0
Evolution, Race, and Ethnicity
Lecture 2
A Very Brief Outline of Human
Evolution
Part 1
Background
 Modern humans (Homo sapiens) are the
result of at least 62 million years of
primate evolution.
 We a relativ...
Background 2
 Our first primate ancestors were likely small,
shrew-like tree-dwelling animals.
 Eventually primates beca...
Plesiadapiforms - The First
Primates?
Aegyptopithecus - An Early
African Monkey
Living Non-Human Primates
 In the past there were a great many more
types of primates in existence.
 Today there are onl...
Living Non-Human Primates 2
 Today’s primates are very diverse.
 They range in size from tiny 2 ounce mouse
lemurs to 45...
Living Non-Human Primates 3
 Some are nocturnal, while most are
diurnal.
 Some are relatively unintelligent, while
other...
Some Principle Primate
Features
 Grasping hands (and sometimes tails).
 High degree of learned behavior.
 Large brains ...
Living Primate Groups
 Lemurs (Madagascar)
 Lorises (Africa and Asia)
 Tarsiers (Southeast Asia)
 Monkeys (Africa, Asi...
Mouse Lemur
Male Mountain Gorilla
Ring-Tailed Lemurs
Red Ruffed Lemur
Slow Loris
Tarsier
Cotton Top Tamarin
Pygmy Marmosets
Mandrill
Red Colobus
Orangutan
Chimpanzees
Bonobos
Hominid Evolution
 Genetic evidence suggest that hominids arise in
Africa perhaps as early as 10 million years
ago.
 The...
Ardipithecus Ramidus Remains
and Reconstruction
Hominid Evolution 2
 By 4.2 million years ago a series of species
known as australopithecines begin to appear.
 The most...
Lucy
Australopithecus afarensis?
Ape-Lucy-Modern Human
The Genus Homo
 The genus “homo,” which eventually gives
rise to modern humans first appears around 2.5
million years ago...
The Genus Homo 2
 H. erectus has body proportions similar to
that of modern humans.
 The most intelligent hominid so far...
Homo Erectus?
Archaic Homo Sapiens
 By out 800,000 years ago a series of
hominids appear in various parts of the
world that have featur...
Neanderthals
 Neanderthals first appear around 150,000
years ago and die out around 27,000 years
ago
 They are a cold-we...
Neanderthal Range
Neanderthal and Modern
Human
Neanderthal Skull
Neanderthal?
Neanderthal?
Ginger Neanderthals?
Gingerthals)
Homo Sapiens
 Homo sapiens first appear in Africa between
200,000 and 100,000 years ago.
 Most likely evolved out of eit...
Homo Sapiens 2
 By around 12,000 years ago modern
humans have migrated world-wide, living
in just about every environment...
Homo Sapiens Dispersal
Race and Ethnicity
Part 2
Biological Facts
 Homo sapiens is a very young species.
 Though we feature much diversity in
appearance, these differenc...
Biological Facts
 Many of our physical differences (skin,
color, hair color, etc.) are relatively recent
adaptations to l...
Biological Classification
 In the past biologists and anthropologists
classified humans into different groups based
on ph...
Biological Classification 2
 Biologists (generally) use the term
“subspecies” to classify populations within a
species th...
Biological Classification 3
 Modern genetics has shown that humans
are far too closely related for any division
into subs...
Biological Classification 4
 Today when the term “race” is used what
is actually being referred to are largely
cultural, ...
Ethnicity
 Ethnicity - A group of people sharing a
common origins, history, language, and in many
cases religion, social ...
Ethnocentrism
 Ethnocentrism - … is the belief that
one’s own patterns of behavior [and
belief] are always natural, good,...
Ethnocentrism 2
 Ethnocentrism - the belief that one’s
own cultural group and the behavioral
patterns in which it engages...
Anthropology and Society
 Before the advent of modern genetic studies,
anthropologists actively engaged in the study of
r...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Lecture 2(evolution ethicty)

855

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
855
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Lecture 2(evolution ethicty)"

  1. 1. Evolution, Race, and Ethnicity Lecture 2
  2. 2. A Very Brief Outline of Human Evolution Part 1
  3. 3. Background  Modern humans (Homo sapiens) are the result of at least 62 million years of primate evolution.  We a relatively new species, apparently emerging in Africa sometime within the last 200,000-100,000 years.  We are the only hominid (upright walking primate) species alive today.
  4. 4. Background 2  Our first primate ancestors were likely small, shrew-like tree-dwelling animals.  Eventually primates became larger and more sophisticated, to the point where monkeys and apes appear (35 and 25 million years ago, respectively).  Hominids (upright walking primates), our closest ancestors, likely appear sometime between 10-6 million years ago.
  5. 5. Plesiadapiforms - The First Primates?
  6. 6. Aegyptopithecus - An Early African Monkey
  7. 7. Living Non-Human Primates  In the past there were a great many more types of primates in existence.  Today there are only 250 species world wide, and most of these are endangered.  They are most threatened by habitat loss (in most cases due to human actions), hunting, and disease.
  8. 8. Living Non-Human Primates 2  Today’s primates are very diverse.  They range in size from tiny 2 ounce mouse lemurs to 450 lbs male gorillas.  They occur naturally in Africa, large sections of Asia, South America, Mexico, and one small area of Europe.  Many primates are vegetarians, others omnivores, and one is entirely carnivorous.
  9. 9. Living Non-Human Primates 3  Some are nocturnal, while most are diurnal.  Some are relatively unintelligent, while others are some of the smartest animals on the planet (next to us).  Most ape and some monkey species make and use tools.
  10. 10. Some Principle Primate Features  Grasping hands (and sometimes tails).  High degree of learned behavior.  Large brains (in relation to body size and when compared to other animals).  Stereoscopic eyes.  Most have flat nails in stead of claws.  Almost all live in social groups.  (Relatively) long life-spans.
  11. 11. Living Primate Groups  Lemurs (Madagascar)  Lorises (Africa and Asia)  Tarsiers (Southeast Asia)  Monkeys (Africa, Asia, Americas)  Apes (Africa and Asia)  Humans (All over the damn place)
  12. 12. Mouse Lemur
  13. 13. Male Mountain Gorilla
  14. 14. Ring-Tailed Lemurs
  15. 15. Red Ruffed Lemur
  16. 16. Slow Loris
  17. 17. Tarsier
  18. 18. Cotton Top Tamarin
  19. 19. Pygmy Marmosets
  20. 20. Mandrill
  21. 21. Red Colobus
  22. 22. Orangutan
  23. 23. Chimpanzees
  24. 24. Bonobos
  25. 25. Hominid Evolution  Genetic evidence suggest that hominids arise in Africa perhaps as early as 10 million years ago.  The earliest fully documented hominid fossils date to only 4.4 million years ago.  This species has been named Ardipithecus Ramidus.  Though a biped, this species is still very ape-like in many ways.
  26. 26. Ardipithecus Ramidus Remains and Reconstruction
  27. 27. Hominid Evolution 2  By 4.2 million years ago a series of species known as australopithecines begin to appear.  The most famous of these is an example of the species Australopithecus afarensis, which has been nicknamed “Lucy.”  Though less primitive than earlier hominid species, Lucy an her kind are still quite apelike in many ways.  At this point in hominid evolution, brain size is still roughly that of a modern chimpanzee.
  28. 28. Lucy
  29. 29. Australopithecus afarensis?
  30. 30. Ape-Lucy-Modern Human
  31. 31. The Genus Homo  The genus “homo,” which eventually gives rise to modern humans first appears around 2.5 million years ago.  The first of these species, Homo habilis, is the first hominid who has be shown to have made stone tools.  By 1.8 million years ago Homo Erectus appears.  Homo erectus may be the first hominid to have left Africa.
  32. 32. The Genus Homo 2  H. erectus has body proportions similar to that of modern humans.  The most intelligent hominid so far.  May have hunted large game.  May have used fire.  May have had at least some language abilities.
  33. 33. Homo Erectus?
  34. 34. Archaic Homo Sapiens  By out 800,000 years ago a series of hominids appear in various parts of the world that have features associated with both H. erectus as well as later hominids.  The hominids may or may not be direct ancestors to modern humans.  They do, however, appear to have given rise to Neanderthals.
  35. 35. Neanderthals  Neanderthals first appear around 150,000 years ago and die out around 27,000 years ago  They are a cold-weather adapted species found mostly in Ice-Age Europe and parts of the Middle East.  Anatomically they are know for their robust muscular bodies and unusual facial anatomy.  Most likely the most intelligent hominid other than modern humans.
  36. 36. Neanderthal Range
  37. 37. Neanderthal and Modern Human
  38. 38. Neanderthal Skull
  39. 39. Neanderthal?
  40. 40. Neanderthal?
  41. 41. Ginger Neanderthals? Gingerthals)
  42. 42. Homo Sapiens  Homo sapiens first appear in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago.  Most likely evolved out of either Archaic Homo sapiens or Homo erectus.  The main difference between Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors is their extreme intelligence - Homo sapiens are by far the smartest hominid that ever lived.
  43. 43. Homo Sapiens 2  By around 12,000 years ago modern humans have migrated world-wide, living in just about every environment except Antarctica, extremely high mountain regions, and isolated oceanic islands.  It has been hypothesized modern humans out competed other hominid species to quickly emerge as the only surviving hominid species on the planet.
  44. 44. Homo Sapiens Dispersal
  45. 45. Race and Ethnicity Part 2
  46. 46. Biological Facts  Homo sapiens is a very young species.  Though we feature much diversity in appearance, these differences are minor compared to our biological similarities.  In fact, all human beings are quite closely related.  We are all likely only 2000 or so generations removed from a common African ancestor.
  47. 47. Biological Facts  Many of our physical differences (skin, color, hair color, etc.) are relatively recent adaptations to local environment conditions.  Fast-acting evolutionary forces such as genetic drift have also played a role in our creating such variation as well.
  48. 48. Biological Classification  In the past biologists and anthropologists classified humans into different groups based on physical characteristics.  Modern genetics has revealed that these categories make very little sense biologically.  Most biologists and anthropologist no longer view these categories as scientifically valid.
  49. 49. Biological Classification 2  Biologists (generally) use the term “subspecies” to classify populations within a species that have become so different from the species as a whole that they are on the verge of becoming new species.  The term “race” has traditionally been used by scientists as the equivalent of the subspecies concept when classifying humans.
  50. 50. Biological Classification 3  Modern genetics has shown that humans are far too closely related for any division into subspecies to be valid.  The term race, therefore, no longer has any significant scientific meaning.  In fact, there is greater biological diversity within traditional racial categories than between them.
  51. 51. Biological Classification 4  Today when the term “race” is used what is actually being referred to are largely cultural, not biological differences.  In other words, cultural and biological traits are being confused.
  52. 52. Ethnicity  Ethnicity - A group of people sharing a common origins, history, language, and in many cases religion, social and political structure, and perceived biological commonalities. (Ethnicity can be defined both from within and without a group.)  Ethnicity refers primarily to culture not biology.
  53. 53. Ethnocentrism  Ethnocentrism - … is the belief that one’s own patterns of behavior [and belief] are always natural, good, beautiful and important, and that strangers, to the extent that they live [and think] differently, live by savage, inhuman, disgusting, or irrational standards. – Marvin Harris (1995)
  54. 54. Ethnocentrism 2  Ethnocentrism - the belief that one’s own cultural group and the behavioral patterns in which it engages are simply the way humans should be and the further a group or individual deviates from these norms the more “wrong” (strange, weird, unnatural, immoral, unacceptable) they are.
  55. 55. Anthropology and Society  Before the advent of modern genetic studies, anthropologists actively engaged in the study of race and disseminated views that turned out to be inaccurate to the general public.  In large part because of these efforts false ideas still permeate the public discourse cause a great deal of confusion in regards to the differences between human biology and human culture.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×