Maps Basics for Law Librarians
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Maps Basics for Law Librarians

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  • John Moore in his “Maps of Glasgow” said “Maps are as important as any other archival source… and are as likely to need careful interpretation. They are not entirely neutral nor do they tell the whole story. Often, the picture they suggest can be confusing, contradictory or down right wrong, but they do provide a visual impression of areal patterns, growth and development.”

Maps Basics for Law Librarians Maps Basics for Law Librarians Presentation Transcript

  • Maps for Law Librarians Chris Fleet & Paula Williams
  • Maps for Law Librarians
    • Introduction
    • Ordnance Survey
    • Access, cataloguing and classification
    • Acquisition, copyright and licensing
  • Introduction to Maps
    • What is a map?
    • Types of maps
    • Brief guide to using maps as sources
    • Early mapping for legal issues…
  • Map (maep) n.
    • a diagrammatic representation of the earth’s surface or part of it, showing the geographical distributions, positions etc. of features such as roads, towns, relief, rainfall, etc.
    • a map like drawing of anything
  • Formats
    • Paper
      • Atlases
      • Sheets
        • Single
        • Multi part
        • Series
    • Microfilm
    • Digital
      • Raster
      • Vector
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  • Raster v vector
    • “ A raster image is a computerized picture. If you have a raster image file, you can overlay additional … data, such as street maps or customer locations, on top of the image. Raster images consist of rows of tiny dots. In contrast, objects in vector images contain coordinate based data structures represented by x and y coordinates.”
    • MapInfo Professional Users Guide version 6.0
  • 400 dpi 300 dpi 200 dpi Raster Mapping – pixellates as you zoon in beyond 100%
  • OS MasterMap - Vector Mapping - points, lines and polygons
  • Uses for law?
    • Defining boundaries
    • Depicting ownership
    • Rights of way
    • Site surveys
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  • Bleau’s “Atlas of Scotland” 1654
  • The Roy Map Military Survey of Scotland
  • Mapping Estates
    • David Crawford Plan of the Estates of Ravelston and Corstorphinhill 1826
  • Mapping Counties
  • Beware…
    • Dates
    • Accuracy
    • Purpose (e.g. plans)
    • Often not designed to be used in isolation
        • Require accompanying terriers or documents
        • (there may not be a key…)
    • Bias
        • the cartographers choices (what to include?)
        • political influence
        • your own bias
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  • A Plan of Roads in Dispute… in the …parishes of Fowlis & Ludie (1799)
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • History
    • County Series and National Grid
    • Scales, map contents and editions
    • Function, operation and outlets today
    • Standard Print Series
    • Legends and abbreviations
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • History
    • Roy Military Survey of Scotland, 1747-1755
    • 1791 - Purchase of Jesse Ramsden theodolite
    • Southern England (from 1790s), Ireland (from 1820s), and then Scotland (from 1840s)
    • Battle of the Scales - 1850s
    • Completion of survey of Scotland - 1880s
    • Books of Reference and OS Name Books.
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  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • History
    • Roy Military Survey of Scotland, 1747-1755
    • 1791 - Purchase of Jesse Ramsden theodolite
    • Southern England (from 1790s), Ireland (from 1820s), and then Scotland (from 1840s)
    • Battle of the Scales - 1850s
    • Completion of survey of Scotland - 1880s
    • Books of Reference and OS Name Books.
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  • OS Book of Reference …from 1855 to the mid-1880s for 1:2,500 maps. Parcel number, acreage and land-use. Can be consulted in NLS.
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  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • County Series
    • Original mapping up to the Second World War based on counties
    • Sheet referencing by County:
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire VIII (4 x 6 miles)
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire IX
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 Aberdeenshire X
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 Aberdeenshire VIII.1-16
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 Aberdeenshire VIII.4 (1 mile x 1.5 miles)
    • Revision by county - all or part of the county revised at particular points in time.
  • Origins of the OS county meridians for large scale mapping
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  • Survey and Revision Dates for County Series Mapping Online at: http://www.nls.uk/maps/os/county_series_list.html
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
      • National Grid
    • Davidson Committee from late 1930s recommended the recasting onto a new projection for the whole of Great Britain, the National Grid: a Transverse Mercator projection with a central North-South meridian, and a point of origin based west of the Scilly Isles. New metric grid based on 100 Km squares.
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NW (5 x 5 km area)
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NE
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4254 (1 x 1 km area)
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4255
    • Following initial survey, sheets placed under continuous revision
  • The National Grid
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
      • National Grid
    • Davidson Committee from late 1930s recommended the recasting onto a new projection for the whole of Great Britain, the National Grid: a Transverse Mercator projection with a central North-South meridian, and a point of origin based west of the Scilly Isles. New metric grid based on 100 Km squares.
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NW (5 x 5 km area)
      • OS 6” to the mile / 1:10,560 NJ 45 NE
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4254 (1 x 1 km area)
      • OS 25” to the mile / 1:2,500 NJ 4255
    • Following initial survey, sheets placed under continuous revision
  • Richard Oliver’s town lists Chapter 6 of Ordnance Survey Maps: a concise guide for historians (London: Charles Close, 2005)
  • Richard Oliver’s County Listings Chapter 7 of Ordnance Survey Maps: a concise guide for historians (London: Charles Close, 2005)
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • Scales, Contents and Editions
  • OS 1:1056, surveyed 1852
  • OS 1:1056, surveyed 1852
  • OS 1:1250, published 1953
  • OS 1:1250, published 1978
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  • OS 1:2,500, 1854-9
  • OS 1:2,500, 1854-9
  • OS 1:2,500, revised 1893
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  • OS 1:10,560, surveyed 1852
  • OS 1:10,560, surveyed 1852
  • OS 1:10,560, surveyed 1852
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  • OS 1:10,560, published 1958
  • OS 1:10,560, published 1983
  • Ordnance Survey
    • Explorer
    • 1:25,000
  • OS 1:63,360, 1850
  • One-inch to the mile County Series indexes
  • Ordnance Survey Maps One-inch "Popular" edition, 1925
  • Ordnance Survey
    • Landranger
    • 1:50,000
  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • Scales, Contents and Editions
    • Scale Area Number of sheets Per cent area
    • Basic-scale series
    • 1:1,250 500m 2 57,400 18
    • 1:2,500 1-2 km 2 163,400 52
    • 1:10,000 25 km 2 3,680 30
    • (All incorporated into OS MasterMap digital data)
    • Derived series
    • 1:10,000 25 km 2 6,480 100
    • 1:25,000 200 km 2 1,374 100
    • 1:50,000 1,600 km 2 204 100
    • 1:250,000 8 100
    • 1:625,000 GB 1 100
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  • RAF – 1951
  • RAF – 1948
  • Ordnance Survey – 1872
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  • Section 2 - Ordnance Survey
    • “ Ordnance Survey is Great Britain's national mapping agency, providing the most accurate and up-to-date geographic data, relied on by government, business and individuals.”
    • Some recent issues:
    • Income generation and cost recovery
    • Greater imbalances of surveying
    • Greater costs of large-scale mapping
    • Greater concern over copyright and IPR
    • Focus on core mapping - provision contracted out to Partners and Mapping and Data Centres. Greater liberty to vary prices locally around core parameters.
    • Disposal of historic mapping
  • Post-1963 1:2,500 and 1:1250 mapping Symbols … and Boundaries
  • Online at: http://www.nls.uk/maps/os/abbrev
  • Ordnance Survey
    • 1 st edition (ca.1850-70s) 6”, & Parish 25”
    • County Series (1870-1940) 6”and 25”
    • National Grid (post 1940s) 1:50,000,1:10,000,1:2500,1:1250
  • Cataloguing & Classification
    • References:
    • The rulebooks and standards for cataloguing systems applied by your institution ...
    • Mangan, Elizabeth (editor)
    • Cartographic Materials: a manual for interpretation for AACR2, 2002 revision
    • Larsgaard, Mary Lynette
    • Map librarianship: an introduction
    • Andrew, Paige G. & Larsgaard, Mary Lynette (editors)
    • Maps and related cartographic materials: cataloging, classification and bibliographic control .
    • Andrew, Paige G.
    • Cataloguing sheet maps: the basics
  • Is it Cartographic?
    • “ Cartographic materials include all materials that represent the whole or part of the Earth or any celestial body.” Cartographic Materials 2nd. Ed.
  • Cartographic Description
    • Scale
    • Datum and survey data
    • Coordinates
    • Subject headings
  • Physical description
    • Height by width – to the neatline
    • Colour?
    • Folded size / roll?
  • Scale
    • “ The relationship between a unit of distance on the map and a unit of distance on the earth’s surface ”
      • Written “1 inch to the mile”
      • Representative fraction 1:63,360
      • Scale bar
  • Grid references
    • “Along the corridor and up the stairs”
    • Grids within grids…
      • See the Ordnance Survey’s leaflet…!
  • Gazetteers
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  • Graphic Indexes
  • Section 4. Acquisition, copyright and licensing
    • User enquiry process
    • Obtaining mapping
      • Historical
      • Modern
    • Copyright
    • Licences
    • Digital Mapping
  • Section 4 Acquisition, copyright and licensing
    • User enquiry process
    • Where - locate the place of interest geographically?
    • When - time period of interest?
    • What scale and level of detail is required?
  • Section 4 Acquisition, copyright and licensing
    • Obtaining mapping
    • Historical mapping
    • OS website: 1” to the mile only
    • OS Commercial Partners - Landmark, Groundsure and Cassini
    • OS six-inch first edition - http://www.old-maps.co.uk
    • National and public libraries
      • NLS website:
      • OS 1” Scotland - 1840s - 1940s – http://www.nls.uk/maps
      • OS 6” Scotland - 1840s - 1880s - http:// www.nls.uk /maps
      • OS 25” Scotland - 1840s - 1880s (available by Summer 2009)
      • NLS - comprehensive collection of OS paper maps
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  • http://www.nls.uk/maps/os/index.html
  • Section 4 Acquisition, copyright and licensing
    • Modern OS mapping:
    • OS Mapping and Data Centres (paper and digital)
    • OS Framework Licence (digital)
    • Copyright Libraries - eg. NLS Map Library – for viewing 1998-2008 large scale digital data
    • Obtaining non-Ordnance Survey mapping
    • Some larger wholesalers:
      • Stanfords http://www.stanfords.co.uk/
      • Omni http://www.omnimap.com/index.htm
      • MapsWorldwide http://www.mapsworldwide.com/
    • UK Hydrographic Office (marine charts) http:// www.ukho.gov.uk /
    • British Geological Survey (geological information) http:// www.bgs.ac.uk /
    • Cities Revealed (aerial photography) http://www.citiesrevealed.com/
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  • Choose a location using one of the criteria provided.
  • The system will then search for that location.
  • The location will be displayed on screen.
  • If necessary, you can pan around the map to find the exact location.
  • Choose the type of mapping you want. 1:2500 scale or larger is available as Superplan or Siteplan; 1:5000 or 1:10000 scale is available as Landplan.
  • Siteplan Option
  • Siteplan is available in a variety of options.
  • In order to be able to find your property, you may need to pan around and either zoom in or change the scale number.
  • Once you have found your property, click on it with the cursor.
  • Zoom out to check the area covered by the Siteplan. You are now ready to progress with the order.
  • Superplan Option
  • Superplan is available in several variations. ‘Customised’ allows you to specify exact plot size and a range of additions.
  • You can specify centre co-ordinates and dimensions or use the cursor to draw a box to enclose the required area.
  • The mapping can be displayed at a different scale by zooming in or changing the scale.
  • If a customised product has been chosen, a feature box can be added.
  • Alternatively, a circle could be chosen.
  • A polygon can be used to define an irregular area. Different line and infill colours are available in every case.
  • Before printing, certain features can be added to maps, e.g. highlighted buildings.
  • A title can be added, or the printed scale can be set. You can even print the map reversed on film for architect’s use.
  • Landplan Option
  • Landplan is available in a variety of options
  • In order to be able to find your specific area, you may need to zoom in and pan around
  • If you have chosen ‘customised’, you can then draw the area you require with the cursor.
  • Alternatively, you can specify exact dimensions for the box and/or centre co-ordinates
  • Zoom out to check the area covered by the Landplan, in this case 3km by 3km.
  • A title can be added, or the printed scale can be set. You can even print the map in black and white.
  • All Options
  • Finally, the order is given a total price and can be given a name.
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  • Copyright
    • Ordnance Survey maps are subject to Crown Copyright, which lasts for 50 years from the end of the year in which the map was published.
    • Most other commercially published maps are in copyright for 70 years from the end of the year in which the map was published.
    • Under fair dealing, OS allow “limited reproduction” (up to 4 identical A4-sized copies) of in copyright maps for non-commercial research or private study or Parliamentary or Judicial Proceedings
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  • Licences
    • OS have a wide range of licences for using in-copyright mapping, depending upon who you are, and what you wish to do with their mapping:
      • Paper Map Copying Licence
      • Publishing Licence
      • Framework Partner Licence
      • Internet Licence
      • Superseded Mapping Licence
    • Libraries also have rights over the onward publication of their maps. NLS requests that permission be requested for all publications of our maps. Usually there is no charge for non-commercial reproduction.
    • NLS also has an annual permission licence (£100 per annum) allowing unlimited copying of NLS maps for unpublished reports for clients
  • Ordnance Survey Superseded Mapping Licence
  • Digital Mapping
    • Raster Images.
      • Any historical mapping
      • Scanned maps from desktop or large-format scanners
      • Smaller-scale digital data from OS
      • Typical formats: TIFF, PNG, BNP, GIF
      • Usable by any picture editing software - Imaging, Paint, Photoshop, Illustrator. Also usable by Geographical Information System (GIS) software
      • Can alter basic image parameters - crop, and add features as extra layers on top of base raster image
      • Relatively available and easy to use software.
    • Vector Images
      • Modern OS mapping
      • Typical formats: GML, DXF, NTF, ArcGIS Shapefile, MapInfo MID/MIF
      • Usable by any Geographical Information System (GIS) software
      • All topographic features coded into layers and presentation of features can be customised.
      • Much greater flexibility over presentation of image and integration with other data.
      • Greater complexity in availability and use of software.
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  • Contact us…
    • Map Library
    • National Library of Scotland
    • 33 Salisbury Place
    • Edinburgh
    • EH9 1SL
    • 0131 623 3970
    • [email_address]
    • www.nls.uk/maps