Traits and well being a reciprocal story - spsp 2013 - chris martin

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As the life sciences evolve, theories of unidirectional effects often get replaced by theories involving cyclic or reciprocal effects. One area where effects have been considered unidirectional until now is trait theory. In fact, the Big Five are generally posited to be stable, and when change is discussed, a trait is considered as either an agent of change or a patient of change, but never both simultaneously. With regard to well-being, traits are almost always treated as agents of change. We recommend a revision to this model, by putting forth a reciprocal model of causality between well-being and traits. Using panel data from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults (N = 1602), we show that there is a reciprocal loop between psychological well-being and the Big Five, with extraversion and neuroticism being the most important factors on the trait side. These data call into question the set point theory of well-being, and they indicate that Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build mechanism of positive affect operates on larger time scales. The notable role of extraversion and neuroticism suggest that the attachment–avoidance system predicts exposure to positive vs. negative life events, and this system is in turn modulated by exposure to positive vs. negative events.

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  • Upward focus:--Frederickson's Broaden and Build Hypothesis & upward spiral dynamics (positive emotions predicted increases over time in broad-minded coping, and that broad-minded coping predicted increases over time in positive emotions)Homeostatis Focus--Charles's Strength and Vulnerability Integration(When older adults avoid or reduce exposure to emotional distress, they often respond better than younger adults; when they experience high levels of sustained emotional arousal, however, age-related advantages in emotional well-being are attenuated, and older adults are hypothesized to have greater difficulties returning to homeostasis.) --Set point" theory and hedonic treadmill (Diener, Lucas, and Scollon, 2009)(individuals differ in their
  • Upward focus:--Frederickson's Broaden and Build Hypothesis & upward spiral dynamics (positive emotions predicted increases over time in broad-minded coping, and that broad-minded coping predicted increases over time in positive emotions)Homeostatis Focus--Charles's Strength and Vulnerability Integration(When older adults avoid or reduce exposure to emotional distress, they often respond better than younger adults; when they experience high levels of sustained emotional arousal, however, age-related advantages in emotional well-being are attenuated, and older adults are hypothesized to have greater difficulties returning to homeostasis.) --Set point" theory and hedonic treadmill (Diener, Lucas, and Scollon, 2009)(individuals differ in their
  • Traits and well being a reciprocal story - spsp 2013 - chris martin

    1. 1. Psychological Well-Being andthe Big Five: A Reciprocal StoryChris C. Martin & Corey L. M. KeyesDept. of Sociology, Emory University, Atlanta, GALifespan Social–Personality Preconference 2013Fourteenth Annual Meeting of SPSP, New Orleans, LAchris.martin.e@gmail.com
    2. 2. IntroductionAs the life sciences progress: Decline in theories of unidirectional effects Rise in theories of cyclic and reciprocal effects e.g., biological coevolution, gene-culturecoevolution, family systemsPersonality psychology is a “late bloomer.”
    3. 3. Longitudinal Trait Change: A HistoryFirst Generation (Trait theorists)Emphasized stability, not change, to establish validityDid not use longitudinal methodsSecond Generation:Change over time was studied, with a focus onstability, maturity, and individual differencesThird Generation:Life events, genetics, sociogenomics, reciprocalcausation
    4. 4. First GenerationContextPsychoanalytic theory preceded trait theoryStudying traits required theoretical justificationBasis of traits was lexicalArguments About StabilityCritics of traits emphasized situational varianceCounter-arguments
    5. 5. Second GenerationPattern: Gradual change from stability to change asfocus of researchThree Strains:Stability and Rank-Order Consistency -- Quantifying stability over the lifespan’s segmentsMaturation and Mean-Level Change -- Uncovering common maturation processesIndividual Differences-- Examining heterogeneity of trajectories--Life events
    6. 6. Third Generation: Causal ExplorationExplanations of both personality consistency andchange:Personality Consistency (Roberts & Caspi, 2003)--Genetic effects-- Attraction, selection, evocation, etc.-- Meta-process: identity clarityPersonality Change (Trzesniewski et al., 2003)-- Roles, social learning-- Work experiences, Relationshipexperiences, Historical/Political Factors
    7. 7. Recent Research ISpecht, Egloss, & Schmukle (2012) Examiningmechanisms of personality maturation: The impact oflife satisfaction on the Big Five--German sample--Increases in life satisfaction covaried with positiveincreases in traits--Increase fit to environment may drive upsatisfaction, which may then motivate personalitychange--Personality change may increase social rewards, whichincrease satisfactionLimitations--Only life satisfaction was measured
    8. 8. Recent Research IIHill, Turiano, Mroczek, & Roberts (2012) Examiningconcurrent and longitudinal relations betweenpersonality traits and social well-being in adulthood--American sample (MIDUS)--Incorporated four facets of social well-being--Latent growth curve analyses--Discovered covariation of social well-being and Big Fivetrait development
    9. 9. Overview of Current Study--Study of covariation between trait change and well-being change--Incorporate three types of well-being Emotional Wellbeing (EWB): Pertains to affective state (PA, SWLS) Psychological Wellbeing (PWB): Pertains to existential coping Social Wellbeing (SWB): Pertains to integration and connectedness
    10. 10. Psychological Well-Being (Ryff)--Based on eudaimonia, an Aristotelian concept--Draws on conceptions from Erikson, Jung, Allport, Maslow, Rogers, and others--Dimensions are: • Self-acceptance • Purpose in Life • Environmental Mastery • Positive Relations • Personal Growth • Autonomy
    11. 11. Social Well-Being--Based on sociological conceptions of well-being--Draws on Durkheim, Seeman, and Marx--Dimensions are: • Social integration • Social acceptance • Social contribution • Social actualization • Social coherence
    12. 12. Mid-Life Development in the U.S. (MIDUS)--MIDUS I (1995-96) and MIDUS II (2004-2006)-- Non-institutionalized, English-speakingadults, ages 25-74-- Random digit dialing led to phone interview andquestionnaire
    13. 13. Measures of Traits, Well-Being, EnvironmentBig Five: Combined 25 adjectives from multiplescales (Lachman & Weaver, 1997)Emotional Well-Being: 7 PA items, 1 SWLS itemPsychological Well-Being: Ryffs Scales ofPsychological Well-BeingSocial Well-Being: Keyes’s Scale of Social Well-BeingPerceived Neighborhood Quality
    14. 14. Perceived Neighborhood Quality/Health (α = .68)A. I feel safe being out alone in my neighborhood during the daytimeB. I feel safe being out alone in my neighborhood at night.C. I could call on a neighbor for help if I needed itD. People in my neighborhood trust each otherHigh scores reflect positive perception of home & neighborhood (Keyes, 1998).In MIDUS I:Range = 1–4. Mean = 3.4. SD = .5.Skewness = -1.1
    15. 15. Data AnalysisUsed difference Scores to measure longitudinalchange in traits and well-being Difference scores are useful when only two time points are used (e.g., Graham & Lachman, 2012; Human et al., 2012; Turiano et al., 2012; see Rogosa & Willett, 1983)
    16. 16. Results: Extraversion (T2) as Outcome
    17. 17. Results: Psych. Well-Being (T2) as Outcome
    18. 18. Results: Summary Change Scores change in change in change in EWB PWB SWB Extraversion *** *** ** Neuroticism *** *** *** Trait Conscientiousness *** Agreeableness + *** ** Openness *** ** change in change in change in change in change in Extra Neuro Cons Agree Open EWB *** *** ** *** *** ** Wellbeing __Life satisfaction __PA *** *** __NA *** *** * *** *** PWB (Psychological well…) *** *** *** *** SWB (Social well…) *** *** * **
    19. 19. Moderator: Perceived Neighborhood Quality(Using MODPROBE Macro in SPSS [Hayes;afhayes.com]) Interaction ΔR2 Interaction ΔR2 Extraversion EWB (Emotional well…) Traits (EWB change) Neuroticism Extraversion Conscientiousness Neg* Neuroticism Well-Beings (predicted by Trait change) Agreeableness Conscientiousness * Openness Agreeableness * Extraversion Openness * Traits (PWB change) Neuroticism PWB (Psychological well…) Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness * * Neuroticism Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness * * Traits (SWB change) Neuroticism Openness * Conscientiousness * * SWB (Social well…) Agreeableness * + Extraversion * Openness * Neuroticism Conscientiousness * Agreeableness * * Openness * *
    20. 20. Discussion--"Healthy" maturation on a trait is associatedwith positive well-being outcomes--Reciprocally, growth in well-being is associatedwith "healthier" levels on health traits.
    21. 21. Approach and AvoidanceExtraversion and neuroticism are analogs ofapproach and avoidance (Elliot & Thrash, 2010)Functions are appetitive goal pursuit (planned)and avoidance of threats (typically unplanned)Approach goals are associated with greater well-being than avoidance goals
    22. 22. Similarities with Other ResearchUpward focus:--Fredericksons Broaden and Build Hypothesis &upward spiral dynamicsHomeostatis Focus--Charless Strength and Vulnerability Integration--”Set point" theory and hedonic treadmill(Diener, Lucas, and Scollon, 2009)
    23. 23. Pragmatic Nature of Traits--State extraversion is for accomplishing goals,according to whole-trait theory (McCabe andFleeson, 2012)--"Extraversion appears to facilitate peoples goalsto have fun, to connect with people, to entertainpeople, to stir things up, and to be a leader,among many others”
    24. 24. LimitationsObserver ratings would have improved traitmeasurement.Multiple-wave studies would have helped forlatent curve analysis (Singer & Willett, 2003).
    25. 25. References Rogosa, D. R., & Willett, J. B. (1983). Demonstrating theFredrickson, B. L. (in press). Positive emotions broaden reliability the difference score in the measurement of change.and build. In E. Ashby Plant & P.G. Devine (Eds.), Journal of Educational Measurement, 20, 335-343. doi:Advances on Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 10.1111/j.1745-3984.1983.tb00211.x47. Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations onGraham, E. K., & Lachman, M. E. (2012). Personality the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personalitystability is associated with better cognitive performance and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.in adulthood: Are the stable more able? Journal ofGerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011).Sciences. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr149 Flourishing students: A longitudinal study on positive emotions, personal resources, and study engagement. TheKeyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 142-153Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121-140. Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Yes, I can, ILachman, M., & Weaver, S. L. (1997). The Midlife feel good, and I just do it!" On gain cycles and spirDevelopment Inventory (MIDI) personality scales: Scaleconstruction and scoring (Tech. Rep. No.1). Waltham, Turiano, A., Pitzer, L. M., Armour, C., Karlamangla, A., Ryff, C. D.,MA: Brandeis University, Department of Psychology. & Mroczek, D. K. (2012). Personality trait level and change as predictors of health outcomes: Findings from a national study of AmericansMcCabe and Fleeson, 2012, What Is Extraversion For? (MIDUS). The Journals of Gerontology Series B:Integrating Trait and Motivational Perspectives and Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. doi:Identifying the Purpose of Extraversion. Also perhaps 10.1093/geronb/gbr072McCabes dissertation: ""The Distinctiveness ofExtraversion and Conscientiousness through GoalPursuit: A Test of the Subcomponent-State FunctionTheory""

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