Why Fight the Civil War?
1. States Rights




a.) The idea that the
states’ rights were
more important than
the Federal
Government
b.) Relies on ...
c.) Early Examples:


1. Virginia and Kentucky

Resolutions
 Written by Madison and
Jefferson
 Said states could nullif...
2. Hartford Convention






Occurred during War
of 1812
New England states
met in secret to
dispute the war
Considered...
3. The Nullification Crisis






Southern States disputed
Tariff of Abominations
Efforts led by VP John C.
Calhoun
Pre...
Slavery



a.) Slavery allowed into the United States
from the time of the Constitution.


b.) Slavery is necessary for Southern economic
prosperity and must be kept.


Slavery is immoral and should be abolished.
• c.) Early slavery dates
1619:
 1st enslaved
Africans arrive in
Jamestown, VA





1783: MA Supreme Court declares slavery
illegal
1784-1804: NH, CT, RI, NY, NJ abolish
slavery


1808: Slave importation abolished


By 1860, 3 Western countries allow slavery:
Brazil, Cuba, and the U.S.A.
3. Missouri Compromise (1820)





Maine = Free State
Missouri = Slave State
36°30’ boundary – no slavery above this li...
4. Compromise of 1850






California = Free
State
Utah and New
Mexico Territory =>
up to people who
live there.
Fugit...
5. Kansas - Nebraska Act (1854)
Establishes Popular Sovereignty in Kansas & Nebraska Territory.
6. Dred Scott Ruling (1857)





Owner takes Scott to a free
state (Wisconsin)
Scott sues
Supreme Court states that
sla...
7. Abolitionists


a.) Quakers
Opposed Slavery for
religious reasons.
b.) William Lloyd Garrison





White Abolitionist
Published The
Liberator
Called for immediate
freedom.
c.) Sojourner Truth







Real name: Isabella
Baumfree
Freed slave
Spoke publicly
against slavery
Also fought for
wom...
d.) Harriet Tubman










Escaped slave
Worked on Underground
Railroad
Saved over 300 slaves
from slavery
Never l...
e.) Frederick Douglass





Escaped slave
Powerful writer and
speaker.
Important narrative.
f.) Harriet Beecher Stowe





Daughter of a minister
Wrote Uncle Tom’s
Cabin
Lincoln: “Here’s the
little woman that
wr...
g.) John Brown


Violent Abolitionist
1850s Presidents
13: Millard Fillmore






Becomes President
when Zachary Taylor
dies
Whig
Moderate on slavery
Person...
14: Franklin Pierce







Democrat
Pro-slavery
Favored the South
Favored the
Gadsden Purchase –
allowed for a
Southe...
15: James Buchanan








Our only Bachelor
President. Only prospect for
marriage died – perhaps a
suicide
Andrew Jac...
9. Uncle Tom ’s Cabin Published







1852
Written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe
Told of evils of
slavery.
Sold 300,000 co...
10. “Bloody Kansas ”











North and South send people
to live there to “win
sovereignty.”
Each side formed it...
11. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln, member of newly
formed Republican Party.
 Stephen A. Douglas, Democrat,
resp...
12. Lincoln’s “House Divided” Speech







Lincoln gives speech to
accept Republican Party’s
nomination for President...
13. John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry








Brown, with 18 followers,
seized federal arsenal in
Harpers Ferry, Virgin...
14. Lincoln elected
President




Lincoln wins Presidency without a majority of popular votes.
Southerners see him as a ...
15. Southern States Secede from
Union.



Starting with South
Carolina, states
secede from the
Union.
Form the
Confederac...




Jefferson Davis
elected President.
Lincoln hopes for
peace, but forced to
arm Federal forts in
the South
16. Fort Sumter Attacked (April 12,
1861)






Fort Sumter Attacked
(April 12, 1861)
Confederate cannon
fire on Fort S...
The Civil War Has Begun!

click for video
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
The Causes of the Civil War
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The Causes of the Civil War

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This is a combination of notes and video clips to introduce our Civil War Unit for 8th grade History.

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The Causes of the Civil War

  1. 1. Why Fight the Civil War?
  2. 2. 1. States Rights   a.) The idea that the states’ rights were more important than the Federal Government b.) Relies on the 10th Amendment for legal justification
  3. 3. c.) Early Examples:  1. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions  Written by Madison and Jefferson  Said states could nullify (refuse to obey) unconstitutional laws  Reaction to Alien and Sedition Acts passed by John Adams.
  4. 4. 2. Hartford Convention    Occurred during War of 1812 New England states met in secret to dispute the war Considered secession (leaving the country) but the war ended
  5. 5. 3. The Nullification Crisis    Southern States disputed Tariff of Abominations Efforts led by VP John C. Calhoun President Andrew Jackson furious – threatened to send in troops to force the South Carolina to obey.
  6. 6. Slavery  a.) Slavery allowed into the United States from the time of the Constitution.
  7. 7.  b.) Slavery is necessary for Southern economic prosperity and must be kept.
  8. 8.  Slavery is immoral and should be abolished.
  9. 9. • c.) Early slavery dates 1619:  1st enslaved Africans arrive in Jamestown, VA 
  10. 10.   1783: MA Supreme Court declares slavery illegal 1784-1804: NH, CT, RI, NY, NJ abolish slavery
  11. 11.  1808: Slave importation abolished
  12. 12.  By 1860, 3 Western countries allow slavery: Brazil, Cuba, and the U.S.A.
  13. 13. 3. Missouri Compromise (1820)    Maine = Free State Missouri = Slave State 36°30’ boundary – no slavery above this line
  14. 14. 4. Compromise of 1850    California = Free State Utah and New Mexico Territory => up to people who live there. Fugitive Slave Law: Free States must help catch and return escaped slaves.
  15. 15. 5. Kansas - Nebraska Act (1854) Establishes Popular Sovereignty in Kansas & Nebraska Territory.
  16. 16. 6. Dred Scott Ruling (1857)    Owner takes Scott to a free state (Wisconsin) Scott sues Supreme Court states that slaves were personal property and that Blacks are “so inferior that they had no rights which a white man was bound to respect”
  17. 17. 7. Abolitionists  a.) Quakers Opposed Slavery for religious reasons.
  18. 18. b.) William Lloyd Garrison    White Abolitionist Published The Liberator Called for immediate freedom.
  19. 19. c.) Sojourner Truth     Real name: Isabella Baumfree Freed slave Spoke publicly against slavery Also fought for women’s rights
  20. 20. d.) Harriet Tubman       Escaped slave Worked on Underground Railroad Saved over 300 slaves from slavery Never lost a passenger During Civil War acted as a spy After war, started retirement home for former slaves
  21. 21. e.) Frederick Douglass    Escaped slave Powerful writer and speaker. Important narrative.
  22. 22. f.) Harriet Beecher Stowe    Daughter of a minister Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin Lincoln: “Here’s the little woman that wrote the book that started this great war.” Click for video
  23. 23. g.) John Brown  Violent Abolitionist
  24. 24. 1850s Presidents 13: Millard Fillmore     Becomes President when Zachary Taylor dies Whig Moderate on slavery Personally opposed to slavery, but didn’t want war
  25. 25. 14: Franklin Pierce      Democrat Pro-slavery Favored the South Favored the Gadsden Purchase – allowed for a Southern Transcontinental Railroad Supported the fugitive slave act
  26. 26. 15: James Buchanan     Our only Bachelor President. Only prospect for marriage died – perhaps a suicide Andrew Jackson made him ambassador to Russia “because we don’t have one to the North Pole” As the country fell apart in 1860, he did NOTHING Often named as one of the worst Presidents in U.S. history Buchanan to Lincoln: “If you are as happy on entering the White House as I am on leaving, you are a happy man indeed.”
  27. 27. 9. Uncle Tom ’s Cabin Published     1852 Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Told of evils of slavery. Sold 300,000 copies in 1 year
  28. 28. 10. “Bloody Kansas ”        North and South send people to live there to “win sovereignty.” Each side formed its own government => arguments May, 1856: Proslavery groups go to Lawrence, burn stores/houses. Several people die in the fires. John Brown leads group to proslavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. Hacks to death 5 men. Brown escapes and hides (for a while . . .)
  29. 29. 11. Lincoln-Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln, member of newly formed Republican Party.  Stephen A. Douglas, Democrat, responsible for Kansas-Nebraska Act  Lincoln opposed slavery and wished to limit its spread.  Douglas wanted “popular sovereignty” - Said a territory could excluded slavery.  Douglas won the election but lost popularity with many Southerners.  Lincoln became very well-known and popular nationwide.
  30. 30. 12. Lincoln’s “House Divided” Speech     Lincoln gives speech to accept Republican Party’s nomination for President. Says country must either: Become either all slave or all free, or Cease to be a Union of States.
  31. 31. 13. John Brown attacks Harpers Ferry     Brown, with 18 followers, seized federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Robert E. Lee and troops capture Brown and his followers. Brown tried, convicted, and hanged. Maniac or Martyr?
  32. 32. 14. Lincoln elected President   Lincoln wins Presidency without a majority of popular votes. Southerners see him as a threat to their lifestyle.
  33. 33. 15. Southern States Secede from Union.  Starting with South Carolina, states secede from the Union. Form the Confederacy - a new government of Southern States.
  34. 34.   Jefferson Davis elected President. Lincoln hopes for peace, but forced to arm Federal forts in the South
  35. 35. 16. Fort Sumter Attacked (April 12, 1861)    Fort Sumter Attacked (April 12, 1861) Confederate cannon fire on Fort Sumter, South Carolina. Union forces surrender after 30 hours (and no deaths!)
  36. 36. The Civil War Has Begun! click for video
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