CQL3 and Data Modeling 101 with Apache Cassandra

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Introduction to CQL3 and Cassandra Data Modeling. …

Introduction to CQL3 and Cassandra Data Modeling.

Presented at SD Cassandra Meetup 2014.02.27

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  • 1. CQL3 & Data Modeling 101 with Apache Cassandra San Diego Cassandra Meetup Feb 27, 2014
  • 2. Not how you’ve done it before…
  • 3. In the beginning… There was the Row, and the Column And the Row was fast to find and scale, And the Column was fast to order.
  • 4. Cassandra Properties
  • 5. C* • Column Oriented • Log Structured • Distributed Database
  • 6. Column Oriented • Columns actually hold the data • Key/Value pair • Name can be used to store meaning as well
  • 7. Distributed Database • Rows are used to distribute • C* pulls the entire row into memory • Can pull out individual parts or write to individual parts, but it’s still considered together
  • 8. Log Structured Updates • Commitlog and sstables are log structured • Oriented around appending (streaming at a know location) • ==> Writes quickly • And you want to avoid rewrites
  • 9. Random Reads • Data is scattered around the store (have to get location and random read to look it up) • Some indexing, and hopefully it’s in the vfs page cache, but still. • ==> Reads “slower”
  • 10. General Rules of Thumb • De-normalize Everything • Duplicate your data • Organize it for reading
  • 11. Containers
  • 12. Keyspace • For modeling, not much • All data lives inside of Keyspaces
  • 13. Columnfamily • aka Table • Grouping of similar data • Has unique key/row space • Where some structure is applied
  • 14. Row • Unique inside of a column family • Key/Value where the Value is all of the columns in the row • Can handle some additional meaning to the row name • Typically “bucketing”
  • 15. Column • Holds data values • Key/Value • Can have meaning in the column name as well
  • 16. Thrift Interface • Operates on the raw rows and columns • Many different language drivers • Can use cassandra-cli to do this on the command line
  • 17. Data Patterns
  • 18. Users CF mac@mac .com NAME TWITTER TAGS mac @macmceniry admin,super,cool jsmith@mac .com NAME ICQ Employer Hobby John 89403270 Smithco Miniature Horses bb@example .com NAME IRC Bobtholomew bb@DAL NAME TWITTER Food TAGS Elizabeth @liz Cheesecake admin NAME IRC Steven steve@DARK liz@example .com steve@my .net
  • 19. Lookup by chat handle ICQ CF IRC CF EMAIL 89403270 EMAIL bb@DAL bb@example .com jsmith@mac.com EMAIL steve@ DARK steve@my .net
  • 20. Lookup by chat handle ICQ CF EMAIL IRC CF Name 89403270 EMAIL Name bb@example .com Bobtholomew EMAIL Name steve@my .net Steve bb@DAL jsmith@mac.com John steve@ DARK
  • 21. HandleCF EMAIL NAME jsmith@mac.com John EMAIL NAME bb@example.com Bobtholomew EMAIL NAME steve@my.net Steven 89403270 bb@DAL steve@DARK
  • 22. HandleCF TYPE EMAIL NAME ICQ jsmith@mac.com John TYPE EMAIL NAME IRC bb@example.com Bobtholomew TYPE EMAIL NAME IRC steve@my.net Steven 89403270 bb@DAL steve@DARK
  • 23. How do I create these? [default@userdb] create column family usersCF; 5ecec19a-3a43-3490-8c9a-3eb2901e2e97 Waiting for schema agreement... ... schemas agree across the cluster [default@userdb] create column family handleCF; df82135c-eb1f-3abf-b9df-02c605d571d5 Waiting for schema agreement... ... schemas agree across the cluster
  • 24. How do I insert data? [default@userdb] set handleCF[utf8(‘bb@DAL’)] … [utf8(‘NAME’)] = utf8('Bobtholomew'); Value inserted. Elapsed time: 22 msec(s). [default@userdb] set handleCF[utf8(‘bb@DAL')] … [utf8(‘EMAIL’)] = utf8(‘bb@example.com’); Value inserted. Elapsed time: 3.43 msec(s).
  • 25. Users CF - TAGS mac@mac .com NAME TWITTER TAGS mac @macmceniry admin,super,cool jsmith@mac .com NAME ICQ Employer Hobby John 89403270 Smithco Miniature Horses bb@example .com NAME IRC Bobtholomew bb@DAL NAME TWITTER Food TAGS Elizabeth @liz Cheesecake admin NAME IRC Steven steve@DARK liz@example .com steve@my .net
  • 26. Users CF - TAGS mac@mac .com jsmith@mac .com bb@example .com liz@example .com steve@my .net NAME TWITTER TAGS:admin TAGS:cool mac @macmceniry NAME ICQ Employer Hobby John 89403270 Smithco Miniature Horses NAME IRC Bobtholomew bb@DAL NAME TWITTER Food TAGS:admin Elizabeth @liz Cheesecake NAME IRC Steven steve@DARK TAGS:super
  • 27. “Types” [default@userdb] set handleCF[utf8(‘bb@DAL’)] ! • Key Validator • (Column) Comparator • (Column Value) Default Validator, Metadata • BytesType, AsciiType, UTF8Type, IntegerType, Int32Type, LongType, UUIDType, TimeUUIDType, DateType, BooleanType, FloatType, DoubleType, DecimalType, CounterColumnType (, CompositeTypes)
  • 28. What’s in a name? • Can use row names and column names to add meaning • Row name meaning creates a new distribution bin • Column name meaning can create a data hierarchy • No real change to the column family creation in the thrift interface (well, types depending on what you’re doing)
  • 29. EventCF mac@mac .com: 20140203 08:10:15 08:15:15 09:10:15 join update logout mac@mac .com: 20140204 08:11:23 08:14:57 18:45:12 18:50:52 19:01:29 login logout login logout logout mac@mac .com: 20140205 09:23:23 09:57:44 login logout liz@example .com: 20140203 11:22:33 11:44:55 22:10:05 22:52:02 login logout login logout liz@example .com: 20140205 08:11:23 08:14:57 login logout
  • 30. That was then, this is…
  • 31. Now • Same underlying structure none of that has changed • • • Rows - reference quickly use for searching Columns - scan quickly user for ordering But now have usage patterns • Some have been codified into CQL
  • 32. CQL • Thrift alternative • Simpler API • Hides the structure of the internal storage • 3 generations • Only looking at CQL3 here • cqlsh [-3]
  • 33. How does handle look here? cqlsh:userdb> CREATE TABLE handles ( … handlename VARCHAR, … email VARCHAR, … name VARCHAR, … PRIMARY KEY (handlename) … ); cqlsh:userdb> INSERT INTO handles … (handlename, email, name) VALUES … (‘bb@DAL’, ‘bb@example.com’, ‘Bobtholomew’);
  • 34. handles Table email name bb@example.com Bobtholomew bb@DAL
  • 35. How does handle look here? cqlsh:userdb> SELECT * FROM handles; handlename | email | name ————————————|————————————————|————————————— bb@DAL | bb@example.com | Bobtholomew cqlsh:userdb> SELECT * FROM handles WHERE … handlename = ‘bb@DAL’; handlename | email | name ————————————|————————————————|————————————— bb@DAL | bb@example.com | Bobtholomew
  • 36. How do I change it? cqlsh:userdb> UPDATE handles SET email=‘none’ … WHERE handlename = ‘bb@DAL’; cqlsh:userdb> SELECT * FROM handles; handlename | email | name ————————————|————————————————|————————————— bb@DAL | none | Bobtholomew
  • 37. upsert • Update instead of Insert • • Does the same thing (as long as it’s not a key) Insert instead of Update • Overwrites data if it’s already there
  • 38. What about our event buckets from earlier? • Can do the same thing • Creating a composite key • • USERNAME:DATE Creating a composite column • hh:mm:ss
  • 39. EventCF mac@mac .com: 20140203 08:10:15 08:15:15 09:10:15 join update logout mac@mac .com: 20140204 08:11:23 08:14:57 18:45:12 18:50:52 19:01:29 login logout login logout logout mac@mac .com: 20140205 09:23:23 09:57:44 login logout liz@example .com: 20140203 11:22:33 11:44:55 22:10:05 22:52:02 login logout login logout liz@example .com: 20140205 08:11:23 08:14:57 login logout
  • 40. cqlsh:userdb> CREATE TABLE events ( … username VARCHAR, … d VARCHAR, … hr INT, … min INT, … sec INT, … event VARCHAR, … PRIMARY KEY ( (username,d), hr, min, sec ) );
  • 41. … PRIMARY KEY ( (username,d), hr, min, sec ) ); ROW NAME (C* 1.2) COLUMN NAME
  • 42. Tags • CQL has collections • map, list, set • Collections are build similar to small/special composite columns • Can add to our existing handle table
  • 43. cqlsh:userdb> ALTER TABLE handles ADD tags SET; cqlsh:userdb> UPDATE TABLE handles … SET tags = (‘admin’, ‘foo’); email name bb@example.com Bobtholomew bb@DAL tags:admin tags:foo
  • 44. Design the data model so that it’s idempotent (eBay) • Counter versus Collection (what question is being asked?) Count 100 Count 200 Count 300 Likes A Likes B Likes C Likes A Likes B Likes C +user11 1393287359 +user12 1393287359 +user11 1393287359 +user12 1393280912 -user11 1393281942 +user13 1393212345 1393287100 +user12 1393287100 1393287100 +user13 1393287100 1393287100 +user14 1393287100
  • 45. Go Forth and Model! Thank You! PS… Sony Network is hiring!