Knowledge in (Geo)Visualisation

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This presentation accompanies a conference paper. Here is the paper abstract that hopefully gives some context to the presentation:

Modern research in geovisualisation has framed the discipline as a field more akin to “geovisual analytics” – one that places an emphasis on the human elements of exploration of data through interactive and dynamic geo-interfaces, rather than simple data representation. This rephrasing highlights the importance of cognitive aspects of human interaction with geo-based data and the interfaces designed to present them. In an attempt to provide a psychological background to the benefits of geovisual analytics, this paper will explore the role that perception has in complex problem solving and knowledge discovery, and will demonstrate that, through modern interactive technologies, (geo)visualisations augment and facilitate our natural ability to surface novel, surprising and otherwise invisible relationships between information. It will argue that it is through these novel relation-ships that we add to our understanding of the original information and simultaneously reveal new knowledge ‘between the gaps’.

This talk was given on September 3rd, 2010 in Auckland, New Zealand

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Knowledge in (Geo)Visualisation

  1. 1. Knowledge in (geo)visualisation The relationship between seeing and thinking Chris Marmo PhD Candidate School of Mathematical & Geospatial Sciences
  2. 2. Today... 1. Project overview 2. Geo-Visualisations as sense-making tools 3. The Web and Social Objects
  3. 3. Geo-knowledge project
  4. 4. Geo-knowledge project Partnership with Parks Victoria Design Research Institute's "Affective Atlas" group
  5. 5. Geo-knowledge project How can Parks Victoria better utilise the knowledge it and it's staff have?
  6. 6. Geo-knowledge project Tacit Knowledge: Currently, valuable park specific knowledge, obtained by rangers through years of experience, is inaccessible to other rangers and vanishes completely when rangers move on.
  7. 7. Geo-knowledge project Tacit Knowledge: Currently, valuable park specific knowledge, obtained by rangers through years of experience, is inaccessible to other rangers and vanishes completely when rangers move on. How can we retain and disseminate this knowledge?
  8. 8. Geo-knowledge project
  9. 9. Geo-knowledge project Knowledge
  10. 10. Geo-knowledge project Knowledge People
  11. 11. Geo-knowledge project Knowledge People
  12. 12. Knowledge in (geo)visualisation
  13. 13. First: What is knowledge?
  14. 14. Subjectivity 'Knowledge' implies a 'knower', and does not exist outside social contexts and human interaction Knorr Cetina (2000), Seely Brown & Duguid (2000) and Ackoff (1989)
  15. 15. Ackoff (1989) Data > Information > Knowledge > Wisdom
  16. 16. Data Information
  17. 17. Geovisualisations = geovisual analytics
  18. 18. Geovisual analysis, through the employment of highly interactive interfaces, focuses on the human elements of interface interaction and data exploration Fabrikant & Lobben, 2009
  19. 19. We are visual creatures
  20. 20. The relationship between seeing + thinking Diagrams are easier to understand than sentential (list) representations Perceptual Inferences are made much faster than tabular data Larkin & Simon (1987) & Lohse (1993)
  21. 21. The relationship between seeing + thinking Diagrams are easier to understand than sentential (list) representations Perceptual Inferences are made much faster than tabular data Larkin & Simon (1987) & Lohse (1993) We learn about the world through internal spatial representations - mental models Pictures and diagrams help us form better quality mental models Johnson-Laird (1980) & Ware et al. (2008)
  22. 22. The relationship between seeing + thinking Diagrams are easier to understand than sentential (list) representations Perceptual Inferences are made much faster than tabular data Larkin & Simon (1987) & Lohse (1993) We learn about the world through internal spatial representations - mental models Pictures and diagrams help us form better quality mental models Johnson-Laird (1980) & Ware et al. (2008) Visuo-spatial reasoning plays a large part in memory and recall Interactive diagrams can help in the long-term recall of information Baddeley & Hitch (1974) & Lowe & Bouchiex (2008)
  23. 23. What does this all mean? We learn spatially, and our perceptual abilities can be exploited.
  24. 24. The Web & Social Objects
  25. 25. The Web and Social Objects Social objects are the core of social interaction Knorr-Cetina (2000)
  26. 26. The Web and Social Objects Visualisations, through interaction and interface design, become social objects.
  27. 27. The Web and Social Objects ...and enable a shared understanding to be reached.
  28. 28. The Social Life of Visualisation An interface framework designed to encourage the use of data visualisation as a storytelling medium MacDonald et al. (2009)
  29. 29. The Social Life of Visualisation Create Mapping Decoration redrawn from MacDonald et al. (2009)
  30. 30. The Social Life of Visualisation Create Interpret Tweaking Mapping Decoration Annotation redrawn from MacDonald et al. (2009)
  31. 31. The Social Life of Visualisation Create Interpret Capture Tweaking Mapping Decoration Snapshot Annotation redrawn from MacDonald et al. (2009)
  32. 32. Examples Gapminder.org ManyEyes OECD Explorer
  33. 33. Greater sense-making Sharing + Rich Data Interactivity communication
  34. 34. Summing up We are visual thinkers (Geo)visualisations can help us make sense of things ...individually, and as social objects, in groups.
  35. 35. Project Plan: Next Steps Qualitative study looking at knowledge + place Diary Study - mobile app to record notes at locations Visualisation tool - initially for us, but hopefully a start on a geo- knowledge tool
  36. 36. Project Plan: Next Steps Qualitative study looking at knowledge + place Diary Study - mobile app to record notes at locations Visualisation tool - initially for us, but hopefully a start on a geo- knowledge tool Ethics approval in there somewhere...
  37. 37. Thank you Acknowledgements... Bill Cartwright, Jeremy Yuille, Monique Elsley ARC Linkage grant chris.marmo@students.rmit.edu.au
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