Stephen E. Lucas
C H A P T E R
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
4
Selecting a Topic and
Purpose
Slide 2
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Topic
The subject of a speech.
Slide 3
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Brainstorming
A method of generating ideas for
speech to...
Slide 4
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
General Purpose
The broad goal of a speech.
Slide 5
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Specific Purpose Statement
A single infinitive phrase th...
Slide 6
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for the
Specific Purpose Statement
• Write as...
Slide 7
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Write the Specific Purpose
as a
Full Infinitive Phrase
I...
Slide 8
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Express the Specific Purpose
as a
Statement, Not as a Qu...
Slide 9
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Avoid Figurative Language
in the
Specific Purpose Statem...
Slide 10
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Limit the Specific Purpose
to
One Distinct Idea
Ineffec...
Slide 11
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
More effective: To persuade my audience to
become liter...
Slide 12
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Be Sure the Specific Purpose
Is Not
Too Vague or Genera...
Slide 13
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Questions to Ask About Your
Specific Purpose
• Does my ...
Slide 14
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Questions to Ask about Your
Specific Purpose
• Is the p...
Slide 15
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Central Idea
A one-sentence statement that sums
up or e...
Slide 16
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Guidelines for the
Central Idea
• Express as a full sen...
Slide 17
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Make Sure the Central Idea is
Not Too General
Ineffecti...
Slide 18
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
More Effective: Because college athletes in
revenue-pro...
Slide 19
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
State the Central Idea as a
Complete Sentence
Ineffecti...
Slide 20
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
State the Central Idea as a
Statement,
Not as a Questio...
Slide 21
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
More Effective: Played on a smaller,
enclosed field tha...
Slide 22
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Avoid Figurative Language in
the Central Idea
Ineffecti...
Slide 23
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
More Effective: Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula
has many att...
Slide 24
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose: To inform ...
Slide 25
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
Main Points: I. The first major race in
alpine skiing i...
Slide 26
McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.
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Central idea lucas

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Central idea lucas

  1. 1. Stephen E. Lucas C H A P T E R McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. 4 Selecting a Topic and Purpose
  2. 2. Slide 2 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Topic The subject of a speech.
  3. 3. Slide 3 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Brainstorming A method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas.
  4. 4. Slide 4 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. General Purpose The broad goal of a speech.
  5. 5. Slide 5 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Specific Purpose Statement A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.
  6. 6. Slide 6 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for the Specific Purpose Statement • Write as a full infinitive phrase • Express as a statement, not as a question • Avoid figurative language • Limit to one distinct idea • Avoid being too vague or general
  7. 7. Slide 7 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Write the Specific Purpose as a Full Infinitive Phrase Ineffective: Calendars More Effective: To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today.
  8. 8. Slide 8 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Express the Specific Purpose as a Statement, Not as a Question Ineffective: Is the U.S. space program necessary? More Effective: To persuade my audience that the U.S. space program provides many important benefits to people here on earth.
  9. 9. Slide 9 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Avoid Figurative Language in the Specific Purpose Statement Ineffective: To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool. More effective: To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health.
  10. 10. Slide 10 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Limit the Specific Purpose to One Distinct Idea Ineffective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to the Special Olympics.
  11. 11. Slide 11 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. More effective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors. More effective: To persuade my audience to donate time to the Special Olympics. OR
  12. 12. Slide 12 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Be Sure the Specific Purpose Is Not Too Vague or General Ineffective: To inform my audience about the Civil War. More Effective: To inform my audience about the role of African-American soldiers in the Civil War.
  13. 13. Slide 13 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose • Does my purpose meet the assignment? • Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted? • Is the purpose relevant to my audience?
  14. 14. Slide 14 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Questions to Ask about Your Specific Purpose • Is the purpose too trivial for my audience? • Is the purpose too technical for my audience?
  15. 15. Slide 15 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Central Idea A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.
  16. 16. Slide 16 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Guidelines for the Central Idea • Express as a full sentence • Do not express as a question • Avoid figurative language • Do not be vague or overly general
  17. 17. Slide 17 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Make Sure the Central Idea is Not Too General Ineffective: Paying college athletes a salary is a good idea.
  18. 18. Slide 18 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. More Effective: Because college athletes in revenue-producing sports such as football and basketball generate millions of dollars in revenue for their schools, the NCAA should allow such athletes to receive a $250 monthly salary as part of their scholarships.
  19. 19. Slide 19 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. State the Central Idea as a Complete Sentence Ineffective: Uses of the laser. More Effective: The laser is a highly versatile device with important uses in medicine, industry, art, and communications.
  20. 20. Slide 20 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. State the Central Idea as a Statement, Not as a Question Ineffective: How does indoor soccer differ from outdoor soccer?
  21. 21. Slide 21 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. More Effective: Played on a smaller, enclosed field that resembles a hockey rink with artificial turf, indoor soccer involves faster action, more scoring, and different strategies than outdoor soccer.
  22. 22. Slide 22 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Avoid Figurative Language in the Central Idea Ineffective: Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula is an awesome place for a vacation.
  23. 23. Slide 23 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. More Effective: Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula has many attractions for vacationers, including a warm climate, excellent food, and extensive Mayan ruins.
  24. 24. Slide 24 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience of the three major races in alpine skiing. Central Idea: The three major races in alpine skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the giant slalom.
  25. 25. Slide 25 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Main Points: I. The first major race in alpine skiing is the downhill. II. The second major race in alpine skiing is the slalom. III. The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom.
  26. 26. Slide 26 McGraw-Hill © 2007 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved.

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