Avoiding "Ready. Fire. Aim!" with a Mobile Learning Strategy

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Is mobile learning really the future, or is it just another "the classroom is dead" hype cycle? Are you on track to add real value by rethinking learning activities from a mobile perspective? What does a mobile learning strategy include? Can you even define "mobile learning?" Attend this session to examine your organization's readiness for mobile learning; evaluate content suitable for "m-Learning;" consider a strategic framework for mobile; and discuss how to build a business case. This session is suitable for both those just getting started with mobile learning, and those looking for help explaining "why mobile learning?"

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Avoiding "Ready. Fire. Aim!" with a Mobile Learning Strategy

  1. 1. Avoiding "Ready, Fire, Aim" witha Mobile Learning StrategyChris King, Strategy and Planning GroupGMU/DAU Innovations in e-Learning Symposium6 June 2012 Significant Work. Extraordinary People. SRA.
  2. 2. Agenda • Mobile Learning: force multiplier or paradigm shift? • Organizational Readiness for Mobile Learning • The strategic framework • Selecting suitable content2 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  3. 3. How do you define “Mobile Device?” In 2011, for the first time ever, more smart phones were sold than PCs.Reference: http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2011/02/07/idc-smartphone-shipment-numbers-passed-pc-in-q4-2010/, http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2379665,00.asp3 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  4. 4. How do you define “Learning?” • Requires expanded A course expectation of learning Assessments/ • New possibilities for A checklist evals/surveys “blended learning” • Is Performance Performance Supplemental Learning support (aka QRG) Support “learning” or something else? Refresher from an ILT course Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 20124
  5. 5. Is “mobile” a revolution in computing? • Usage patterns are shifting from PCs to mobile devices • Ubiquitous connection patterns • Tablets are creating their own slice of the usage pie by making it a bigger pie • Mobile devices are changing the way we search for information, communicate, buy things, work, and interact with our world5 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  6. 6. Shifts in Usage Patterns: Going Mobile • People are increasingly moving from PCs to mobile devices to connect. According to Pew studies*: – 46% of American adults are smartphone users, up from 35% a year earlier – A quarter of Americans with smartphones use the devices as their main way to get onto the Internet – 9 in 10 owners of smartphones use their device to access the Web and check their e-mail each day Data from Pew Internet & American Life Project, http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Smartphone- Update-2012/Findings.aspx (March 2012)6 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  7. 7. Shifts: Always Connected*• Global mobile data traffic grew 2.3-fold in 2011, more than Within the next 5 years… doubling for the fourth year in a row. • Monthly global mobile data traffic will• Last years mobile data traffic was eight times the size of increase 18-fold, surpassing 10 the entire global Internet in 2000. exabytes in 2016. • Over 100 million smartphone users• Mobile video traffic exceeded 50 percent for the first time in will belong to the "gigabyte club" (over 1 GB per month) by 2012. 2011. • The number of mobile-connected• The top 1 percent of mobile data subscribers generate 24 devices will exceed the worlds population in 2012. percent of mobile data traffic -- down from 35 percent 1 • Two-thirds of the worlds mobile data year ago. traffic will be video. • The average mobile connection• Average smartphone (data) usage nearly tripled in 2011. speed will surpass 1 Mbps in 2014. • Due to increased usage on• Smartphones represent only 12 percent of total global smartphones, handsets will exceed handsets in use today, but they represent over 82 percent 50 percent of mobile data traffic in 2014. of total global handset traffic. • Monthly global mobile data traffic will• In 2011, the number of mobile-connected tablets tripled to surpass 10 exabytes in 2016. • Monthly mobile tablet traffic will 34 million, and each tablet generated 3.4 times more traffic surpass 1 exabyte per month in than the average smartphone. 2016. • Tablets will exceed 10 percent of global mobile data traffic in 2016. * Data from Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group, February 2012 - http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11- 520862.html Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 7 June 2012
  8. 8. Shifts: Tablets Make More Pie Gartner: Users are spending more time online with tablets* “Tablets are not used in the same way as PCs, and they are not replacing other devices, such as smartphones. Instead they are extending computing capabilities into new locations that were not practical before, and along the way are extending the amount of time users spend in any computing environment.” As reported by Mobile Sales Force Workers When tablets introduced: Users reported smaller number of longer sessions 3.5 hr/day 4.2 hr/day with their laptops; fewer number of shorter sessions with phones *Gartner, “Enterprise Applications for Tablets,” ID G00214074, June 13, 20118 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  9. 9. Shifts: Work & Telework • “Workshifting”: Ability to work when and where we want to. – Telecommuting continues to rise – including employees working from home (e.g., via laptop) and on the go (via other mobile devices) – Telework Act of 2010 gives federal workers the option to telework at least part of their week. • Some interesting stats about mobile workers*: – “Integral access” – 29% believe that wireless Internet access is as important as electricity and running water in their everyday existence; another 59% say “pretty close” – During workday hours, 25% check the smartphone at least 3-4 times per hour. 12% check obsessively – 10+ times per hour – 70% who check their smartphones during downtime do so for both business and personal reasons – 60% sleep with their devices in the bedroom (80% for ages 22-34) – 56% send their first email before they arrive at the office. 73% send their last email after they leave the office. – 61% of mobile workers work more than 50 hours/week; 21% work more than 60 hours/week * iPass survey of 1689 workers at 1100 enterprises in March-April 2012, Global Mobile Workforce Report, May 22, 20129 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  10. 10. Shifts: Search for Information • Explosive growth of mobile Internet access: Sites are seeing increasing percentage of their traffic coming from mobile browsers. • Mobile Spend: – Mobile ad spend in the US will reach $2.6B in 2012, with $1.28B spent on mobile search – Mobile search is not just for online purchases – 40% of mobile searches are local, with approximately 60% subsequently visiting or calling the business • Clickshare: – In 2011, mobile clickshare rose every month, peaking at 21.7% in December – Tablets are responsible for some of the change: Tablet ownership doubled over the Christmas holidays. Tablet share of mobile clicks was almost 40% in January 2012, a 15% jump from December. • Click Through Rates (CTR): – In August 2011, mobile click thru rate (CTR) went above PCs for the first time. – By January 2012, mobile CTR was 45% higher than computers. • Cost Per Click (CPC): – Smartphone CPCs remain about 50% less than desktop CPCs – Tablet CPCs are catching up to desktop at about 20% less – Google: Mobile paid search ad volume doubled from Dec 2012 – Dec 2011 * Source: Mobile Search Trends and Best Practices, Feb 2012 - http://www.slideshare.net/performics_us/the-latest-mobile-search-trends-and-best- practices-february-201210 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  11. 11. Shifts: Mobile in Government • Digital Government Strategy Document • 12-month roadmap with specific 3, 6, and 9 month milestones • Significant shift in how the government develops and delivers digital services Do we now have to consider citizens as a training stakeholder in the Federal space? Source: www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/05/23/roadmap-digital-government Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201211
  12. 12. Is your organization ready for it? • Are your workers self-directed learners? • Does your management understand the benefits? • Are their organizational policies and initiatives that support it? • Do you know how to build it? If not, do you have the budget to buy it?12 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  13. 13. Your audiences may not be ready. • Adult learners are motivated to learn by internal rather than external factors • Barriers to self-directed learning are likely external – Informational (unaware of educational activities) – Institutional (practices and procedures that discourage participation) – Situational (life getting in the way of learning) – Dispositional (personal attitude about self and learning) Widely cited: Adults as Learners. Increasing Participation and Facilitating Learning, by K. Patricia Cross, 1981.13 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  14. 14. Your managers may not be ready. • “Management will resist “ is cited as a barrier by nearly 30% of respondents to an e- Learning Guild survey • “Lack of understanding from leadership” has 23% responding “high” or “very high” in an ASTD study Sources: Mobile Learning: The Time is Now, Clark Quinn, e-Learning Guild Research, 2012; Mobile Learning: Delivering Learning in a Connected World, ASTD Research, 2012 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201214
  15. 15. Your organization may not be ready. • Common barriers across different surveys show mutual organizational challenges “To what extent do you consider these barriers to adopting mobile learning technologies…?” E-Learning Guild Research: Mobile Learning: The Time is ASTD Research: Mobile Learning: Delivering Learning in a Now, Clark Quinn, 2012 Connected World, 2012 Existing content does not 48% Budget constraints 46.0% transfer well to mobile… Security (vulnerable Difficult to integrate into 45% 37.0% transmission) legacy learning systems Lack of standards 45% Security concerns 36.0% Hard to integrate with our Lack of IT infrastructure 43% 35.0% enterprise tools to support these… Cost 41% Legal or policy concerns 32.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Large barrier High or Very High15 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  16. 16. You may not be ready. Build It if you have: • Developed in HTML5 and/or CSS3 • Built mobile apps • Experience developing e-learning Buy It if you have: • Strong project management skills • Deep pockets • Experience deploying e-learning Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201216
  17. 17. Organizational Readiness • Before you make the investment…. To what degree should this mobile learning be Point Total introduced to your target audience(s)? 35 and above Mobile Learning is a viable approach 19 - 34 Consider a blended approach for learning delivery Mobile Learning is not likely to be effective; consider a 18 and below more traditional approach (e.g., classroom- based, experiential, etc.)17 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  18. 18. Content Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Learning Content Attributes How complex is the learning content? (Consider type and level.) Does it introduce simple theories and concepts, 1 2 3 4 5 or does it require a significant amount of Complex, Moderate Simple, application for the learning to be requires complexity procedural critical knowledge effective? Can it be effectively delivered thinking electronically without extensive explanation, or must the skills and knowledge be developed and built upon over time?18 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  19. 19. Content Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Learning Content Attributes How important is context to the content delivery? Is the content more 1 2 3 4 5 effective when delivered in the context of Context Context Context the workplace? Or is the content more can be provides critical for effective delivered without supporting applied some making context in a neutral setting that can separately benefits to meaning encourage reflection? Is context needed to the learning content immediately to make meaning out of learning situations?19 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  20. 20. Content Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Learning Content Attributes What kind of activities are needed to 1 2 3 4 5 support learning? Does the content Mostly A mix of Mostly low- require high-level cognitive processes high-level high- and level (analyze, evaluate) or low-level cognitive cognitive low-level cognitive processes (remember, understand, processes cognitive processes apply) and the corresponding activities processes for effective learning?20 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  21. 21. Audience Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Audience Attributes 1 2 3 4 5 Is the audience inherently mobile or Desk- Equal mix Inherently casually mobile? Does the majority of bound of desks mobile the audience spend most of their working and workforce day at a desk? Or is the location of the mobiles work not fixed in space?21 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  22. 22. Audience Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Audience Attributes How widespread are work-related 1 2 3 4 5 mobile devices in the target Few Pockets of Smart- audience? Does the target audience Smart- Smart- phones phones or phones fully provide their own mobile devices, or are no support supported mobile devices provided for and for Smart- supported by the organization? phones22 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  23. 23. Audience Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Audience Attributes How motivated are the Learners to 1 2 3 4 5 own their development? To what Low Medium High degree is the target learner audience Motivation Motivation Motivation able and motivated to pursue self- directed learning? To own and manage their development?23 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  24. 24. Environmental Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Environmental Attributes Does the organization support mobile 1 2 3 4 5 devices as part of IT Infrastructure? Little Some Wide- Can you call the help desk for help with support support spread support your mobile device? Is there support for a wide variety of mobile devices within the organization?24 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  25. 25. Environmental Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Environmental Attributes 1 2 3 4 5 How mature are the organizational No formal Some Formal policies around mobile? Is there a policies formal policies for mobile device policy? Are there policies policies most on security? Social media? Privacy? Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)?25 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  26. 26. Environmental Readiness Selection Criteria Rating Scale Environmental Attributes Does your LMS support mobile 1 2 3 4 5 delivery? This is necessary if mobile The sales- The The LMS learning is to support or deliver formal people say technical Trainers it does integration say it does learning. Mobile learning can support staff say it informal learning without integration with does the LMS.26 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  27. 27. Organizational Readiness • How did you score? To what degree should this mobile learning be Point Total introduced to your target audience(s)? 35 and above Mobile Learning is a viable approach 19 - 34 Consider a blended approach for learning delivery Mobile Learning is not likely to be effective; consider a 18 and below more traditional approach (e.g., classroom-based, experiential, etc.)27 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  28. 28. If they are ready, how do you deliver? Address build Be device vs. buy agnostic Have a short Have clearly time horizon defined to account for Mobile metrics rapid change Learning strategy28 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  29. 29. Strategy answers three key questions How do What do you How do you get you know want to do? there? when you are there? Clearly • Culture • Organization Metrics tied to articulated • Competencies organizational vision of the • Processes goals future state • Apps • Equiments • Delivery Vehicles29 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  30. 30. Integrate into your existing strategy Continue to If your existing Does your LMS coordinate and strategy it not support mobile? If Build capacity to cooperate with IT mature, Mobile not, consider develop, or PM and Legal, just Learning might mobile as skills to manage like you’ve been increase Performance doing all along confusion Support (hint, hint)30 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  31. 31. Mobile supplements traditional training Consider the possibilities of a Performance Support solution built on a mobile platform…. The Five Moments of Learning Need Source: Conrad Gottfredson, Ontiuitive31 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  32. 32. Choose your content carefully Learning Mobility Hierarchy Sample Applications Affordances • Real-time chat Communications Level Communication & • Annotations Intensive 4 Collaboration • SMS Group Work • Email Level • Networked databases Synchronous Capturing & • Data collection/ synthesis 3 Integrating Data • Mobile library • Local database Mobility Level Flexible Physical • Interactive prompting 2 Access • Context/ location sensitive Asynchronous support Level • Calendars Individual Work Productivity • Scheduling 1 • Contacts Content Intensive Adapted from Gay, Reiger, & Bennington, “Using mobile computing to enhance field study” in CSCL2: Carrying Forward the Conversation.32 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  33. 33. Mobile device use patterns inform content choices Uses Pocket Tablet Laptop Contextual Content    Communication    Contextual Capture    Contextual Create    Consume Content    Application Interaction    Create Content    Organize    Archive     - High likelihood of use  - Reasonable amount of use  - Limited or unlikely use Source: Mobile Learning: The Time is Now, Clark Quinn, e-Learning Guild Research, 201233 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  34. 34. Mobile and Accessibility Questions to ask • Not hyperbole to say that • Does the base hardware & Operating System meet Section mobile devices are 508 requirements? revolutionizing – Are there VPATs/GPATs accessibility available? • Section 508 conformance – Does it connect to common assistive technology (e.g. TTY is the law Adapters, Braille Screen Voluntary Product Accessibility Readers) information (VPAT): • Do the developers have access http://www.itic.org/index.php?src=g to device-specific endocs&ref=vpat instructions/API/code examples Government Product Accessibility of products that meet Section Template (GPAT) 508 standards? Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201234
  35. 35. Section 508 Compliance Status Our TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION Grade Leading the way for OS, Hardware, and A+ Apple developer support Microsoft Windows 7 High level of support for OS and developers; A* Phone, Windows 7, Windows 8 *Note: Support by vendors varies RIM has a high level of support with their A RIM Blackberry Blackberry line; the newest OS for PlayBook has a lot of accessible features Varies by which version of the OS and the C Android hardware vendor, but fewest accessible features to date35 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  36. 36. Conclusion Mobile Learning can make an impact, but requires careful planning and coordination If your workforce is not You cannot escape from inherently mobile, your relationship with IT – consider spending your just like the LMS days! resources (time, money, talent) on other things Barriers exist, but they are becoming more manageable36 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  37. 37. Chris King, Strategy and Performance Group Christopher_King@SRA.com THANK YOU Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201237
  38. 38. FURTHER READING Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 201238
  39. 39. 508/Accessibility: US Government Resources • Section508.gov – for everything you need to know about Section 508 – http://section508.gov • BuyAccessible.gov – http://BuyAccessible.gov • Access to resources and tools to help you meet Section 508 requirements • Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program (CAP) – http://cap.mil/ • Provides assistive technologies and services to DoD and partner Agencies • Federal Business Opportunities – https://www.fbo.gov/ • Example 70--Computer Support Services for Veterans Who Have Visual Impairments – https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=62c0baba1eecc31699 532b0d3d403bc4&tab=core&_cview=039 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  40. 40. 508/Accessibility: VPATs for common devices • VPATs describe how a product or service satisfies U.S. Section 508 Guidelines • Apple products: – http://www.apple.com/accessibility/resources/ • Microsoft Section 508 VPATs – http://www.microsoft.com/industry/government/products/section508/ default.aspx • RIM BlackBerry – http://us.blackberry.com/support/devices/blackberry_accessibility/ • Android VPATs will be vendor-specific – E.g. Samsung documents their VPATs at http://www.samsung.com/us/aboutsamsung/citizenship/usactivities_ government_Compliances&Certification.html40 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  41. 41. 508/Accessibility: Developer Resources • Designing for Accessibility on Android – http://developer.android.com/guide/practices/design/accessibility .html • Accessibility Programming Guide for Apple iOS – http://developer.apple.com/library/ios/#documentation/UserExper ience/Conceptual/iPhoneAccessibility/Introduction/Introduction.ht ml • Developing Accessible BlackBerry device applications – http://docs.blackberry.com/en/developers/deliverables/11936/Intr o_to_Accessibility_API_791538_11.jsp • Windows Dev Center: Accessibility main page – http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/bb735024.aspx41 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
  42. 42. 508/Accessibility: Additional Links • Assistive Technology Industry Association – http://www.atia.org • Accessible Technology Coalition – http://atcoalition.org • Yahoo! Accessibility Blog: – http://yaccessibilityblog.com – Including http://yaccessibilityblog.com/wp/accessible-apps- introductory.html. Describes tools used for enhancing accessibility, as well as apps that are accessible. • Carroll Center for the Blind – http://carroll.org/ • VCU’s Assistive Technology Blog: – http://www.assistivetechnology.vcu.edu/42 Innovations in e-Learning Symposium | 6 June 2012
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