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Lecture 2(evolution ethicty)






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    Lecture 2(evolution ethicty) Lecture 2(evolution ethicty) Presentation Transcript

    • Evolution, Race, and Ethnicity Lecture 2
    • A Very Brief Outline of Human Evolution Part 1
    • Background
      • Modern humans ( Homo sapiens ) are the result of at least 62 million years of primate evolution .
      • We a relatively new species, apparently emerging in Africa sometime within the last 200,000-100,000 years.
      • We are the only hominid (upright walking primate) species alive today.
    • Background 2
      • Our first primate ancestors were likely small, shrew-like tree-dwelling animals.
      • Eventually primates became larger and more sophisticated, to the point where monkeys and apes appear (35 and 25 million years ago, respectively).
      • Hominids (upright walking primates), our closest ancestors, likely appear sometime between 10-6 million years ago.
    • Plesiadapiforms - The First Primates?
    • Aegyptopithecus - An Early African Monkey
    • Living Non-Human Primates
      • In the past there were a great many more types of primates in existence.
      • Today there are only 250 species world wide, and most of these are endangered.
      • They are most threatened by habitat loss (in most cases due to human actions), hunting , and disease .
    • Living Non-Human Primates 2
      • Today’s primates are very diverse.
      • They range in size from tiny 2 ounce mouse lemurs to 450 lbs male gorillas.
      • They occur naturally in Africa , large sections of Asia , South America , Mexico , and one small area of Europe.
      • Many primates are vegetarians, others omnivores, and one is entirely carnivorous.
    • Living Non-Human Primates 3
      • Some are nocturnal, while most are diurnal.
      • Some are relatively unintelligent, while others are some of the smartest animals on the planet (next to us).
      • Most ape and some monkey species make and use tools.
    • Some Principle Primate Features
      • Grasping hands (and sometimes tails).
      • High degree of learned behavior.
      • Large brains (in relation to body size and when compared to other animals).
      • Stereoscopic eyes.
      • Most have flat nails in stead of claws.
      • Almost all live in social groups.
      • (Relatively) long life-spans.
    • Living Primate Groups
      • Lemurs (Madagascar)
      • Lorises (Africa and Asia)
      • Tarsiers (Southeast Asia)
      • Monkeys (Africa, Asia, Americas)
      • Apes (Africa and Asia)
      • Humans (All over the damn place)
    • Mouse Lemur
    • Male Mountain Gorilla
    • Ring-Tailed Lemurs
    • Red Ruffed Lemur
    • Slow Loris
    • Tarsier
    • Cotton Top Tamarin
    • Pygmy Marmosets
    • Mandrill
    • Red Colobus
    • Orangutan
    • Chimpanzees
    • Bonobos
    • Hominid Evolution
      • Genetic evidence suggest that hominids arise in Africa perhaps as early as 10 million years ago.
      • The earliest fully documented hominid fossils date to only 4.4 million years ago.
      • This species has been named Ardipithecus Ramidus .
      • Though a biped, this species is still very ape-like in many ways.
    • Ardipithecus Ramidus Remains and Reconstruction
    • Hominid Evolution 2
      • By 4.2 million years ago a series of species known as australopithecines begin to appear.
      • The most famous of these is an example of the species Australopithecus afarensis , which has been nicknamed “ Lucy .”
      • Though less primitive than earlier hominid species, Lucy an her kind are still quite apelike in many ways.
      • At this point in hominid evolution, brain size is still roughly that of a modern chimpanzee.
    • Lucy
    • Australopithecus afarensis?
    • Ape-Lucy-Modern Human
    • The Genus Homo
      • The genus “homo,” which eventually gives rise to modern humans first appears around 2.5 million years ago.
      • The first of these species, Homo habilis , is the first hominid who has be shown to have made stone tools .
      • By 1.8 million years ago Homo Erectus appears.
      • Homo erectus may be the first hominid to have left Africa .
    • The Genus Homo 2
      • H. erectus has body proportions similar to that of modern humans.
      • The most intelligent hominid so far.
      • May have hunted large game.
      • May have used fire.
      • May have had at least some language abilities.
    • Homo Erectus?
    • Archaic Homo Sapiens
      • By out 800,000 years ago a series of hominids appear in various parts of the world that have features associated with both H. erectus as well as later hominids.
      • The hominids may or may not be direct ancestors to modern humans.
      • They do, however, appear to have given rise to Neanderthals.
    • Neanderthals
      • Neanderthals first appear around 150,000 years ago and die out around 27,000 years ago
      • They are a cold-weather adapted species found mostly in Ice-Age Europe and parts of the Middle East .
      • Anatomically they are know for their robust muscular bodies and unusual facial anatomy.
      • Most likely the most intelligent hominid other than modern humans.
    • Neanderthal Range
    • Neanderthal and Modern Human
    • Neanderthal Skull
    • Neanderthal?
    • Neanderthal?
    • Ginger Neanderthals? Gingerthals)
    • Homo Sapiens
      • Homo sapiens first appear in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago.
      • Most likely evolved out of either Archaic Homo sapiens or Homo erectus .
      • The main difference between Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors is their extreme intelligence - Homo sapiens are by far the smartest hominid that ever lived.
    • Homo Sapiens 2
      • By around 12,000 years ago modern humans have migrated world-wide, living in just about every environment except Antarctica, extremely high mountain regions, and isolated oceanic islands.
      • It has been hypothesized modern humans out competed other hominid species to quickly emerge as the only surviving hominid species on the planet.
    • Homo Sapiens Dispersal
    • Race and Ethnicity Part 2
    • Biological Facts
      • Homo sapiens is a very young species.
      • Though we feature much diversity in appearance, these differences are minor compared to our biological similarities.
      • In fact, all human beings are quite closely related.
      • We are all likely only 2000 or so generations removed from a common African ancestor .
    • Biological Facts
      • Many of our physical differences (skin, color, hair color, etc.) are relatively recent adaptations to local environment conditions .
      • Fast-acting evolutionary forces such as genetic drift have also played a role in our creating such variation as well.
    • Biological Classification
      • In the past biologists and anthropologists classified humans into different groups based on physical characteristics.
      • Modern genetics has revealed that these categories make very little sense biologically.
      • Most biologists and anthropologist no longer view these categories as scientifically valid.
    • Biological Classification 2
      • Biologists (generally) use the term “subspecies” to classify populations within a species that have become so different from the species as a whole that they are on the verge of becoming new species.
      • The term “race” has traditionally been used by scientists as the equivalent of the subspecies concept when classifying humans.
    • Biological Classification 3
      • Modern genetics has shown that humans are far too closely related for any division into subspecies to be valid.
      • The term race, therefore, no longer has any significant scientific meaning.
      • In fact, there is greater biological diversity within traditional racial categories than between them .
    • Biological Classification 4
      • Today when the term “race” is used what is actually being referred to are largely cultural, not biological differences .
      • In other words, cultural and biological traits are being confused .
    • Ethnicity
      • Ethnicity - A group of people sharing a common origins, history, language, and in many cases religion, social and political structure, and perceived biological commonalities. (Ethnicity can be defined both from within and without a group.)
      • Ethnicity refers primarily to culture not biology.
    • Ethnocentrism
      • Ethnocentrism - … is the belief that one’s own patterns of behavior [and belief] are always natural, good, beautiful and important, and that strangers, to the extent that they live [and think] differently, live by savage, inhuman, disgusting, or irrational standards. – Marvin Harris (1995)
    • Ethnocentrism 2
      • Ethnocentrism - the belief that one’s own cultural group and the behavioral patterns in which it engages are simply the way humans should be and the further a group or individual deviates from these norms the more “wrong” (strange, weird, unnatural, immoral, unacceptable) they are.
    • Anthropology and Society
      • Before the advent of modern genetic studies, anthropologists actively engaged in the study of race and disseminated views that turned out to be inaccurate to the general public.
      • In large part because of these efforts false ideas still permeate the public discourse cause a great deal of confusion in regards to the differences between human biology and human culture.