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  • 1. Beyond the number paradigm Christine Luk Arizona State University Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 2. STS knowledge and policy dimension in STS “Studying the relations between science and government is an important preoccupation of many STS researchers, but as an administrator in a larger scientific organization based in Washington, D.C., I see the policy dimensions of STS not just as objects of study. STS–at least policy side–is the very essence of what I and my colleagues do. AAAS, where I head the Directorate for Science and Policy Programs, exists at the interface of science, technology and society.” (Teich 2001: 100) Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 3. STS knowledge claims Women in science S&T policy The co-production model in Jasanoff’s conceptualization Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 4. Millions of dollars are spent on increasing women’s participation (along with other previously absent actors) in S&T workforce e.g. ADVANCE program @ NSF +$130M since 2001 Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 5. In the UK, • The Rising Tide: A Report on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology ( Committee of Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology 1993) • Athena project funded by Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) • SET Fair: A Report on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology (2002), followed by initiatives of £1.5M in 2003 to “bring more women scientists and engineers into the higher education workforce with an emphasis on leadership positions. Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 6. If you like acronyms.... • NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council), Canada • INWES (International Network of Women Engineers and Scientists), Canada • APWEN (Association of Professional Women Engineers of Nigeria) • ICWES (International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists) • GASAT (Gender and Science and Technology) meetings • FEMSA (Female Education in Mathematics and Science in Africa) Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 7. Why increase women’s participation? • Social justice & gender egalitarianism • Human resource purposes: “The single most underutilized resource in the nation’s science and technology system is women.” Prime Minister!s National Advisory Board on S&T in Canada •Remaking the science agenda Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 8. Having more women in science: the underlying linear progressive model
  • 9. “By gendered innovations I mean transformations in the personnel, cultures, and content of science and engineering brought about by efforts to remove gender bias from these field.” (Schiebinger 2008:4) Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 10. Steps (also in Schiebinger 1999, 2003) : • Fix the Number of Women: Participation of Women in S&E • Fix the Institutions: Gender in the Cultures of S&E • Fix the Knowledge: Gender in the Results of S&E Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 11. “These initiatives–both on the part of the government and universities –have focused narrowly on getting more women in the door. As important as these measures are, they alone are not enough.” (Schiebinger 2008: 8) enough to achieve what? Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 12. Gender Mainstreaming in Science & Technology (McGregor et. al 2001) The Commonwealth Secretariat
  • 13. Global stewardship Science for whom? Science by whom? Figure 1 Beyond the numbers (adapted from McGregor et. al 2001: 8)
  • 14. My argument: • To problematize the linear progressive model behind the “number paradigm” in S&T policy • Increasing women’s representation may not be the most effective S&T policy to changing science agenda Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 15. Why ? • An undue focus on the sex of science actors and decision-makers further essentialize science and obscure the problem • women bias ! gender bias Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 16. Counter-evidence to role modeling effect 1. Queen bee syndrome: “the distancing of the self from the group stereotype which not only involves perceiving the self as a non-prototypical group member, but may also elicit stereotypical views of other in-group members” (Ellemers et al. 2004:315) Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 17. 2. The successful tokens: successful tokens do not support their disadvantaged group, but in contrast, are sufficient to undermine the interest of collective action of members of disadvantaged groups who are denied access to higher status groups (Wright 2001) Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 18. Qualifications • A backlash against increasing women’s representation ? • Remaking the science agenda requires an alternative vision than human resource paradigm and essentialist feminist ideology Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009
  • 19. The pipeline model of under-representation of women in SET
  • 20. References •Ellemers, N. et al. 2004. “The Underrepresentation of Women in Science: Differential Commitment or the Queen Bee Syndrome?” British Journal of Social Psychology 43: 315-338. •Jasanoff, S & B. Wynne.1998. “Science and Decisionmaking” In S. Raynor & E.L. Malone, eds. Human Choice and Climate Change , Vol.1, The Societal Framework. Pp.1-87. Columbus OH: Batelle Institute •McGregor et al. 2001. Gender Mainstreaming in Science and Technology. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat. •Schiebinger, L.1999. Has Feminism Changed Science? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. • .2003. “Feminism Inside the Sciences.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 28:859-922. • .2008. Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering. California: Stanford University Press. •Teich, A. H. 2001. “STS from a Policy Perspective” In C. Mitcham and S. Cutcliffe, eds. Visions of STS: Counterpoints in Science, Technology and Society Studies. Pp. 99-107. SUNY Press. •Wright, S.C. 2001. “Restricted Intergroup Boundaries: Tokenism, Ambiguity and the Tolerance of Injustice. In J.T. Jost & B. Major, eds. The Psychology of Legitimacy.Pp. 223-256. Cambridge University Press. Presented at 9th Science and Technology in Society Conference Hosted by the ST Global Consortium in Washington D.C. March 28-29, 2009

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