I.   Define a Topic in Business Information Systems     Presume you are interested in writing a paper on Decision Support ...
4.   Identify the Type of Information Needed     The type of information needed depends on the following:            Type ...
II.   Gather Background Information      A brief background information in your topic would enable you to focus      on a ...
General-Random House Webster’s DictionaryRef. PE 1628 .R294 2001Subject-Dictionary of E-Business: A Definition Guide to Te...
III. Search         the Databases for Journal Articles, Technical Reports,   Conference Proceedings and Standards   1. Wha...
finding records or citations about a certaintopic then you can choose to use thesedatabases to create bibliographies. Howe...
immediately. Press Datailed Records button for afull citation for a record. For example, you willretrieve the accession nu...
where you may listen to and observe the videos ofRay Brooks, Steve Wood Quintet, Pamela Wise,Blue Dog and others.c.      C...
journals and materials. Databases differ in terms offrequency of updating materials, accessibility ofthe most recent perio...
Management science     Subject Headings may be found in special     thesaurus, like in ERIC, or provided by the database  ...
databases in general and subject fields. Thedatabases in subject field – Computer Science,and also Business include the fo...
2. You can retrieve information from this databases by using theSEARCH mode. You can search for articles throughcombinatio...
results. It is better not to use words that are too general, such as “cell” or“behaviour” as they will retrieve too many r...
the word robotics and the phrase car manufacturing with the abstract andbibliographic data. The result list includes bibli...
then click on Command-Line Search, you will see the phrase(“Fermi”)AND(“Dirac”)OR(“Fermi-Dirac”) in the box.You can now ed...
Article title   Section title   Author   Keywords   DIO   Tables   Figures   Basic Search allows you to   select the desir...
Articles button on the encyclopedia’s homepage or   A-Z button on the navigation bars.   Article Content Links allow you t...
<wildcard>’robot{s,ics}’ will locate one of each           pattern, as robots and robotics.       Advanced Search enables ...
IV.    Search TSU Online Catalog for Print and ElectronicBooks and Other Resources1.      How to Use the TSU Online Catalo...
looking for a specific item and know the exact title. If you do not know the title, a SubjectSearch would yield better res...
relevant records. For example,su robotics not manufacturing will retrieve allrecords on the subject of robotics that do no...
ISBN- International Standard Book NumberISSN- International Standard Serial Number     Sorting your findings byUnsortedAut...
TA 7885-7895 Systems EngineeringTK 7885-7895 Computer Engineering and Hardware4. What is a Call Number?As mentioned before...
HF LB QP T5382.5 1028.3 144 56.23U5 H355 F52 H36. C32 2001 H36 . 20012002 200120035. Electronic Books- Your library provid...
V. Explore   Internet ResourcesThe Internet contains a vast number of electronic documents created by individuals andinsti...
directory may make search results morereadable. Yahoo will help you to narrow andrefine your query.AltaVista (http://www,a...
for anywhere in the entire document. As aresult, you may retrieve hundreds orthousands of documents that may have verylitt...
For example,       “decision support systems”       will retrieve pages that use “decision support systems”       in the e...
provide varied information such as news,   advertisement, entertainment, and personal data.   You can distinguish the natu...
example, you can find the most recent  pictures of NASA experiments on the web  before the print version arrives.  State a...
VI.      Evaluate Research Materials      Criteria to Evaluate Research Materials in Business Information Systems-        ...
summary of the source. Are the factual   statements well documented or footnoted   so you can verify them for accuracy?4. ...
and contain various graphs, chartsand other statistical information. Thearticles in these journals always citetheir resour...
Traditional Homes, Vogue, Good            Housekeeping, Southern Living,            Essence and others.            Sensati...
Page attractive and Interesting to look at?4. Navigation- is the web resource easy to   use? Is it user friendly? Can you ...
VIII.   Write the Research Paper1. Organization of Information   Now that you have gathered the pertinent   information, i...
4-2 Organizational Culture           4-3 Power and Politics           4-4 Supporting Organizational Decision Making       ...
that persons reading your research can locate theinformation you are citing.Examples-Footnotes:Print materials-Electronic ...
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  1. 1. I. Define a Topic in Business Information Systems Presume you are interested in writing a paper on Decision Support Systems . You may want to define the scope of your paper by defining what constitutes Decision Support Systems in Manufacturing.1. Search for Ideas If you do not have an idea what constitutes Decision Support Systems, search and read articles or books on the topic. For example, use ScienceDirect online database, set Dates from 2000 to present to retrieve the most recent information, set terms by using connector AND within Abstract, Title, Keywords or Full-Text. Select Subject, in this case either Business, Management and Accounting or Computer Science. Type: Decision Support Systems You will access articles with varying numbers according to the search choices you made. OR, you may do a subject search in the Library’s online catalog under Decision Support Systems. After scanning through some articles and books, you should be able to come up with preliminary ideas about your topic. You can always talk to your reference librarians in the Reference Area or send e-mails or chat online via the Ask a Librarian service located on the Library’s web page. You can consult your instructor.2. Narrow or Broaden Your Topic You may find too much information on your topic. In that case, you may want to narrow your topic. For example, in ScienceDirect you may find 3824 full-text articles under Decision Support Systems. You may qualify your search by limiting your topic to a certain area such as medical decision support system or a time period such as 1990 to present or a country such as United States. If you can find only few sources, you may want to broaden your topic by related fields such as Database Management. For example, you may find 186 articles in Wiley InterScience that can assist you in broadening your topic.3. State Your Topic as a Question Stating your topic as a question may help you to stay within the scope of your selected topic. For example, what is the effect of Decision Support Systems in the small and large businesses?
  2. 2. 4. Identify the Type of Information Needed The type of information needed depends on the following: Type of Assignment- is this a presentation, term paper, senior project,thesis or dissertation? Amount of Information- how much information is needed for this assignment? Currency of Information- does this assignment require current, historical or a combination? Type of Resources Needed- should the information come from scholarly and professional journals only? Primary vs Secondary Resources- should the information come from primary or secondary sources? Information in Various Formats- should the information come from only print resources or include other formats such as visual/ graphic sources, numeric sources (statistics), audio sources and/or electronic sources?
  3. 3. II. Gather Background Information A brief background information in your topic would enable you to focus on a theme and an outline effectively. As you peruse the background information make note of relevant issues within your topic, differing issues and definitions of key concepts. Appropriate sources for locating background information include encyclopedias, almanacs and yearbooks, and handbooks and bibliographies. In order to find information in Decision Support Systems, you need to look for background resources in Business Information Systems. You will locate these resources by 1. searching the Library’s online catalog under the subject heading Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. From the entries retrieved, you may choose the relevant ones. 2. Note the appropriate classification numbers for specific resources or resources in the subject area and locate them in the appropriate reference section. 3. You may advance your search by searching via keyword and combining words in general areas such as Business Information Systems, Decision Support Systems, Databases with such words as encyclopedia, dictionary, etc. Resources that provide background information include 1. Encyclopedias – General- Britannica Online http://www.tnstate.edu/library/database.htm#B Encyclopedia Americana Ref. AE 5 .E333 1996 Subject- Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Ref. Q121 .E53 2001 The Cutting Edge: an Encyclopedia of Advanced Technologies Ref. T9 .C96 2000 Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology Ref. QA76.15 .E5 v.43 2. Dictionaries-
  4. 4. General-Random House Webster’s DictionaryRef. PE 1628 .R294 2001Subject-Dictionary of E-Business: A Definition Guide to Technology and Business TermsRef. HF 5548.32Dictionary of Information TechnologyRef. QA 76.15Dictionary of Computer Science, Engineering andTechnologyRef. QA76.15 .D5258 2000Welcome to the Academic Press Dictionary ofScience & Technologyhttp://www.harcourt.com/dictionaryMicrosoft Press Computer DictionaryQA 76.15.M538 1999b3. Almanacs and Yearbooks-Infoplease.com (electronic resource)http://www.infoplease.com/Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 2000(electronic resource – electronic book)LB1028.3 .E372 2000ebPlunkett’s E-Commerce & Internet Business AlmanacHF5548.32
  5. 5. III. Search the Databases for Journal Articles, Technical Reports, Conference Proceedings and Standards 1. What are databases? In general, databases are organized collections of information. For example, TSU Library’s online catalog is a database as well as electronic periodical indexes that provide full-text articles, including ScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience, and citation Indexes such as CompendexWeb and others. You may locate and access Library’s databases online from our web page at http://www.tnstate.edu/library/database_oncampus.htm In order to use the databases properly, you should be able to understand the structure, type, coverage and attributes of them. a. Structure- Databases contain records that are information about each item within those databases. For example, the Library’s online catalog has a record for each book, journal, microfilm, etc owned by it. In turn, each record contains information called fields. The fields in a record may include author, title, publisher, subject headings, and others. Other database records may contain fields that include author, title, title of the periodical, volume number, date, year and page numbers. b. Type- The nature of the information contained in a database determines its type. The main types of databases include Bibliographic, Full-text Numeric, Image, Audio and Mixed. Bibliographic databases do not contain the items, however, they provide information as to where you can find it. The information provided by the Bibliographic database may contain items such as Author, Title, Publisher, Date, Volume Number, Page Number and others that is called “citation”. Sometimes they include abstracts ( a summary) or descriptions of items. If you are interested in
  6. 6. finding records or citations about a certaintopic then you can choose to use thesedatabases to create bibliographies. However, ifyou want to read the information in its entirety,you will either locate the source given in therecord or use a full-text database. An exampleof a record from a bibliographic database suchas an online catalog may look like this:Title: Decision Support Systems in the Twenty-first Century/ George M. MarakasCall Number: HD 30.213 .M36 1999Publisher: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.Subject Heading(s): Decision Support SystemsDisplay Related SubjectsDescription: xxi, 506 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 487-495) and index.ISBN: 013744186XDBCN: AAZ-1117Item HoldingsLocation – Shelf-Williams CampusCall Number- HD30.213 .M36 1999Volume-Material- BookStatus- AvailableThe information we gather from this record isextensive. We obtain the title of the book, author(s)or editor(s), call number, publisher, place ofpublication, publisher and the year copyrighted andpublished, subject area of the book, number ofpreliminary pages, number of pages in the text,whether or not the text contains illustrations, size ofthe book, whether or not the book containsbibliographical references and an index, names ofco-author(s) or editor(s), whether or not the book ispart of a series, international standard book numberassigned to the book, and the location and theavailability of the item you are searching for.A bibliographic index for journal articles such asEiVillage-CompendexWeb will provide citationsand abstracts on your topic. For example,you may search under Decision Support Systems and Business.You may limit your search to abstracts, to journalarticles, to English language only and to certainyears. If you used the above example, you willretrieve 1425 records which are available to you
  7. 7. immediately. Press Datailed Records button for afull citation for a record. For example, you willretrieve the accession number , title, Author(s), Firstauthor affiliation, serial title, abbreviated serial title,volume, issue, issue date, publication year, pages,language, ISSN, CODEN, document type,publisher, abstract, abstract type, Ei main heading,Ei controlled terms, uncontrolled terms, Eiclassification codes, treatment, and database.Full-text DatabasesThese databases are called full-text because theycontain the complete text of publications. Forexample, Wiley InterScience provides full-textarticles from scientific journals and books inaddition to summaries. For example, a BasicJournal Search under Decision Support Systems will retrieve 189documents. You may choose to read the abstract todetermine if this article is useful for your research.If so you may want to read or print the article. Ifyou would like to retrieve chapters in books aboutautomation, you can search Wiley InterScienceunder Book search. Your search will yield 1document in full-text and/or summary of thechapter.Numeric DatabasesThese databases generally provide numeric data,including statistics, financial data, censusinformation, economic indicators and others.For example, FIS Online will provide statisticalinformation about companies and countries. CensusData would provide statistics about people, business and others.Image DatabasesThese are the databases that provide access to artprints, animations, photos and others. For example,If you access the Library’s Virtual Reference webpage you will find a list of museums and artresources that display images.Audio DatabasesThese databases provide access to audio clips tomusic and sound effects. For example, Library’sVirtual Reference web page would provide accessto the Internet Public Library Listening Room
  8. 8. where you may listen to and observe the videos ofRay Brooks, Steve Wood Quintet, Pamela Wise,Blue Dog and others.c. CoverageThe selection of appropriate databases is animportant factor in finding relevant information.A description of information covered by a databaseis usually found in the introductory screen.Subject Area-Some databases cover a specific subject area ordiscipline such as computers, psychology, nursingand others. Others cover areas in more general innature or a mixture of subject areas. For example,in Business Information Systems, your library provides you access toABI/Inform, ScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience, Ei Village-CompendexWeb, MIT Press, SpringerLink,WilsonWeb-Applied Science and TechnologyIndex. You can also find a list of databasesaccording to their subject coverage in the Library’sweb page underDatabases by Subject athttp://www.tnstate.edu/library/databases_subject.htmlType of Publication-Databases may contain information from onlyperiodicals. For example, MIT Press will give youaccess to periodical articles they publish in the areasof science and technology. Some databases willinclude information from a combination of sourcessuch as periodicals and books. For example, ScienceDirect,WilsonWeb-Applied Science and Technology Index, andWiley InterScience will provide you with articles from periodicals andchapters from books. Some databases includeonly popular sources such as magazines andnewspapers. You can use these databases for leisurereading. For example, InfoTrac-ExpandedAcademic ASAP will provide you access to somesources related to Business Information Systems suchas Computerworld. On the other hand, some databasesinclude scholarly materials found in scientificjournals, conference proceedings and reports.For example, Wiley InterScience, ScienceDirectand MIT Press will provide access to scientific
  9. 9. journals and materials. Databases differ in terms offrequency of updating materials, accessibility ofthe most recent periodical articles and thepublication dates of the materials included.Sometimes publishers put an embargo on theavailability of the recent issues. For example, whilesearching the EBSCOHost, you may come acrosssome periodicals that are not currently accessible.That is, an embargo has been placed for the last twoyears. Another feature to consider in selecting adatabase is the availability of the material. Youmay select a full-text database so that you can readthe material immediately. Or you may choose adatabase that may provide only bibliographicinformation, however, your library owns a majorityof the items. If you are willing to wait, you may useamore comprehensive database that indexed a greatnumber of items your library does not subscribe tobut is able to obtain them for you throughinterlibrary loan. The decision is yours.d. AttributesAfter you make the selection of the databases youwould like to use, you will need to determine if thedatabases use controlled vocabulary and if thedatabases do field search or free-text indexing.In performing searches you will find that somedatabases use controlled vocabulary which is aspecific list of subject terms in organizing thedatabase contents by subject. If you want to retrieverelevant items or information , you should be awareof “controlled vocabulary”. For example,CompendexWeb provides you with Ei ControlledWords. This is a list of subject headings you can useto retrieve the relevant information you need. If youlook under Decision Support Systems you will find the followingsubject headings to chose from: Computer supported cooperative work Data warehouses Database systems Decision support systems Expert systems Group decision support systems Management Management information systems
  10. 10. Management science Subject Headings may be found in special thesaurus, like in ERIC, or provided by the database or in the Library of Congress Subject Headings source. You may search most databases by subject, using controlled vocabulary OR keyword, by using your own words Some databases use field searching which means that the search term you used is only looked up in specific fields. For example, if you are using the Library’s online catalog and select the keyword search, your search will locate items with that specific search term in the title, subject or content fields. On the other hand, some databases use free- text searching which means that the search term you have selected will locate items anywhere in a document or record. This type of searching may return false drops or irrelevant items because the search term you have located will be located no matter where it is. Some databases may give you the choice for field or free-text searching. Check the sites for this information before you begin your search.2. Searching Databases A. Search Strategies – Your library provides access to over 101 databases. You can search these databases from any computer on campus and/or from off campus sites. In selecting the type of database that will provide appropriate and relevant articles, you may consider the following: subject discipline of your topic – specialized or multidisciplinary type of resources needed – basic sources, scholarly sources or professional/trade sources the target audience – is the research for a term paper, independent study, senior project, thesis or dissertation?B. Use of Databases Subscribed by TSU Databases in Business Information Systems Your Library subscribes to over 101 online
  11. 11. databases in general and subject fields. Thedatabases in subject field – Computer Science,and also Business include the following that provide themost appropriate and relevant information:CompendexWebYears Covered: 1970-PresentRelevancy: computers and data processingTruncation: *Search Tips:1. You need to use truncation (*) to search for words that begin with the same letters. For example, computer* will return with computer, computers, and computerization.2. Terms are automatically stemmed except in the author field. For example, the word management will retrieve manage, managed, manager, managers, managing, management. You can disable this feature by clicking on “ Autostemming ”.3. To search for an exact phrase or phrase containing stop words such as and, or, not, near, enclose term in braces {} or quotation marks “ “.For example, {Robotics and Autonomous Systems} or “networkedrobotics”.Browse the author look-up index to select all variations of an author’sname. For example, Smith, A. OR Smith, A.J. OR Smith, Allen J.MIT PressYears Covered: Varies by journal titles. You may want to browse journals bysubject or title to see the coverage for each journal.Relevancy: Business, Computer ScienceTruncation: *Search Tips:1. You can search this database by BROWSING the journals and/or by searching a phrase or phrases. For example, you can browse the MIT database by journals subscribed by your library. In this case you will have access to full-text articles. You may chose the format of the article by clicking next to RealPage, RealPage Plugin, PDF (full-document), PDF (page at a time) and SVG (page at a time). You can also browse by title, subject, publisher and LCClassification of the MIT journals. If you chose to browse all MIT Journals, you will only retrieve abstracts of articles that are not subscribed by your library. However, your Interlibrary Loan librarian can obtain articles you need .
  12. 12. 2. You can retrieve information from this databases by using theSEARCH mode. You can search for articles throughcombinations of authors, article titles and abstract keywords.To include the fulltext of the articles, please either check the Include Fulltext box,or select Fulltext from the drop down list of fields.ScienceDirectYears Covered: Varies by journal titles. You may want to browse journals by title,subject and publisher to find out the years covered. Usually the coverage is from the date the journal is published.Relevancy: Business, Management and Accounting, Computer Science, DecisionSciencesTruncation: (!) , (*), (**) Search Tips: (!) Use this wildcard character to find root word plus all the words made by adding letters to the end of it. For example, robot! would find robot, robots, robotic, robotics. (*) Use an asterisk to replace characters anywhere in a word, except the first character. Use one asterisk for each character you want to replace. For example, wom*n would find woman and women.(*) Use the asterisk to hold a space for variations in spelling at any point in aword. For example, bernst* would find both the ei and the ie spelling of thename.If you use (*) asterisks at the end of a word, they do not allhave to be filled, but may find up to the specific number ofcharacters. For example, transplant** would findtransplant, transplanted, transplanter.Note: transplant** does not find transplantation or transplanting because onlytwo wildcard characters are used. To find all the variations of transplant, use the(!) wildcard character. To find a journal or publication you can use the journal title finder search box, available when you click on journals on the navigation bar. Alternatively, you can browse the alphabetical journal list. The journal screen allows you different options for browsing the list. A drop down menu allows you to choose to view the entire journal list available on ScienceDirect {Subscribed by your library) or Non-Subscribed ( not subscribed by your library)}.Quick Search – can be performed for an author, subject of interest. The searchwill look for any relevant results from abstracts, titles, authors and articlekeywords. Enter the search terms into the Quick Search bar beneath the mainnavigation bar. You can search all Full-text Sources, All Journals, This Journal,This Issue, This article, etc. You may use the Boolean syntax to produce precise
  13. 13. results. It is better not to use words that are too general, such as “cell” or“behaviour” as they will retrieve too many results.Basic and Advanced Searching- will perform accurate or detailed search queries,improve the relevancy of the retrieved articles or save your search queries. Withthis type of search you can search across all journals, a subset of journals (bysubject), abstracts databases, Scirus, etc.Additionally, you can specify to search for your phrase within the abstract, title,author, references, or full-text of the content. You can also limit your search bydate or the journal volume, issue and page number.Search Within Results- will enable you to refine your Search. You can run a newsearch that is restricted to the list of articles you are already viewing. You canperform unlimited number of refinements, each time restricting your search toonly the list of results you already have. Each stage of refinement appears in thesearch history, allowing you to return to any stage of your search at any time.Search Using Scirus- You can search across the entire web for additionalscientific information via Scirus tab on the search form. This search complementsthe content available on ScienceDirect. A Basic Search under Decision SupportSystem retrieves 3824 articles, a search under Scirus that searches the entire webrenders 40,439 entries.SpringerLinkYears Covered:Relevancy: Computer ScienceTruncation: (*) asterisk substitutes any character from none to infinite number.(?) question mark substitutes exactly one characterSearch Tips: SpringerLink Easy Search will allow you to search for any terms inabstracts and bibliographic data. Type in one or more search terms and mark howthey are to be connected: either connected by AND (default) to find articles that contain all the terms such as robotics AND manufacturing. or connected by OR to find articles that contain any of the terms such as robotics OR automation. or search as phrase to find the exact words in this order. You can also combine the use of phrases with the AND or OR operator. In this case the following syn should be applied: phrases must be enclosed by ‘single” or “double” quotes there must be at least one space between phrases and terms single or double quotes cannot be used within search terms phrases consisting of only spaces or special characters (),{},[], are not valid expressions For example, robotics “car manufacturing” and choosing to connect them with the AND operator will retrieve all documents containing
  14. 14. the word robotics and the phrase car manufacturing with the abstract andbibliographic data. The result list includes bibliographic data of matchingarticles and links to the abstracts and full-text if available. The above exampleretrieved 348,246 documents which needs to be further refined. You can dothis by adding further terms in the field available at the top of the results listand clicking on refine search, or you can search for further articles by aparticular author.SpringerLink Expert Search is structured for terms in specific bibliographicfields and unstructured search in fulltexts.Offers 4 main optionssearch in bibliographic fieldssearch in full-text articlessearch by command linesearch by Digital Object Identifier –DOISpringerLink Bibliographic Search is best suited to searches in specificfields. For example, use this search to find article by a particular author orlimit the search to a specific journal. Fill in your search terms in the field onthe left and choose the corresponding bibliographic category:abstractaffiliationauthor (surname or collaboration name)keywordpublication name (title of journal, book series, expert system, or book)title (title of the document)all categories (to search in all categories listed above)If you use more than one line in an Expert Search, choose how you wish thesearch terms in the lines to be connected:AndOrBut notCrossSearch in PubMed/Medline gives you a chance to continue your searchat other sites. If you choose this option your results page will include a link forthe same search in Medline/PubMed. You do not need to retype the PubMedquery interface; just click on the CrossSearch link and the results arepresented immediately on the screen. SpringerLink Command-Line Searchis available for both the Bibliographic Search and the Full-text Search. It isintended particularly for persons who are very familiar with advanced searchfacilities, as using command strings requires a good working knowledge ofthis method. You may prepare the command line interface by first using theforms of the Bibliographic Search or the Full-text Search. Any search termsentered in these forms will be transferred to the new command line form whenyou click on Command-Line Search. For example, if in the Full-text Searchyou enter Fermi in the first line, Dirac in the second line and Dirac in the thirdline, connect the first two lines with AND and the other two lines with OR and
  15. 15. then click on Command-Line Search, you will see the phrase(“Fermi”)AND(“Dirac”)OR(“Fermi-Dirac”) in the box.You can now edit this to“Fermi”)AND(“Dirac”)OR(“Fermi-Dirac”) which is the intended searchphrase.Springer-Link Full-text Search covers the largest amount of data. If you usemore than one line, choose how you wish the search terms of the lines to beconnected:AndOrBut notFor example, “decision support system” and manufacturing but not carmanufacturing will retrieve information about decision support systems inmanufacturing but does not include car manufacturing.Springer-Link DOI Search is an identification code forOnline version of articles before they are published in printform. DOI, being part of the bibliographic data, can be usedas a search term. Make sure you enter the informationcorrectly, complete with any slashes and hyphens itcontains. For example,10.1007/s00214990m18010.1007/s00399900316Searching Landolt-Bornstein, the uniques, top-quality chemistry, physics andtechnology data collection.Searchable Landolt-Bornstein texts are already included in the normal searchfunction and will appear in the results list along with other articles. If youwant to search in this collection only, you can access the LB search mask viathe Landolt-Bornstein start page. You can choose to search in the tables ofcontents, the full-text PDF files, the titles only, or the author names only.Wiley InterScienceYears Covered:Relevancy: Computer ScienceTruncation: *Search Tips: Search allows you to locate articles in a goal-directed manner by restricting the scope of thesearch to individual fields of an article. Results aredisplayed whenever exact matches are found forsearch terms. Searching is supported for thefollowing fields:Search all text
  16. 16. Article title Section title Author Keywords DIO Tables Figures Basic Search allows you to select the desired field in the pull-down menu specify the search expression in the text field next to the menu. To search using word roots insert the asterisk (*) . For example, robot* will find results for robot, robots, robotic, etc. click on the Begin Search button Advanced Search allows you to find Characterization of materials contents specifically by entering any combination of article title, section title, author, keywords, DOI, table, or figure. select the desired field in the first pull-down menu specify the search expression in the text field next to the menu. To search using word roots insert the asterisk (*). you can specify up to five search expressions, which are combined using AND or OR. For example, you can search for all articles the title of which contains the word “robots” AND are authored by “Young”. As a short cut for OR, you can use the comma “,”. For example, the search expressions: gene, therapy and gene OR therapy returns items that contain either gene or therapy. to limit the search to specific subject areas, select the appropriate subject from the scroll down menu in the Journals in Subject Category. to limit the search to a specific date of online postings or to a range of dates, click the appropriate radio button and complete your date selections using the drop-down menus provided. click on Begin Search button To search for variants on an author’s name, separate the parts of the author’s name with AND. For example, to find Joel F. Liebman, enter Joel AND Liebman or Liebman AND Joel. In the Search Results Section you will find the relevancy value of the articles. The relevancy value is a number between .01 (partial match) and 1.00 (complete match)Reference Works/Encyclopedias section allows you to peruse the alphabetically ordered listing of the encyclopedia’s articles by clicking on the
  17. 17. Articles button on the encyclopedia’s homepage or A-Z button on the navigation bars. Article Content Links allow you to follow other links that help to navigate to points within the article section or to a different article. They may include: • equations- displayed as “equation (1)”, the link shows image equation where it appears in the article • cross references- displayed as “(see Name of Article)”, the link opens the selected article in the windowWilsonWeb- Applied Science and TechnologyYears Covered: 1983-PresentRelevancy:Business, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Databases and Software, MachineLearning, Neural networksTruncation Symbol: *Search Tips: You may use Basic Search by selecting one or more databases,selecting the Natural language Search or Boolean Search radio button. Then entera word or phrase and click start. To use Natural Language Search, you need to enter a phrase or complete sentence. For example, decision support system in manufacturing will retrieve 368,437 records are decision support systems useful in manufacturing? will retrieve 378,334 records To use Search/Boolean Operators, enter a constructed search string. For example, (computers or databases) and car manufacturing will retrieve 1216 recordsIn Boolean Searches the operators and, or, not and in do not require brackets. Toeliminate stemming (variation of a word) include “ “ quotation marls around theword such as “painting”. Paint or painted will not be included in the results. You can use wildcard ? question mark as a substitute for a single alphanumeric character. It is very useful when you are unsure of a spelling. For example, einst??n retrieves the correct spelling of Albert Einstein. You can also use the wildcard operator, <wildcard> in a constructed search query to specify a pattern or range of characters. You must enclose the pattern in brackets or braces without spaces. For example,
  18. 18. <wildcard>’robot{s,ics}’ will locate one of each pattern, as robots and robotics. Advanced Search enables you to enter a word or phrase in the first text entry area and make the appropriate selection from the as: drop-down list (All-Smart Search). When using All-Smart Search query do not use truncation symbols or other special characters. The search results will automatically show the most relevant articles at the top of the set when the Sort by relevance option has been selected. To formulate a search within specific field, select and, or, not and enter additional terms in the secondary area. You can also use the third entry area for a more complex search. For example, Decision support ______________ All-Smart Search And Business information ___________ All-Smart Search And Executive support ________ All-Smart Search sorted by relevance will retrieve 1674 records. Databases in general that will provide in formation in the area of Business Information Systems include ABI Inform Academies of Science Abstracts Current Research Dissertation Abstracts EBSCOHost-Academic Search Premier Emerald GPO InfoTract-Expanded Academic ASAP Lexis-Nexis3. Locating Print and Electronic Journal ArticlesThe quickest way to locate and access journals is via Full-text Electronic, Print andMicroform Journal Holdings.You will find this service on the Library’s web page. ThisService will provide you with accessibility to the journals you are looking for the list of databases that include the journals you are looking for
  19. 19. IV. Search TSU Online Catalog for Print and ElectronicBooks and Other Resources1. How to Use the TSU Online Catalog?The access points in finding a book in the area of Decision Support Systems are keyword,subject, author and title.Keyword Search is a primary method for searching for a topic. It allows you to searchfor individual words in the title, subject and other fields in the bibliographic record. Thisis generally the easiest type of search to do, but it also produces the largest hit list. Youmay limit the number of items retrieved by using operators and qualifiers discussed underSearch Commands. You will find Keyword search in The Library’ online catalog. For asuccessful keyword search for Robotics, you need to identify Main Concepts- Forexample,” what is the impact of Decision Support Systems in manufacturing?” The mainconcepts can be impact, Decision Support Systems and manufacturing.Choice of Words- You may try use those key terms thatmay be used to describe your main concept. For example,impact: impacting, influence, resultingDecision Support: data mining, databasesmanufacturing: industry, manufacturersSubject Search is a method of searching by using subject headings. The online catalogautomatically does it for you. Subject heading describes the items and there are one ormore subject headings assigned to them. The TSU Library uses Library of CongressSubject Headings. You may want to consult the Library Of Congress Subject Headingslocated at the Circulation Desk to make sure that you are using the correct words for asubject search. For example, if you use the subject heading Decision support, you mayretrieve a book titled “VBA for modelers : developing decision support systems withMicrosoft Excel”. You can look for additional books in the area of Decision support byusing the suggested subject headings in the record, including Microsoft Visual Basic forapplications., Microsoft Excel (Computer file) and Microsoft Visual Basic forApplications.Author Search is used when you have the name of an author and would like to retrieve alist of items written by that author. For example, if you do an author search under Young,John Frederick, you will find three (3) books located in the TSU Library. They areCybernetic Engineering, Cybernetics and Robotics. You may search the online catalogunder Author Search by typing the author’s last name first and first name last. If you needto find information about the author, in this case, John Frederick Young, you may do asubject research using his last name, first name.Title Search is used when you know the title of an item. One point to remember is that ifthe title begins with an A, An or the, disregard them and search under the second word ofthe title. Do not discard the articles in between words. Title Search works best if you are
  20. 20. looking for a specific item and know the exact title. If you do not know the title, a SubjectSearch would yield better results.Search Commands- the following commands may be used in searching most databases.Same may be titled and used somewhat differently. You may use the following searchcommands for a successful search:BOOLEAN OPERATORSAND is used when you want the records to includeboth search terms to narrow a search. For example,Decision AND Support. In this case you arelimiting your search to only Robotics and CarManufacturing.OR is used to find records in which one or both searchterms appear thus broadening the search. For example,Decision OR Support. In this case you are broadeningyour search to include Robotics and automation ingeneral.NOT is used find those records that contain the first searchterm but not the second search term. In this case thosearticles containing both terms are not retrieved. Forexample, (Decision Support) NOT (Group Decision Support). You will findarticles only about Robotics. Articles with Automation will not be retrieved. Truncation is used to retrieve variant endings of a word.For example, Robot* will retrieve any words starting with Robot-Robots, etc.( ) Parentheses will signal priority and order. For example,(robotics*OR automation*) AND car manufacturing*will first find records containing words that start withRobotics or words that start with Automation or both, thenthose records that also mention words that start with CarManufacturing.# Pound Sign represents a single character. For example, Robot# will retrieve robot androbots.? Question Mark represents characters at the end of asearch term. For example, Computer? may retrieve recordsabout Computer, computers, computerization and business? may retrieve Business,Businesses, Businessman.SEARCH QUALIFIERSSearch Qualifiers include author (au), title (ti), andsubject(su). They will allow you to limit your search tospecific fields. By using the Search Qualifiers you canspeed up response time and narrow the search to the more
  21. 21. relevant records. For example,su robotics not manufacturing will retrieve allrecords on the subject of robotics that do notcontain the word manufacturing anywhere in therecord.ti (Decision Suppport) and au Young will retrieve all records withthe words decision support in the title field and Young in theauthor fieldTIPS:1. When you search the Library’s Online Catalog, you should start with akeyword (Word/Phrase) search. For a successful search, find relevant subjectheadings and use them for your search.For example, a Keyword search in the Library’s onlineCatalog in the order below will retrieve 818 resources:(robots* or automation*)2. Online Library Catalogs may differ, some of the features of the TSUOnline Catalog are as follows: Searching byAuthor, Title and Subject Searching for keyword(s) inAuthor, Title and Subject Limiting the Searches byDates: from 1900-Language: All languages, English, French,German, Italian and SpanishMaterial Type: All materials, books, Serials,AV materials, Music Recordings, etc. Numeric Searches byCall NumberOCLC NumberLC Card NumberReference Number
  22. 22. ISBN- International Standard Book NumberISSN- International Standard Serial Number Sorting your findings byUnsortedAuthorTitleSubjectMaterialDate (Ascending)Date (Descending) Help Window will assist you in properly using theLibrary’s Online Catalog. You will find informationabout the System, Easy search, Numeric Search,Advanced Search, reserve Room, Local Info, YourAccount and List of Topics/Links2. Location of MaterialsIn the AWC Library, on the first floor of the AWC campus books are arranged accordingto the Library of Congress Classification from classification A to Z. Journals are alsohoused there, current ones alphabetically, bound volumes on shelves according to Libraryof Congress classification. Reference Books are arranged on the shelves by Library ofCongress classification.3. Library of Congress Classification SystemThis system is used so that each book and journal are identified by their subject, assignedan alphanumeric call number and placed on the shelves according to that number with thesimilar resources for easy access and browsing. Major classification headings used in thearea of Business Information Systems are as follows:HD 28-70 Management, Industrial ManagementHF 5546-5548.85 Office ManagementT 58.5-58.64 Information TechnologyT 58.6-58.62 Management Information Systems
  23. 23. TA 7885-7895 Systems EngineeringTK 7885-7895 Computer Engineering and Hardware4. What is a Call Number?As mentioned before, books and some periodicals arearranged on the shelves according to the Library ofCongress Classification system. According to thissystem each book or periodical is assigned an alphanumeric call number based on itssubject content. This specific call number identifies the item and places it on the shelveswith the items on the same subject.5. How to Read a Call Number?Each call number has several parts. For example, thefollowing call numberHD30.213.M361999gives us the following information:The first line HD defines the class or subclass. It defines the broad subject area withinclass H for Social Sciences and HD represents the the subclass Industries, Land Use andLabor.The second line 30.213 is the classification number. Whenbrowsing the shelves for this book, you need to read this number as a whole number witha decimal component to determine its location on the shelf. Combined with class andsubclass, the classification number defines the subject matter more precisely. In the aboveexample, HD 30.213 represents Industrial Management which is a subdivision of HD-Industries, Land Use and Labor, which in turn is in the broader subject field of H forSocial Sciences.The third line of the call number is called the CutterNumber. It is a combination of letters and numbers thatusually indicates author. However, sometimes it mayrepresent a subject division. Some items may have doublecutter numbers. Always interpret the numeric part of thecutter number as a decimal number when you browse theshelves. Thus, the numeric component of .M36 should beread as .36. Therefore, HD 30.213 .M36 1999 should beshelved before HD 30.213 .R707 1999.The year of publication of the item, in this case 1999, may also be present. The items areshelved in chronological order which often distinguishes items by varying editions of thatitem.The items with the following call numbers should be on the shelves in the order below:
  24. 24. HF LB QP T5382.5 1028.3 144 56.23U5 H355 F52 H36. C32 2001 H36 . 20012002 200120035. Electronic Books- Your library provides access to electronicbooks via its web page athttp://www.tnstate.edu/library/Catalogs.htmlCurrently you can read general interest electronic books via netLibrary or technicalelectronic books via Safari. In addition you may find electronic books via the Library’sonline catalog. The icon for an electronic book is a floppy disk
  25. 25. V. Explore Internet ResourcesThe Internet contains a vast number of electronic documents created by individuals andinstitutions that reside on computers (servers) world wide and are linked by hyper-links. Structure and attributes of the Internet: While the Internet is one giant database, it has no organizational structure. Most information on the Internet is free, however, some require a subscription. For example, you may access some newspapers free and may be able to read news items in their entirety. Some may only allow you to read the abstracts of the headline and require subscription for complete access. The most important thing to keep in mind about the Internet is that the information it offers is not screened or edited. Note: The databases your library offers on the web are Screened and edited. Search Tools for the Internet 1. Search Engines- are used to search for vast amount of resources on the Internet. These engines are very useful when searching unique word or phrases. When choosing a search engine you should keep in mind that each search engine searches a different number and type of sources. Following are the most popular: Google (http://www.google.com) – has been voted as the Most Outstanding Search Engine for three times. This crawler-based service provides comprehensive and relevant coverage of the web. It is highly recommended as a first stop in you hunt for whatever you are looking for. For more information about Google go to http://searchenginewatch.com. AllTheWeb.com (http://www.alltheweb.com)- is an excellent crawler-based search engine. It provides both comprehensive coverage of the web and outstanding relevancy. If you tried Google and did not find it, AllTheWeb should be next on your list. Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com) – is Internet’s oldest directory, launched in 1994. Yahoo began using crawler based listing in 2002 for its main results. Yahoo is important because it enhances Google’s listings with information from its own
  26. 26. directory may make search results morereadable. Yahoo will help you to narrow andrefine your query.AltaVista (http://www,altavista.com)-provides access to 31 million pages foundon 627,000 servers and four million articlesfrom 14,000 Usenet news groups.Ask Jeeves (http://www.askjeeves.com)-gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as being the“natural language” search engine that let yousearch by asking questions and respondedwith what seemed to be the right answer toeverything. Actually 100 editors monitoredthe search logs. They then went out on to theweb and located what seemed to be the bestsites to match the most popular queries.Today, Ask Jeeves depends on crawler-based technology to provide results to itsusers.HotBot (http://www.hotbot.com)- provideseasy access to the web’s four major crawler-based search engines: AllTheWeb, Google,Inktomi and Teoma. However, unlike “metasearch engine”, it cannot blend the resultsfrom all of these crawlers together.Nevertheless, it is a fast and easy way to getdifferent web search opinions in one place.HotBot has a strong following amongserious searchers for the quality andcomprehensiveness of its crawler-basedresults.Dogpile (http://www.dogpile.com) – is apopular metasearch site that sends a searchto a customizable list of search engines,directories and specialty search sites, thendisplays results from each search engineindividually.Search Engine Tips-When you get ready to search via a searchengine, always look for the “help” button.You need to be on the look out for the typeof results you may get. For example, if youchoose AltaVista, keep in mind that it usesfree-text-indexing which means thatwhatever search term is entered, it is looked
  27. 27. for anywhere in the entire document. As aresult, you may retrieve hundreds orthousands of documents that may have verylittle or no relevancy for your search.Search Features-Search Engine Math Commands are asfollows:Command How Supported ByMust include + All enginestermMust exclude - All enginestermMust include “ “ All enginesphraseMatch all Automatic at All enginesterms Via AllTheWeb, Advanced AltaVista. Search Google,YahooMatch any OR Alta Vista,Terms Ask Jeeves,Google,HotBot,Yahoo,AllTheWebTry to be specific- tell a search engineexactly what you are looking for. Forexample, imagine you want to find pagesthat have references to both computers andbusiness technology on the same page. Youcould search this way by using the +addition symbol:+computers+technology+businessYou will find only pages that contain all threewords, computers, technology and business .You will find pages that have all three of thewords on them. This search is helpful if youwant to narrow or refine your search.You may want to use Quotation marks, “ “to multiply terms through a phrase searchand retrieve only pages that have all thewords in the exact order you want.
  28. 28. For example, “decision support systems” will retrieve pages that use “decision support systems” in the exact order. Power Searching Commands are: Command How Supported by Title Search title: AltaVista, AllTheWeb intitle: Google, Teoma allintitle: Google host: AltaVista site: Google, Yahoo Site Search url.host: AllTheWeb domain HotBot none: HotBot, Yahoo url: AltaVista url.all: AllTheWeb URL Search allinurl: Google inurl u: Yahoo none: HotBot link: AltaVista, Google Link Search linkdomain: HotBot linkall: AllTheWeb, none: HotBot, YahooYahoo ? AOL Wildcard % Northern Lights None: AllTheWeb, Google, Hotbot Anchor None: Google, Search HotBotTypes of Web Sites Internet offers a vast number of web sites that
  29. 29. provide varied information such as news, advertisement, entertainment, and personal data. You can distinguish the nature of web sites by looking at their URL domains. URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, an Internet address which tells a browser where to find an Internet resources. For example, the URL for your library is http://www.tnstate.edu/library. There are 4 broad categories of web sites you can distinguish by their URL domain. They are: Educational institution- Domain: .edu (http://www.tnstate.edu) Government site- Domain: .gov (http://www.senate.gov) Organizations or associations- Domain: .org (http://www.ala.org) Commercially based sites- Domain: .com (http://www.cocacola.com)Categories of Information on the Internet 1. Free Web Sites with Valuable Information It is recommended that you should do your research by using your library’s electronic and print resources accessible from the Library’s web page. However, you may find some valuable information on the web in the areas listed below: Current Company Information- You can read information about a company from its web site. However, the information you obtain may be slanted to favor that company. You can use the search engines or directories on the Internet to find the information you need. Always keep in mind that your library has pertinent and unbiased information available for you via electronic and print resources. For example, you can use the search engine Google to look up information about Lockheed Aircraft Company. You will find 786,000 hits or results. If you look up IBM via the same search engine, you will find 22,100,000 hits. Current Events or Topics- Web is very useful in finding information about current events because it provides immediate information on very recent events. For
  30. 30. example, you can find the most recent pictures of NASA experiments on the web before the print version arrives. State and Federal Government Information- Most state and government agencies have their own web sites that provide information about their offices, policies, census data, congressional hearings and others. For example, you can find information about Tennessee Department of Transportation by either looking for it via a search engine on the Internet or via your library’s web site under Tennessee Resources. If you need information about the Federal Government, you can either search via a search engine or you can go to your library’s web site and look under U.S. Government Resources. Information About and From Associations, Organizations and Others- If you are looking for information about an association pertaining to contact information, or share information, you may find the web site and get in touch with the organization. For example, you may want to see the type of information is provided by the Association for Information Systems. You can search for the web site via Google or another search engine. The url for this organization is http://www.aisnet.orgWWW Resources at TSU- 1. Virtual Reference- 2. Tennessee Resources 3.Government ResourcesWeb Sites in Business Information Systems
  31. 31. VI. Evaluate Research Materials Criteria to Evaluate Research Materials in Business Information Systems- After you have located various materials on your topic, you should evaluate them to determine their usefulness, quality and authority. Keep in mind that evaluating the information you have located is one of the major skills of library research process. In evaluating information in the field of Business Information Systems, you should apply the ten criteria below: 1. Author’s qualifications or credentials- Is the author practicing in the field? Is he an authority in the field? How many articles or books he has written on the topic? 2. The Timeliness of the Publication- Is the information timely or out-of-date for your topic? When was the information created? Check the publication dates. Is the information updated regularly, if so, how often is it updated? Some information are updated daily, some weekly and monthly. Is the information still valid for your topic? If you need the very current information then timeliness is a must for you. But, if you are looking for the historical perspective of your topic, then timeliness may not be crucial. 3. Accurate and Factual Information Supported by Evidence- Does the information you have located come from authoritative sources? If the information came from a journal in a database, is the journal refereed? Refereed journals or publications are the ones that contain information reviewed by several experts in the field. Is there a review about the book you will use as a source? How thoroughly the information is edited and reviewed? If you obtained the information from a web site, how stable or permanent is the information? Some information will remain accessible and valid over time than the others. Is the coverage of your topic complete? To find about this question, you may check the table of contents, index, or abstract or
  32. 32. summary of the source. Are the factual statements well documented or footnoted so you can verify them for accuracy?4. Primary vs. Secondary Sources- You can locate your information from two types of materials: Primary Sources: These are the first- hand or eye-witness accounts of an event. They include, newspaper stories, reports of experiments, statistics, government documents, autobiographies and letters. For example, AT&T Technical Reports, NASA Reports, and others. Secondary Sources: These are the sources that analyze, relate, evaluate or criticize based on information gathered from Primary Sources.5. Reputation of the Publisher- Check out the publisher of the source. If the publisher is a university press then it is likely to be scholarly. Even though you cannot always guarantee quality based on the publisher’s reputation, it may be a sign that the publisher has a regard for the type of sources it publishes. For example, McGraw-Hill, John Wiley and Sons, Microsoft, Kluwer Academic, CRC, and Harvard Business School Publishing are publishers in Business Information Systems and other areas.6. Type of Publication- is the source scholarly, popular, trade or government publication? Is the journal scholarly or popular? You need to make a distinction because it indicates different levels of complexity in introducing ideas. Scholarly Journals- the Websters Third International Dictionary definition of a scholarly journal is a publication that is concerned with academic study, especially research; exhibiting the methods and attitudes of a scholar; and having a manner and appearance of a scholar. These journals usually have a serious look
  33. 33. and contain various graphs, chartsand other statistical information. Thearticles in these journals always citetheir resources in the form offootnotes or bibliographies. Theauthors of the articles are scholars inthe field or someone who has doneresearch in the field. The languageused is discipline related. Scholarlyjournals aim to report on originalresearch or experimentation anddisseminate it for scholarly use.Examples of Scholarly Journalsinclude, Journal of Communicationsand Networks, Infoworld, Information Systems, Learning & Leading w/Technology, Network Computing and others.General Interest and NewsPublications- These publicationsare attractive in appearance, theirformat can be a journal or anewspaper. The articles contained inthese sources may be written byeditorial staff, scholars or free lancewriters. The language used is for thegeneral public. They are publishedby commercial entities, individualsand/or professional organizations.The aim of these sources is toprovide information to a broadaudience of concerned citizens.Some examples are PopularMechanics, Scientific American,New York Times, NationalGeographic and others.Popular Journals- these sources areattractive in appearance. Theycontain many photographs,drawings. They very rarely citesources and information they containare usually second or third hand. Thearticles are in general with very littledepth. The popular journals are forentertaining the reader, sellingproducts or promoting a viewpoint.Some examples are People Weekly,
  34. 34. Traditional Homes, Vogue, Good Housekeeping, Southern Living, Essence and others. Sensational, Tabloid Publications- use elementary language that is often sensational. They aim to arouse curiosity with flashy headlines. Some examples are National Inquirer, Globe, Weekly World News, Star, and others.Criteria to Evaluate the Web ResourcesYou can find a vast amount of information on theInternet, however, not all resources are equallyvaluable or even reliable. Your challenge is to siftthrough the vast amount of information andpinpoint those sources that are reliable and relevantfor your topic. As a rule the, informational webpages present factual information. For example, theweb pages with URL addresses that end with .edu or.gov provide reliable information since they aresponsored by educational institutions or governmentagencies. You may consider the following points inevaluating web sources: 1. Scope- How complete is the information covered? Is the information given in detail? 2. Content- Is the information accurate or factual and reflects the opinion of the author? Does the author list his/her sources for verification? Is the information biased? Does the information clearly provide the name(s) of person(s) or organizations responsible for the content of the information? Is the author qualified to provide the information? How current is the information? Do you see dates as to when it was written and when it was last revised or or updated? Are there links to other related resources? If so, are they up-to-date? Is the text well written and communicated clearly? 3. Graphics and Multimedia Design- Is the
  35. 35. Page attractive and Interesting to look at?4. Navigation- is the web resource easy to use? Is it user friendly? Can you access the resource via standard computer equipment and software?
  36. 36. VIII. Write the Research Paper1. Organization of Information Now that you have gathered the pertinent information, it is time to organize it. You may look at the organization of your information as if you are organizing your desk drawer or closet. Similar items are grouped together for easy access. In writing your research paper, you may group your information by similar concepts. For example, if you are using the web to gather information, you may bookmark them under a concept. One of the best ways to organize information is to create an outline, kind of a skeleton that you will later fill with information. In an outline information is arranged by hierarchy and sequence. This is done by identifying Main Topics, Subtopics, detailed information under subtopics, Conclusion and Bibliography.. An outline would also contain forward, preface and table of contents.An outline may look like this:I. Main Topic A. Sub-Topic 1. Detail 2. Detail 3. Detail B. Sub-Topic 1. Detail 2. Detail 3. Detail C. Sub-Topic 1. Detail 2. DetailFor example, the book titled “Decision Support Systems in the 21st Century“ by GeorgeM. Marakas has the following outline:Chapter 2- The Decision Maker 2-1 Decision Makers-Who Are They? 2-2 Decision Styles 2-3 Decision Effectiveness 2-4 How Can a DSS Help? 2-5 Chapter SummaryChapter 4- Decisions in the Organization 4-1 Understanding the Organization
  37. 37. 4-2 Organizational Culture 4-3 Power and Politics 4-4 Supporting Organizational Decision Making 4-5 Chapter SummaryChapter 5 Modeling Decision Processes 5-1Defining the Problem and Its Structure 5-2Decision Models 5-3 Types of Probability 5-4 Techniques for Forecasting Probabilities 5-5 Calibration and Sensitivity 5-6 Chapter Summary References Index In this example, the title is “Decision Support Systems in the 21st Century“ The author organized the information into four Main Topics. They are The Decision Maker, Decisions in the Organization, and Modeling Decision Processes. These are in turn refined into subtopics such as Decision Models, Types of Probability, Techniques for Calibration, and Calibration and Sensitivity. 2. Citing Sources and Ethical Issues- While writing your paper, no doubt, you will need outside support for your thesis or point of view. That is, you will use quotes from other researchers. When you incorporate someone else’s ideas or material in your paper, you are obligated to give credit to the original author. You can give this credit by citing other authors’ works in your paper. These citations must be complete and they include books, journal or newspaper articles, Internet sources. Etc. Failure to cite the source material is unethical and it called “ plagiarism “. You can cite your sources properly by using a variety of formats available in the following categories: Science- CBE (Council of Biology Editors) Social Sciences- APA ( American Psychological Association) Humanities- MLA (Modern Language Association) History- Chicago Manual of Style.TipsYou should pick a style that fits your researchtopic and use it consistently.Make sure that you provide a complete citation so
  38. 38. that persons reading your research can locate theinformation you are citing.Examples-Footnotes:Print materials-Electronic resources-Bibliographies:Print materials-American Psychological Association (APA) StyleBooks-The bibliographic citation for a book isgenerally document as follows:Anahory, Sam. (1997). Data warehousing in the real world : a practical guide for building decision support systems.Harlow, England ; Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley.( Notice that the title of the book is inItalics)Journals-Horn, Andreas L.; During, Rolf-Alexander; Gath, Stefan.(2001). “Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application ofcompost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulationin soil.”Science of the Total Environment, v 311, n 1-3, p 35-48. (Notice that the title of the journal is inItalics)Modern language Association (MLA)Books-Anahory, Sam. Data warehousing in the real world : a practical guide for buildingdecision support systems. Harlow, England ; Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1997.( Notice that the author’s name is givenin full and the publication date of thebook is entered at the end of thecitation. There are two spaces aftereach period)Journals- (scholarly)Horn, Andreas L., During, Rolf-Alexander, Gath, Stefan. “Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application ofcompost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulationin soil.” Science of the Total Environment, 311. 1-3. (Jul 20, 2003): 35-48. ( Notice that the title of the article is inquotation marks, both the volume andthe issue number and the month orseason and year of the publication isgiven. The month or the season and theyear of publication are in parenthesis)Electronic resources-

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