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info literacy for pub admin

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  • 1. TennesseeStateUniversityLibrary, Avon Williams CampusChris LangerUser Services LibrarianInformation Literacy for Institute of Government StudentsThe goal of this course is to ensure that Tennessee State University Institute ofGovernment graduates are literate in regard to information, and can determine the typeand amount of information they need; can access and judge the information critically andincorporate this information into a knowledge base and ethical outlook, use theinformation effectively to accomplish a specific purpose and understand the economic,legal and social issues about the use of information.Institute of Government Students in General will be able to: • determine the what information is needed by - identify aresearch topic by consulting with teachers and librarians to - the information can be formulated as a question - learning how to broaden or narrow the topic as needed to fit the research concept - put a finger on the key words, concepts, or categories that define the research topic - using analytical and critical thinking skills in identifying information needed • identify, locate and retrieve information by - finding what sort of information is needed - determining where to find the information - finding strategies to drill down to the needed information in various sources 1
  • 2. • utilize or construct and implement effective search strategies by - formulating an effective search strategy - conducting searches using appropriate resources - evaluating search results and modifying search strategies as neededFirst Year Institute of Government Students will be able to: • go to the library‟s website and navigate it efficiently • query the Library‟s online resources effectively, including the online catalog, databases, journals, e-books, etc. • use controlled vocabulary to define topics and concepts and search for them using library resources. • evaluate the scope, content and organization of various sources and information, and compile pertinent citation informationfor possible use • glean conclusions from the information gathered, meld new information with previous information and identify the concepts of topics which support the chosen thesis • know what plagiarism is and what its deleterious effects are • find a citation style that fits your topic and use it correctly and consistentlyIntermediate and Advanced Level Institute of Government Students will be able to: • develop a thesis statement and formulate questions based on the needed information • evaluate potential resources in a variety of formats, including databases, data set, web sites, printed materials and others 2
  • 3. • useinternet search engines with a variety of command languages, protocols and search parameters. • know how to use interlibrary loan, Athena, and TALC • recognize that existing information combined with original thought, analysis and experimentation can produce new information • know that knowledge is organized into disciplines and that this can influence the way information is acquired • use various methods to retrieve information in various formats, including software, reader/printer scanners, audio visual equipment and others • evaluatethe reliability, validity, accuracy, authority and bias, if any, of theinformation using various methods • use computer and other technologies, including databases, spreadsheets, charts to study the interaction of ideas • broaden the research topic to construct new hypothesis that may require additional information • test theories with appropriate discipline techniques, including formulas, simulations • properly use the obtained information by citing resources according to the copyright lawsRESEARCH STRATEGIES-OUTLINEI. Define a Topic in Public Administration 3
  • 4. 1. Search for Ideas 2. Narrow or Broaden Your Topic as Needed 3. State Your Topic as a Question 4. Identify the Type of Information NeededII. Gather Background Information 1. Encyclopedias 2. Dictionaries 3. Almanacs and Yearbooks 4. Handbooks and Bibliographies 5. Dissertations, Theses and Senior Projects 6. Current ResearchIII. Search Databases for Journal Articles, Technical Reports,Conference Proceedings and Standards 1. What are Databases? a. Structure b. Type 1.Bibliographic 2. Full-Text 3. Numeric 4. Image 5. Audio c. Coverage 1. Subject Area 2. Type of Publication 4
  • 5. d. Attributes2. Searching Databases a. Search Strategies b. Use of TSU Database Subscriptions in Public Administration ABI/Inform Columbia International Congressional Universe Country Analysis Dissertation Abstracts EBSCOhost - Academic Search Premier Emerald ERIC Ethnic NewsWatch FACTS GenderWatch InfoPlease INFOTRAC JSTOR Keesings Online Lexis-Nexis MIT Press NewsBank Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center Project MUSE ScienceDirect 5
  • 6. SpringerLINK Statistical Abstract of the United States Westlaw Campus Wiley InterScience WilsonWeb - Social Sciences 3. Locating Print and Electronic Journal ArticlesIV. Search TSU Online Catalog for Books and Other Resources 1. How to use TSU Online catalog? a. Keyword Search b. Subject search c. Author Search d. Title Search e. Search Commands 1. Boolean operators 2. Search Qualifiers 3. Tips 2. Location of Materials 3. Library of Congress Classification System 4. What is a Call Number ? 5. How to Read Call Numbers? 6. Electronic BooksV. Explore Internet Resources 1. Structures and Attributes of the Internet 2. Search Tools for the Internet 6
  • 7. a. Google b. c. Yahoo d. AltaVista e. Ask Jeeves f. HotBot g. Dogpile h. Search Engine Tips 3. Types of Web Sites 4. Categories of Information on the Internet a. Free Web Sites with Valuable Information 1. Current Company Information 2. Current Events or Topics 3. State and federal Government Information 4. Information About and From Associations 5. WWW Resources at TSU 1. Virtual reference 2. Tennessee Resources 3. Government Resources 6. Web Sites in Public AdministrationVI. Evaluate Research Materials 1. Criteria to Evaluate Research Materials in Public Administration 2. Criteria to Evaluate the Web Resources 7
  • 8. VII. Write the Research Paper 1. Organization of Information 2. Citing Sources and Ethical Issues 3. Guidebooks on ResearchVIII. Cite Your Sources 1. Style ManualsI. Define a Topic in Public Administration Presume you are interested in writing a paper on Civil service . You may want to define the scope of your paper by outlining the operations of the Civil Service in Germany. 1. Search for Ideas If you do not have an idea what constitutes Civil Service , search and read articles or books on the topic. For example, use Emerald online database, set fields to search for all fields, set Fields to search for all fields, and sort results by relevance. Type: Civil Service You will access articles with varying numbers according to the search choices you made. OR, you may do a subject search in the Library‟s online catalog under Civil Service. After scanning through some articles and books, you should be able to come up with preliminary ideas about your topic. You can always talk to your reference librarians in the 8
  • 9. Reference Area or send e-mails or chat online via the ASK A LIBRARIAN service located on the Library‟s web page. You can also consult your instructor.2. Narrow or Broaden Your Topic You may find too much information on your topic. In that case, you may want to narrow your topic. For example, in Emerald you may find 65 full-text articles under Civil Service. You may qualify your search by limiting your topic to a certain area such as Germany. If you can find only few sources, you may want to broaden your topic by related fields such as bureaucracy. For example, you may find 104 articles in Emerald that can assist you in broadening your topic.3. State Your Topic as a Question Stating your topic as a question may help you to stay within the scope of your selected topic. For example, what is the corporate culture of civil service in Germany?4. Identify the Type of Information Needed The type of information needed depends on the following: • Type of Assignment- is this a presentation, term paper, senior project,thesis or dissertation? • Amount of Information- how much information is needed ? • Currency of Information- does this assignment require current, historical information or a combination of both? • Type of Resources Needed- should the information come from scholarly and professional journals only, or can they come from more popular sources? • Primary vs. Secondary Resources- should the information come fromprimary or secondary sources? 9
  • 10. • Information in Various Formats- should the information come from only print resources or include other formats such as visual/ graphicsources, numeric sources (statistics), audio sources and/or electronicsources?II. Gather Background Information Gathering background information on your subject will help you limit the scope of the subject and make an outline.Make note of differing concepts, issues in the field, and main ideas. Good sources for locating background information include encyclopedias, almanacs and yearbooks, and handbooks and bibliographies. In order to find information on the Civil Service, you need to look for background resources in Public Administration. You will locate these resources by 1. Searching the Library‟s online catalog under the subject heading Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. From the entries retrieved, you may chose the relevant ones. 2. Note the appropriate classification numbers for specific resources or resources in the subject area and locate them in the appropriate reference section. For example, if you find a good source under HJ2305 in the stacks, look under the same number in the reference section to find reference books on the subject. 3. You may enhance your search by using keyword searching and combining words in general areas such as Civil Service, bureaucracy, with such words as encyclopedia, dictionary, etc. Resources that provide background information include 1. Encyclopedias – General- Britannica Online 10
  • 11. Encyclopedia Americana Ref. AE 5 .E333 Subject- Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy Ref. HJ2305 2. Dictionaries- General- Random House Webster‟s Dictionary Ref.PE 1628 .R294 3. Almanacs and Yearbooks- (electronic resource) FACTS(electronic resource) 4. Handbooks and Bibliographies Handbook of Public Administration JF 1351 Public Administration, Politics and the People JF 1321 International Handbook of the Ombudsman JF 1525 U.S. Government Manual JK 421III. Search the Databases for Journal Articles, Technical Reports, Conference Proceedings and Standards 1. What are databases? 11
  • 12. In general, databases are organized collections ofinformation. For example, TSU Library‟s onlinecatalog is a database as well as electronic periodicalindexes that provide full-text articles, includingAcademic Search Premier, Emerald, and citationIndexes such as CompendexWeb and others. You maylocate and access Library‟s databases online fromour web page at order to use the databases properly, you should beable to understand the structure, type, coverage andattributes of them. a. Structure- Databases contain records that are information about each item within those databases. For example, the Library‟s online catalog has a record for each book, journal, microfilm, etc owned by it. In turn, each record contains information called fields. The fields in a record may include author, title, publisher, subject headings, and others. Other database records may contain fields that include author, title, title of the periodical, volume number, date, year and page numbers. b. Type- The nature of the information contained in a 12
  • 13. database determines its type. The main typesof databases include Bibliographic, Full-textNumeric, Image, Audio and Mixed.Bibliographic databases do not contain theitems, however, they provide information asto where you can find it. The informationprovided by the Bibliographic database maycontain items such as Author, Title, Publisher,Date, Volume Number, Page Number andothers that is called “citation”. Sometimesthey include abstracts ( a summary) ordescriptions of items. If you are interested infinding records or citations about a certaintopic then you can choose to use thesedatabases to create bibliographies. However, ifyou want to read the information in its entirety,you will either locate the source given in therecord or use a full-text database. An exampleof a record from a bibliographic database suchas an online catalog may look like this: 13
  • 14. The information we gather from this record isextensive. We obtain the title of the book, author(s)or editor(s), call number, publisher, place ofpublication, publisher and the year copyrighted andpublished, subject area of the book, number ofpreliminary pages, number of pages in the text,whether or not the text contains illustrations, size ofthe book, whether or not the book containsbibliographical references and an index, names ofco-author(s) or editor(s), whether or not the book ispart of a series, international standard book numberassigned to the book, and the location and theavailability of the item you are searching for. A bibliographic index for journal articles such asInternational Bibliography of the Social Scienceswill provide citationsand abstracts on your topic. For example, 14
  • 15. you may search under Civil Service and Germany.If you used the above example, you willretrieve 291 records which are available to youimmediately..Press view record to see the abstract, accessionnumber, language, publication year and publication type.Full-text DatabasesThese databases are called full-text because theycontain the complete text of publications. Forexample, EbscoHost provides full-textarticles from public administration journals and books inaddition to summaries. For example, a search under civil service will retrieve3075documents. You may choose to read the abstract todetermine if this article is useful for your research.If so you may want to read or print the article.Numeric DatabasesThese databases generally provide numeric data,including statistics, financial data, censusinformation, economic indicators and others.For example, FIS Online will provide statisticalinformation about companies and countries. CensusData would provide statistics about people,business and others.Image DatabasesThese are the databases that provide access to artprints, animations, photos and others. For example,If you access the Library‟s Virtual Reference webpage you will find a list of art 15
  • 16. resources that display images.Audio DatabasesThese databases provide access to audio clips tomusic and sound effects. For example, Library‟sVirtual Reference web page would provide accessto the Internet Public Library Listening Roomwhere you may listen to and observe the videos ofRay Brooks, Steve Wood Quintet, Pamela Wise,Blue Dog and others.c. CoverageThe selection of appropriate databases is animportant factor in finding relevant information.A description of information covered by a databaseis usually found in the introductory screen.Subject Area-Some databases cover a specific subject area ordiscipline such as Public Administration, psychology, nursingand others. Others cover areas in more general innature or a mixture of subject areas. For example,in Public Administration, your library provides you access toEbscoHost, Infotrac, Congressional Universe, Westlaw,Wiley Interscience and Wilsonweb-Social Sciences.You can also find a list of databasesaccording to theirsubject coverage in the Library‟sweb page underDatabases by Subject at 16
  • 17. Type of Publication-Databases may contain information from onlyperiodicals. For example, Project Muse will give youaccess to periodical articles they publish in the areasof social sciences. Some databases willinclude information from a combination of sourcessuch as periodicals and books. For example,WilsonWeb-Social Sciences, and Wiley InterScience willprovide you with articles from periodicals andchapters from books. Some databases includeonly popular sources such as magazines andnewspapers. You can use these databases for leisurereading. On the other hand, some databasesinclude scholarly materials found in scientificjournals, conference proceedings and reports.For example, Wiley InterScience, Project Museand SpringerLinkwill provide access to scholarlyjournals and materials. Databases differ in terms offrequency of updating materials, accessibility ofthe most recent periodical articles and thepublication dates of the materials included.Sometimes publishers put an embargo on theavailability of the recent issues. For example, whilesearching the EBSCOHost, you may come acrosssome periodicals that are not currently accessible.That is, an embargo has been placed for the last two 17
  • 18. years. Another feature to consider in selecting adatabase is the availability of the material. Youmay select a full-text database so that you can readthe material immediately. Or you may choose adatabase that may provide only bibliographicinformation, however, you library owns a majorityof the items. If you are willing to wait, you may usea more comprehensive database that indexed a greatnumber of items your library does not subscribe tobut is able to obtain them for you throughinterlibrary loan. The decision is yours.d. AttributesAfter you make the selection of the databases youwould like to use, you will need to determine if thedatabases use controlled vocabulary and if thedatabases do field search or free-text indexing.In performing searches you will find that somedatabases use controlled vocabulary which is aspecific list of subject terms in organizing thedatabase contents by subject. If you want to retrieverelevant items or information , you should be awareof “controlled vocabulary”. For example,ERIC provides you with the ERIC Thesaurus.This is a list of subject terms you can useto retrieve the relevant information you need. If youlook under Government and Politics you will find 166 18
  • 19. subject headings to choose from. Subject Headings may be found in special thesauruses, like in ERIC, or may be provided by the database or in the Library of Congress Subject Headings source. You may search most databases by subject, using controlled vocabularyOR keyword, by using your own words. Some databases use field searching which means that the search term you used is only looked in specific fields. For example, if you are using the Library‟s online catalog and select the keyword search, your search will locate items with that specific search term in the title, subject or content fields. On the other hand, some databases use free- text searching which means that the search term you have selected will locate items anywhere in a document or record. This type of searching may return false drops or irrelevant items because the search term you have located will be located no matter where it is. Some databases may give you the choice for field or free-text searching. Check the sites for this information before you begin your search.2. Searching DatabasesA. Search Strategies –Your library provides access to over 101 databases. 19
  • 20. You can search these databases from any computeron campus and/or from off campus sites. Inselecting the type of database that will provideappropriate and relevant articles, you may considerthe following:• subject discipline of your topic –specialized or multidisciplinary• type of resources needed – basic sources,scholarly sources or professional/tradesources• the target audience – is the research for a termpaper, independent study, senior project,thesis or dissertation?B. Use of Databases Subscribed by TSULibraries relevant to the Institute of Government.Your Library subscribes to over 101 onlinedatabases in general and subject fields. Thedatabases in subject field – Public Administrationinclude the following that provide themost appropriate and relevant information:CIAO (Columbia International Affairs Online)Contains working papers, books, policy briefs, case studies,course packs and maps.Truncation: *and ?Search Tips:1. You need to use truncation (*) to search for words that begin 20
  • 21. with the same letters. For example, global* will return with globalization,globalizing.2. Use ? as a placeholder for any single letter. E.g., f?n will return fun, fan, or fin.3. Truncation is allowed for one word only, not a phrase.Wildcards can by anywhere in a query term (leading, middle, or trailing).Congressional UniverseYears Covered: Varies by source, ranging from 1987 to presentRelevancy: Laws, legislative activities, public policy, American politics.Truncation: *, !Search Tips:Each part of Congressional Universe necessarily uses different search methods. There are13 parts. For example, to search for regulations in the Federal Register, you need tospecify the citation page number. If you are searching for testimony before Congress, youcan search by keyword and by the witness‟ name.Search form for testimony before Congress looks like this:Project Muse 21
  • 22. Relevancy: cultural studies, education, political science, gender studies, economics, and social sciences. Truncation: Truncate with an asterisk (*) at the ends of terms only. Examples: Weimar, k* to retrieve Weimar, Klaus modern* to retrieve modern, modernity, modernism, etc. histor* to retrieve history, historical, etc. cat* to search cat and cats, etc. Muse does not currently offer a mechanism to expand search terms within or atthe beginning of words 22
  • 23. Search Tips: Basic search page looks like this: In advanced search, you can search by up to 4 key words. You can also select which fields in a record to search, such as author, title, etc. You can limit your search to specific journals and multiple journals. You can also limit by date.Opposing Viewpoints Home screen looks like this: As you can see, subjects are listed for you to choose from on all types of current affairs. 23
  • 24. Relevancy: Current Affairs, Social IssuesTruncation: The * (standing for any number of characters) is placed at the end of the term’s root. The search retrieves all words sharing the same root. For example, the term environment* retrieves essays that contain the words environment, environmental, or environmentalism. The ? is used to replace exactly one character within a word to retrieve various forms of that word. For example, the term wom?n retrieves essays that contain either woman or women; and psych????y matches either psychology or psychiatry but not psychotherapy. The ! point stands for one or no characters. For example, analo!! matches analog or analogs, but not analogous or analogue. *NOTE: For best search results, it is recommend that wildcards be used only with the Advanced Search function.Search Tips: Opposing Viewpoints Basic Searchwill allow you to search for terms insubjects, citations or the full text. Type in one ormore search terms and hit search.The above tabs will come up, and you can choose to search using any one of them. Forexample, you could search only reference works dealing with crime, or only imagesdealing with crime. A search on crim* in the viewpoints tab willyields 454 hits. Also on the left you will be given a list of relevant subjects, like this:Subjects containing the words: crimeCrimeCrime AnalysisCrime and Human Nature (Book)Crime and the Press See "Crime Reporting (Journalism)"Crime and Punishment (Television program) 24
  • 25. Crime ClassificationCrime Detection See "Criminal Investigation"Crime Films See "Crime Movies"Crime ForecastingCrime in Television See "Television Crime"Crime LaboratoriesCrime Motion Pictures See "Crime Movies"Crime MoviesCrime on Television See "Television Crime"Crime Photography See "Legal PhotographyYou can click on the subjects themselves or on the see references to find moreinformation.The Advanced Search form looks like this: 25
  • 26. You can search under Title/Headline, Source, Author, Subject or Fulltext, using Booleanoperators and, or, or not. You can also limit by date or document type.The proximity operators W (within) and N (next to) may be used to refine your search: The W operator will find essays containing the specified words in the specified order within the number of words you indicate. For example, medical w4 ethics finds documents that contain the word medical within four words of the word ethics, and medical must precede ethics. The N operator locates documents containing the words you specify within the number of words you specify, but the words can be in any order. For example, medical N4 ethics finds documents that contain the words medical and ethics within four words of each other, regardless of their order (that is, ethics could precede or follow medicalStopwords, that is, words so common they are not useful for searching, include: an, and,aspects, but, co, corp, etc, for, from, if, in, inc, into, is, it, its, jr, ltd, of, on, or, that, the,to, with.Keesing‟s Record of World Events 26
  • 27. Keesing‟s is, as the name implies, a database of current events. Coverage is from 1960 topresent. News sources are from around the world, and are listed in the About Keesing‟spage. Keesing‟s has a Basic and an Advanced search. The Basic search allows you tolimit by Region, Country, Keyword, and Time Frame.The Basic Search page looks like this:The Advanced Search page looks like this:As you can see, here you can limit by Region, Country, Organization, Subject,Person/Leader, and Keyword. 27
  • 28. You can also search for events using the Table of Contents in the lefthand column; it looks like this. Organization is by year, month, continent, country, article. Below is a tree depicting the contents of the news from Cote d‟Ivoire.Table of Contents Keesings Record of World Events Volume 49 (2003) August AFRICA CÔTE D’IVOIREKilling of French peacekeepers – Reported coup plot The tree also appears in the lefthand column whenever you find results for a search; whatever result is highlighted, the relevant tree will appear in the lefthand column. Infotrac Infotrac is a broad database composed of 23 sections, 3of which are of particular interest to Public Administration students: General Reference Center Gold, Infotrac Onefile, andNational Newspaper Index. GRCG contains the latest current events, popular culture, business and industry information. Infotrac Onefile contains news and periodical articles on a wide range of topics: business, computers, current events, economics, education, environmental issues, health care, hobbies, humanities, law, literature and art, politics, science, social science, sports, technology. NNI contains access to the indexing of Americas top five newspapers in one seamless search: The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Christian Science Monitor, Los Angeles Times and The Washington Post. We will here treat GRCG because it is the most relevant. GeneralReferenceCenter Gold 28
  • 29. Coverage: from 1980 - Oct 2003The basic subject search page looks like this:As you can see, searching can be limited to articles with text, by date, or by journal.Searches are also available by keyword, advanced, and journal.The keyword search is self explanatory.The Advanced search allows you to search using index terms, like subject, issn, title,author, and so on. It also allows Boolean searching, using the connectors AND, OR, andNOT. For example, a search for Public using index title, yields 75201 articles with theword Public in the title. A search using Public AND Administration yields 556 articleswith both terms in the title.The Journal search allows you to enter all or part of a journal title and search on it. Forexample, searching under Public yields 21 journals covered in GRCG, with the wordPublic in the journal title. 29
  • 30. Truncation: there are three wildcard operators in GRCG: (*) ,( ?) and (! ) (*) stands for any number of characters, including none, and is especially useful when you want to find all words that share the same root. For example, pigment* matches pigment,pigments,pigmentation, etc. A question mark (?) stands for exactly one character and is especially useful when youre uncertain of a spelling. For example, a search like relev?nce means you can match the word relevance even if, like many of us, you cant remember whether its spelled with ance or ence. A question mark is also useful for finding certain words with variant spellings. For example, defen?e finds both defense (American) and defence (British and Canadian). Multiple question marks in a row stand for the same number of characters as there are question marks. For example, psych????y matches either psychology or psychiatry but not psychotherapy. An exclamation point (!) stands for one or no characters and is especially useful when you want to match the singular and plural of a word but not other forms. For example, product! matches product and products but not productive or productivity. The exclamation point can also be used inside a word to match certain variant spellings. For example, colo!r matches both color (American) and colour (British).IV. Search TSU Online Catalog for Print and ElectronicBooks and Other Resources 1. How to Use the TSU Online Catalog? The access points in finding a book in the area of Civil Service are keyword, subject, author and title. Keyword Search is a primary method for searching for a topic. It allows you to search for individual words in the title, subject and other fields in the bibliographic record. This is generally the easiest type of search to do, but it also produces the largest hit list. You may limit the number of items retrieved by using operators and qualifiers discussed under Search Commands. You will find Keyword search in The Library‟ online catalog. For a successful 30
  • 31. keyword search for Robotics, you need to identifyMain Concepts- For example,” what is the impact oftelecommuting in civil service?” The main concepts canbe impact, civil service, and telecommuting.Choice of Words- You may try use those key terms thatmay be used to describe your main concept. For example,impact: impacting, influence, resultingcivil service: government, career, personneltelecommuting: distributed work, computerSubject Search is a method of searching by using subjectheadings. The online catalog automatically does it for you. Subjectheading describes the items and there are one or more subjectheadings assigned to them. The TSU Library uses Library ofCongress Subject Headings. You may want to consult the LibraryOf Congress Subject Headings located at the Circulation Desk tomake sure that you are using the correct words for a subject search.For example, if you use the subject heading civil service, you mayretrieve a book titled “Governments, parties, and public sector employees :Canada, United States, Britain, and France”. Youcan look for additional books in the area of Civil Service by using thesuggested subject headings in the record, including Public officers and Politicalparties.Author Search is used when you have the name of an author andwould like to retrieve a list of items written by that author. Forexample, if you do an author search under Blais, Andre,you will find four (4) books located in the TSU Library. They are 31
  • 32. Governments, parties, and public sector employees : Canada, United States,Britain, and France, A Political sociology of public aid to industry , The Budget-maximizing bureaucrat : appraisals and evidence, and Industrial policy. You maysearch the online catalog under Author Search by typing theauthor‟s last name first and first name last. If you need to findinformation about the author, in this case, Andre Blais,you may do a subject research using his last name, first name.Title Search is used when you know the title of an item. One pointto remember is that if the title begins with an A, An or the,disregard them and search under the second word of the title. Donot discard the articles in between words. Title Search works bestif you are looking for a specific item and know the exact title. Ifyou do not know the title, a Subject Search would yield betterresults.Search Commands- the following commands may be used insearching most databases. Same may be titled and used somewhatdifferently. You may use the following search commands for asuccessful search:BOOLEAN OPERATORSAND is used when you want the records to includeboth search terms to narrow a search. For example,Germany AND Civil Service. In this case you arelimiting your search to only Germany and Civil Service.OR is used to find records in which one or both searchterms appear thus broadening the search. For example, 32
  • 33. Germany OR public sector. In this case you are broadeningyour search to include Germany and public sector ingeneral.NOT is used find those records that contain the first searchterm but not the second search term. In this case thosearticles containing both terms are not retrieved. Forexample, Public sectorNOT France. You will findarticles only about Public sector. Articles with France willnot be retrieved.* Truncation is used to retrieve variant endings of a word.For example, Bureau* will retrieve any words starting withBureau, Bureaucracy, bureaucrat, etc.( ) Parentheses will signal priority and order. For example,(bureaucracy OR government) AND Germanywill first find records containing the wordsBureaucracyor Governmentor both, thenthose records that also mention Germany.# Pound Sign represents a single character. For example,Bureaucrat# will retrieve Bureaucrat and Bureaucrats.? Question Mark represents characters at the end of asearch term. For example, Bureau? may retrieve recordsabout Bureaucrat, Bureaucrats, or Bureaucracyand Government? mayretrieve Governmental, Governmental, Government-owned.SEARCH QUALIFIERSSearch Qualifiers include author (au), title (ti), and 33
  • 34. subject(su). They will allow you to limit your search tospecific fields. By using the Search Qualifiers you canspeed up response time and narrow the search to the morerelevant records. For example,su civil service not Germanywill retrieve allrecords on the subject of Civil Service that do notcontain the word Germany anywhere in therecord.ti Civil Service and Young will retrieve all records withthe word robotics in the title field and Young in theauthor field.TIPS:1. When you search the Library‟s Online Catalog, you shouldstart with a keyword (Word/Phrase) search. For a successfulsearch, find relevant subject headings and use them for yoursearch.2. Online Library Catalogs may differ, some of the featuresof the TSU Online Catalog are as follows:• Searching byAuthor, Title and Subject, Journal, Govdoc no., and ISSN/ISBN.• Searching for keyword(s) inAuthor, Title and Subject• Limiting the Searches byDates: anyLanguage: All languages, Chinese, English, French,German, Italian, Portuguese and SpanishMaterial Type: All materials, books, Serials, 34
  • 35. AV materials, Music Recordings, etc.Williams Campus or main campus,Location in the library, such as Reserves, Reference, etc.PublisherMaterial type, such as 2-d graphic, kit, book, map, etc.• Numeric Searches byGovDoc number• Sorting your findings byDate, Title, or Relevance.• Help Window will assist you in properly using theLibrary‟s Online Catalog. You will find informationabout the System, Easy search, Numeric Search,Advanced Search, reserve Room, Local Info, YourAccount and List of Topics/Links2. Location of MaterialsOn the first floor of the Brown-Daniel Library books arearranged according to the Library of CongressClassification from classification A to K. On the thirdfloor you will find books from classification L to Z. Inaddition, on this floor, you will have access to the books inthe Dewey Classification, over sized books and the YouthCollection. Few journal titles are also housed on the thirdfloor. On the second floor you will find Reference Booksjournals and microform collections. Reference Books arearranged on the shelves by Library of Congress 35
  • 36. classification. Journals are arranged by alphabet.3. Library of Congress Classification SystemThis system is used so that each book and journal isidentified by its subject, assigned an alphanumeric callnumber and placed on the shelves according to thatnumber with the similar resources for easy access andbrowsing. Major classification headings used in the area ofPublic Administration are as follows:HJ : Public FinanceHJ9-9940 Public financeHJ9-99.8 Periodicals. Serials. By region or countryHJ210-240 HistoryHJ241-1620 By region or countryHJ2005-2216 Income and expenditure. BudgetHJ2240-5908 Revenue. Taxation. Internal revenueHJ2321-2323 Tax incidence. Tax shifting. Tax equityHJ2326-2327 Progressive taxationHJ2336-2337 Tax exemptionHJ2338 Taxation of government propertyHJ2351 Inflation and taxationHJ2351.4 Tax revenue estimatingHJ2361-3192.7 By region or countryHJ3801-3844 Revenue from sources other than taxationHJ3863-3925 Direct taxation 36
  • 37. HJ4113-4601 Property taxHJ4629-4830 Income taxHJ4919-4936 Capitation. Poll taxHJ5309-5510 Administrative fees. User charges.License feesHJ6603-7390 Customs administrationHJ7461-7980 Expenditures. Government spendingHJ8001-8899 Public debtsHJ8052 Sinking funds. AmortizationHJ8101-8899 By region or countryHJ9103-9695 Local finance. Municipal finance Including the revenue, budget,expenditure, etc. of counties, boroughs, communes, municipalities, etc.HJ9701-9940 Public accounting. AuditingHM401-1281 Sociology (General)HM435-477 History of sociology. History of sociologicaltheoryHM461-473 Schools of sociology. Schools of social thoughtHM481-554 Theory. Method. Relations to other subjectsHM621-656 CultureHM661-696 Social controlHM701 Social systemsHM706 Social structureHM711-806 Groups and organizationsHM756-781 CommunityHM786-806 Organizational sociology. Organization theoryHM811-821 Deviant behavior. Social deviance 37
  • 38. HM826 Social institutionsHM831-901 Social changeHM1001-1281 Social psychologyHM1041-1101 Social perception. Social cognition Including perception of theself and others, prejudices, stereotypeHM1106-1171 Interpersonal relations. Social behaviorHM1176-1281 Social influence. Social pressureHVHV1-9960 Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology HV40-69Social service. Social work. Charity organization and practice Including socialcase work, private and public relief, institutional care, rural social work, workrelief HV85-525 By region or countryHV530 The church and charityHV541 Women and charityHV544 Charity fairs, bazaars, etc.HV544.5 International social workHV547 Self-help groupsHV551.2-639 Emergency managementHV553-639 Relief in case of disastersHV560-583 Red Cross. Red CrescentHV599-639 Special types of disastersHV640-645 Refugee problemsHV650-670 Life saving 38
  • 39. HV675-677 Accidents. Prevention of accidentsHV680-696 Free professional services Including medical charitiesHV697-4959 Protection, assistance and reliefJF Political institutions and public administration - GeneralJK Political institutions and public administration - United States JL Politicalinstitutions and public administration - Canada, West Indies, Mexico, Centraland South AmericaJN Political institutions and public administration - EuropeJQ Political institutions and public administration - Asia, Arab countries,Islamic countries, Africa, Atlantic Ocean islands, Australia, New Zealand, PacificOcean islandsJS Local government. Municipal governmentJV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. InternationalmigrationJX International law, see KZ (obsolete)JZ International relationsKF: Law, U.S.KF1-9827 Federal law. Common and collective state lawIndividual states4. What is a Call Number?As mentioned before, books and some periodicals arearranged on the shelves according to the Library ofCongress Classification system. According to this 39
  • 40. system each book or periodical is assigned an alphanumericcall number based on its subject content. This specificcall number identifies the item and places it on the shelveswith the items on the same subject.5. How to Read a Call Number?Each call number has several parts. For example, thefollowing call numberHJ10007E972002gives us the following information:The first line HJ defines the class or subclass. It defines thebroad subject area within class H for Social Sciences and HJrepresents the the subclass Public Finance.The second line 10007is the classification number. Whenbrowsing the shelves for this book, you need to read thisnumber as a whole number todetermine its location on the shelf. Combined with classand subclass, the classification number defines the subjectmatter more precisely. In the above example, HJ10007represents Public finance, History, By region or country.The third line of the call number is called the CutterNumber. It is a combination of letters and numbers that 40
  • 41. usually indicates author. However, sometimes it may represent a subject division. Some items may have double cutter numbers. Always interpret the numeric part of the cutter number as a decimal number when you browse the shelves. Thus, the numeric component of .R638 should be read as .638. Therefore, HJ210.3 .R638 2000 should be shelved before HJ210.3 .R7 2000. The year of publication of the item, in this case 2000, may also be present. The items are shelved in chronological order which often distinguishes items by varying editions of that item. 5. Electronic Books- Your library provides access to electronic books via its web page at Currently you can read general interest electronic books via netLibraryor technical electronic books via Safari, or in Books 24x7. In addition you may find electronic books via the Library‟s online catalog. The icon for an electronic books is a floppy diskV. Explore Internet ResourcesThe Internet contains a vast number of electronic documentscreated by individuals and institutions that reside on computers(servers) world wide and are linked by hyper-links. • Structure and attributes of the Internet While the Internet is one giant database, it has no organizational structure. Most information on the 41
  • 42. Internet is free, however, some require a subscription. For example, you may access some newspapers free and may be able to read news items in their entirety. Some may only allow you to read the abstracts of the headline and require subscription for complete access. The most important to keep in mind about the Internet is that the information it offers is not screened or edited. Note: The databases your library offers on the web are Screened and edited.• Search Tools for the Internet 1. Search Engines- are used to search for a vast amount of resources on the Internet. These engines are very useful when searching unique word or phrases. When choosing a search engine you should keep in mind that each search engine searches a different number and type of sources. Following are the most popular Internet search engines: Google ( – has been voted as the Most Outstanding Search Engine three times. This crawler-based service provides comprehensive and relevant coverage of the web. It is highly recommended as a first stop as you hunt for whatever you are looking for. For more information about Google go to 42
  • 43. is an excellentcrawler-based search engine. It providesboth comprehensive coverage of the weband outstanding relevancy. If you triedGoogle and did not find it, AllTheWebshould be next on your list.Yahoo ( – isInternet‟s oldest directory, launched in 1994.Yahoo began using crawler based listings in2002 for its main results. Yahoo isimportant because it enhances Google‟slistings with information from its owndirectory may make search results morereadable. Yahoo will help you to narrow andrefine your query.AltaVista (http://www, access to 31 million pages foundon 627,000 servers and four million articlesfrom 14,000 Usenet news groups.Ask Jeeves ( 43
  • 44. gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as being the“natural language” search engine that let yousearch by asking questions and respondedwith what seemed to be the right answer toeverything. Actually 100 editors monitoredthe search logs. They then went out on to theweb and located what seemed to be the bestsites to match the most popular queries.Today, Ask Jeeves depends on crawler-based technology to provide results to itsusers.HotBot ( provideseasy access to the web‟s four major crawler-based search engines: AllTheWeb, Google,Inktomi and Teoma. However, unlike a “metasearch engine”, it cannot blend the resultsfrom all of these crawlers together.Nevertheless, it is a fast and easy way to getdifferent web search opinions in one place.HotBot has a strong following amongserious searches for the quality andcomprehensiveness of its crawler-basedresults.Dogpile ( – is a 44
  • 45. popular metasearch site that sends a searchto a customizable list of search engines,directories and specialty search sites, thendisplays results from each search engineindividually.Search Engine Tips-When you get ready to search via a searchengine, always look for the “help” button.You need to be on the look out for the typeof results you may get. For example, if youchoose AltaVista, keep in mind that it usesfree-text-indexing which means thatwhatever search term is entered, it is lookedfor anywhere in the entire document. As aresult, you may retrieve hundreds orthousands of documents that may have verylittle or no relevancy for your search.Search Features-Search Engine Math Commands are asfollows:Command How Supported ByMust include + All enginesterm____________________________________ 45
  • 46. Must exclude - All enginesterm____________________________________Must include ““ All enginesphrase____________________________________Match all Automatic at All enginesterms____________________________________Via AllTheWeb,Advanced AltaVista.Search Google,Yahoo________________________Match anyTerms OR Alta Vista, Ask Jeeves, Google, HotBot, Yahoo, AllTheWeb___________________________________Try to be specific- tell a search engineexactly what you are looking for. Forexample, imagine you want to find pagesthat have references to both robots andspace technology on the same page. You 46
  • 47. could search this way by using the +addition symbol:+robots+technologyYou will find only pages that contain bothwords, robots and technology. If you search+robots+space+technologyyou will find pages that have all three of thewords on them. This search is helpful if youwant to narrow or refine your search.You may want to use Quotation marks, “ “to multiply terms through a phrase searchand retrieve only pages that have all thewords in the exact order you want.For example,“robot arms use”will retrieve pages that use “robot arms use”in the exact order.Power Searching Commands are:Command How Supported byTitle Search title: AltaVista, AllTheWeb intitle: Google, Teoma allintitle: Google 47
  • 48. ___________________________________ host: AltaVista site: Google, YahooSite Search AllTheWeb domain HotBot none: HotBot, Yahoo____________________________________ url: AltaVista url.all: AllTheWebURL Search allinurl: Google inurl u: Yahoo none: HotBot___________________________________ link: AltaVista, GoogleLink Search linkdomain: HotBot linkall: AllTheWeb, none: HotBot, Yahoo____________________________________ 48
  • 49. * Yahoo ? AOL Wildcard % Northern Lights None: AllTheWeb, Google, Hotbot ____________________________________ Anchor None: Google, Search HotBot ____________________________________• Types of Web Sites Internet offers a vast number of web sites that provide varied information such as news, advertisement, entertainment, and personal data. You can distinguish the nature of web sites by looking at their URL domains. URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, an Internet address which tells a browser where to find an Internet resources. For example, the URL for your library is There are 4 broad categories of web sites you can distinguish by their URL domain. They are: Educational institution- Domain: .edu ( 49
  • 50. Government site- Domain: .gov ( Organizations or associations- Domain: .org ( Commercially based sites- Domain: .com (• Categories of Information on the Internet 1. Free Web Sites with Valuable Information It is recommended that you should do your research by using your library‟s electronic and print resources accessible from the Library‟s web page. However, you may find some valuable information on the web in the areas listed below: Current Company Information- You can read information about a company from its web site. However, the information you obtain may be slanted to favor that company. You can use the search engines or directories on the Internet to find the information you need. Always keep in mind that your library has pertinent and unbiased information available for you via electronic and print resources. For example, you can use the search engine Google to look up 50
  • 51. information about Lockheed AircraftCompany. You will find 786,000 hits orresults. If you look up IBM via the samesearch engine, you will find 22,100,000 hits.Current Events or Topics- Web is veryuseful in finding information about currentevents because it provides immediateinformation on very recent events. Forexample, you can find the most recentpictures of NASA experiments on the webbefore the print version arrives.State and Federal Government Information-Most state and government agencies havetheir own web sites that provide informationabout their offices, policies, census data,congressional hearings and others. Forexample, you can find information aboutTennessee Department of Transportation byeither looking for it via a search engine onthe Internet or via your library‟s web siteunder Tennessee Resources. If you needinformation about the Federal Government,you can either search via a search engine oryou can go to your library‟s web site andlook under U.S. Government Resources.Information About and From Associations, 51
  • 52. Organizations and Others- If you are looking for information about an association pertaining to contact information, or share information, you may find the web site and get in touch with the organization. For example, you may want to see the type of information is provided by the American Society for Public Administration. You can search for the web site via Google or another search engine. When you locate web site you will see the following information: Information and news about the organization, information about the public administration profession, awards program, calendar, advertising, conference schedules, contact person, public administration resources, fellowships, international activities, membership services, public policy, publications and marketing. The url for this organization is • WWW Resources at TSU- 1. Virtual Reference- 2. Tennessee Resources 3.Government Resources • Web Sites in Public AdministrationVI. Evaluate Research Materials 52
  • 53. • Standards for Evaluating Materials in Public Administration Materials need to be evaluated to determine their 1) usefulness, 2) quality, 3) authority. This is the next major step you need to perform after discovering your relevant research materials. In evaluating information in the field of Engineering, you should apply the ten criteria below: 1. Author‟s qualifications or credentials- Is the author presently practicing in the field? Is he knowledgeable in the field? How extensively has he published on the topic? 2. The Timeliness of the Publication- Your topic may require information from a certain time-frame. For example, if you were researching changes in the federal civil service in the George Bush administration, you would need recent information. Check the publication dates. Is the information updated regularly, if so, how often is it updated? Some information are updated daily, some weekly and monthly. Is the information still valid for your topic? If recent changes have superseded less recent ones, then you will the most current information.Then again, if you are writing on a topic that has more of a historical interest, e.g., civil service reforms in Franklin Roosevelt‟s administration, then timeliness would not be so important. 3. Accurate and Factual Information Supported by Evidence- Does your information come from respected sources? Let‟s say you got information from a journal in a database; you would want to ask if the journal is refereed, i.e., is it reviewed by authorities in the field. If it is not, then the journal would be less authoritative. There may be a review available of the source, if your source is a book. 53
  • 54. If you obtained theinformation from a web site, how stable or permanent is the information? Some web information is here today and gone tomorrow; other web information is more permanent. Complete coverage of your topic is another thing to look for: check indexes, tables of contents, etc. to find out more. Another consideration is whether the piece is well documented. E.g., is there is a quote from Franklin Roosevelt, is there a footnote stating the source. Without documentation you may not be able to verify much information.4. Primary vs. Secondary Sources- You can locate your information from two types of materials: Primary Sources: These are the first- hand or eye-witness accounts of an event. They include, newspaper stories, reports of experiments, statistics, government documents, autobiographies and letters. Secondary Sources: These are the sources that perform an operation on the primary source, such as analysis, evaluation, or criticism.5. Reputation of the Publisher- Check out the publisher of the source. If the publisher is a university press then it is likely to be scholarly. Also, a publisher that has been around for awhile should have a reputation or track record that suggests reliability Even though you cannot always guarantee quality based on the publisher‟s reputation, it may be a sign that the publisher has a regard for the type of sources it publishes. For 54
  • 55. example, M.E. Sharpe, CQ Press, Sage Publications, United Nations Publications, Government Finance Officers‟ Association, and Health Administration Press are scholarlypublishers in Public Administration and other areas.6. Type of Publication- is the source scholarly, popular, trade or government publication? Is the journal scholarly or popular? You need to make a distinction because it indicates different levels of complexity in introducing ideas. Scholarly Journals- the Websters Third International Dictionary definition of a scholarly journal is a publication that is concerned with academic study, especially research; exhibiting the methods and attitudes of a scholar; and having a manner and appearance of a scholar. These journals usually have a serious look and contain various graphs, charts and other statistical information. The articles in these journals always cite their resources in the form of 55
  • 56. footnotes or bibliographies. The authors of the articles are scholars in the field or someone who has done research in the field. The language used is discipline related. Scholarly journals aim to report on original research or experimentation and disseminate it for scholarly use. Examples of Scholarly Journals include, American Review Of Public Administration,Analysis Of Social Issues And Public Policy, BYU Journal Of Public Law, Canadian Public Administration, American Review Of Public Administration, Journal Of Public Administration Research And Theory and others.General Interest and News Publications- These publications are attractive in appearance, their format can be a journal or a newspaper. The articles contained in these sources may be written by editorial staff, scholars or free lance writers. They use nontechnical language to appeal to a wide audience. They are published by commercial entities, individuals and/or professional organizations. The aim of these sources is to provide information to a broad 56
  • 57. audience. Some examples are Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report,Popular Mechanics, Scientific American, New York Times, National Geographic.Popular Journals- these sources are attractive in appearance. They contain many photographs, drawings. They very rarely cite sources and information they contain are usually second or third hand. The articles are in general with very little depth. The popular journals are for entertaining the reader, selling products or promoting a viewpoint. Some examples are People Weekly, Traditional Homes, Vogue, Good Housekeeping, Southern Living, Essence and others.Sensational, Tabloid Publications- use elementary language that is often sensational. They aim to arouse curiosity with flashy headlines. Some examples are National Inquirer, Globe, Weekly World News, Star, and others. 57
  • 58. • Evaluation of Web Resources You can find a vast amount of information on the Internet, however, not all resources are equally valuable or even reliable. Your challenge is to sift through the vast amount of information and pinpoint those sources that are reliable and relevant for your topic. As a rule the, informational web pages present factual information. For example, the web pages with URL addresses that end with .edu or .gov provide reliable information since they are sponsored by educational institutions or government agencies. You may consider the following points in evaluating web sources: 1. Scope- How complete is the information covered? Is the information given in detail? 2. Content- Is the information accurate or factual? Many web pages simply restate the opinion of the author or the opinions of others. Opinions may be stated as though they were facts; this is something you need to watch out for. Are there sources listed for the information given that can be double-checked. Is the information 58
  • 59. biased? Sometimes information is given without the name of an organization or person to whom the information can be attributed. Such information is suspect. Sometimes an author sounds authoritative, but may have little or no background in the field. You can check for credentials of the author. How current is the information? Do you see dates as to when it was written and when it was last revised or or updated? 3. Graphics and Multimedia Design- Is the Page attractive and Interesting to look at? 4. Navigation- is the web resource easy to use? Is it user friendly? Can you access the resource via standard computer equipment and software?VII. Write the Paper 1. Organization of Information Organization of your information is now paramount, after you have gathered it. You may look at the problem as if you were organizing a file cabinet, your wallet, or the books in a library. In all these cases, 59
  • 60. similar itemsare grouped together for easier access. In writingyour research paper, you may group yourinformation under similar concepts. For example, ifyou are using the web to gather information, youmay bookmark your favorites under a concept. One of thebest ways to organize information is to create anoutline using your key concepts as aids in organization.In an outline information isarranged by hierarchy and sequence. This is doneby identifying Main Concepts, Subconcepts,particular information under subconcepts,Conclusion and Bibliography.An outline wouldalso contain forword, preface and table of contents.An outline may look like this:I. Main Concept A. Sub-Concept 1. Particular 2. Particular 3. Particular B. Sub-Concept 1. Particular 2. Particular 3. Particular C. Sub-Concept 1. Particular 60
  • 61. 2. ParticularFor example, the book titled Exploring Public SectorStrategy ed. by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes has the followingoutline:Chapter I- The implications of „publicness‟ forstrategic management theory 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The private sector model 1.3 How public sector management differs 1.4 Implications for „content‟ theories of strategic management 1.5 Implications for „process‟ theories 1.6 ConclusionChapter II- The processes of strategy development in the public sector 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A framework for the strateg development process 2.3 Strategy a managerial intent 2.4 Strategy as the outcome of organizational processes 2.5 Imposed strategy: The enforced choice dimension 2.6 The strategy development questionnaire 2.7 Analysis and results 2.8 Conclusions and implicationsChapter III Global influences on the public sector 61
  • 62. 3.1 Introduction 3.2 PEST analysis 3.3 Scenarios 3.4 Five forces analysis in healthcare 3.5 Strategic group analysis in MBA education in the Netherlands 3.6 SummaryChapter IV Trust and distrust in regulation and enforcement 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Defining regulations 4.3 The regulatory cycle 4.4 Trust or distrust? 4.5 ConclusionsConclusionBibliographyIn this example, the title is Exploring Public SectorStrategy. The author organized the information intofour Main Concepts. They are - The implications of„publicness‟ for strategic management theory,The processes of strategy development in the publicsector, Global influences on the public sectorand Trust and distrust in regulation andenforcement. The informationrelevant to the main Concepts are sub-Concepts and they 62
  • 63. are are listed under the main concepts in the decimal- numbered headings.2. Citing Sources and Ethical Issues- In your paper you will often use concepts, assertions, ideas and evidence from various authors and sources. That is, you will use quotes from other researchers. When you incorporate someone else‟s ideas or material in your paper, you are obligated to give credit to the original author. You can give this credit by citing the sources in your paper. These citations must be complete and they include books, journal or newspaper articles, Internet sources, etc. Failure to give credit to the original author of information that you quote is unethical and it called “ plagiarism “. There are a variety of formats available for use in citing your sources. They come under these headings: Science- CBE (Council of Biology Editors) Social Sciences- APA ( American Psychological Association) Humanities- MLA (Modern Language Association) History- Chicago (University of Chicago Press) 63
  • 64. HintsYou should pick a style that fits your researchconcept and use it consistently.Make sure that you provide a complete citation sothat persons reading your research can locate theinformation you are citing.Examples of citations in endnotesPrint materials-Books-The bibliographic citation for a book in the American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) Styleisas follows:Savoy, N. (2002). Public administration as a career in early twentieth-century Germany.Boston: Newnes.( Notice that the title of the book is inItalics)The bibliographic citation for a bookin theModern language Association (MLA)styleIsas follows: 64
  • 65. Hootton, C.E. International Perspectives on Telecommuting. Boston: Newnes, 2002.( Notice that the author‟s name is givenin full and the publication date of thebook is entered at the end of thecitation. There are two spaces aftereach period)The bibliographic citation for a journalin theAmerican Psychological Association(APA) Styleisas follows:Dario, Paola, Guglielmelli, E. and Lascki, C. (2001). Humanoids and personal robots: design and experiments. Journal of Robotic Systems, 18, 673-690.(Notice that the title of the journal is inItalics)Journals 65
  • 66. MLA style Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80 ( Notice that the title of the article is in quotation marks, both the volume and the issue number and the month or season and year of the publication is given. The month or the season and the year of publication are in parenthesis) APA style Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood managementhedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048. Notice that the title is italicized. Electronic resources- APA style Burka, L.P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. MUD history. Aug. 1996). MLA style 66
  • 67. Burka, Lauren P. “A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions.” MUDHistory. 1993. http://www.Burka, Lauren P. "A Hypertext History of Multi-UserDimensions." MUD History. . (2 Aug. 1996). 67
  • 68. 68