believing its IP address is•Commonly used for viruses associated with a trustedhoaxes, spam and phishing source.scams.
Isa hardware/software that protects a network’s resourcesfrom intrusion Organizations - use firewalls to protect network resources and to restrictemployees’ access to sensitive data. - use proxy server that controls which communications passinto the organization’s network. Home and small office/home office - users protect their computers with personal firewall. - it monitors all transmissions to and from computer and mayinform a user of any attempted intrusion. - some users purchase stand-alone personal firewall software.
Large organizations may use intrusiondetection software to identify possible securitybreaches. It analyses all network traffic, assesses systemvulnerabilities, identifies any unauthorizedintrusions and notifies network administrators ofsuspicious behavoiur patterns or system breaches.
Some organizations use honeypots so that theycan analyze an attack being perpetrated. A honeypot is a vulnerable computer that is setup to entice an intruder to break into it. Honeypots allow the organizations to learn howintruders are exploiting their network and alsoattempt to catch perpetrators who have beendoing damage elsewhere on their network.
Act of defacing or destroying computer equipment Cutting computer cable wire . Aimlessly destroying individuals or school computers. Normally it doesnt pose threat to home desktop computer users. Small unit system can be stolen as their portable and able to fit in backpack or briefcases
Safeguardsagainst hardware theft and vandalism
locked doors and windows(usually for school and business) enough to protect these hardwares install alarm system cables that lock the equipment to the desk Small locking devices also exists that require a key to access a hard disk or a optical disk drive
Real time location system (RTLS)- to track and identify location aof high risk or high valued items. RTLS place RFID tags in items to be tracked. Mobile users can install mini security system in the notebook computer
Some of these security systems shut down the computer or sound an alarm if computer moves out of a specific distance Some can configure to photograph the thieves when they use the computer Tracking software can track the location of stolen notebook computer Use passwords ,possessed objects and biometrics.
Ex: starting up a computer requires password , slide card in card reader or press you finger on a finger print reader for the hard disk to unlock This type of security does not prevent theft but it makes the computer useless after stolen Password protect can be used on portable devices : USB flash drives,smart phones and other devices. This will allow only authorized users to access the devices data.
Some security system can destroy data if an incorrect password entered in a certain number of times. You can instruct the password screen to display your name and phone number ,, so that if it was misplaced or lost someone can always contact you and return it!