Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR        Video Streaming            Guanfeng Liang and Ben L...
OverviewIntroductionRelated WorkNetwork ModelFrequency of Playout JittersNumerical ResultsConclusions                     ...
IntroductionFast development of mobile device and wirelesstechnologies.Mobile users are no longer satisfied with traditiona...
Introduction (con’t)One approach: Trade delay and receiver buffer forcontinuous display.               Playback Curve     ...
Related Work[1] T. Stockhammer, H. Jenkac, and G. Kuhn.“Streaming Video over Variable Bit-Rate WirelessChannels,” IEEE Tra...
An example of streaming and jitters          p(L)                  Playback curve p(t)                  Playout curve     ...
Network ModelOne video streaming serverOne video streaming clientPre-encoded variable bit-rate (VBR) videocharacterized by...
Network Model (con’t)Example: Gilbert-Elliot Model                                1−α  αS = {G, B}, R = {1, 0},A =        ...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)                          (1)First jitter distribution Pk (i)    Probability that i is the firs...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Next jitter distribution Ql,k (j, i)    Given the last jitter occurred in state (j, Sl ), the ...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Jitter Buffering Delay (FBD)   After a jitter, buffer for a fixed amount of time Djit , a...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Buffered Playout Data (FPD)   After a jitter, buffer for a fixed number of packets Bjit ,...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Buffered Playout Time (FPT)   After a jitter, buffer the number of packets that   corres...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)        (1)                             (n)Given Pk (i) and Ql,k (j, i), Pk (i) can be obtaine...
Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Finite Buffer    Receiver buffer size is B .    At most received p(t) + B − 1 packets at any v...
Numerical ResultsSetup:   Three-state extended Gilbert model with                                                       ...
Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Djit for FBD scheme for video “AlpinSki”:   Infinite buffer with differen...
Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Bjit /Tjit for FPD/FPT schemes forvideo “Alpin Ski”:         Infinite buf...
Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Djit for FBD scheme for video “AlpinSki”:   Finite buffer with △ = 17.6s...
Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Bjit /Tjit for FPD/FPT schemes forvideo “Alpin Ski”:         Finite buff...
Numerical Results (con’t)Comparison of jitter recover buffering schemes:   Frequency of jitter vs. average jitter recover ...
Numerical Results (con’t)Comparison of jitter recover buffering schemes:   Variance of jitter recover buffering delay     ...
Numerical Results (con’t)Optimal Delay-Buffer Tradeoff:                                                  6                ...
ConclusionsQuantify the distribution of display jitters, the frequencyof jitters and average jitter recover buffering dela...
Thank you!      Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 25/2
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INFOCOM2007_Video

  1. 1. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming Guanfeng Liang and Ben Liang Dept. Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 1/2
  2. 2. OverviewIntroductionRelated WorkNetwork ModelFrequency of Playout JittersNumerical ResultsConclusions Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 2/2
  3. 3. IntroductionFast development of mobile device and wirelesstechnologies.Mobile users are no longer satisfied with traditionalservices.Streaming multimedia is likely to become majorapplications in future mobile systems.Question: How can we provide QoS in multimediastreaming over time varying channels? Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 3/2
  4. 4. Introduction (con’t)One approach: Trade delay and receiver buffer forcontinuous display. Playback Curve Receiver Curve Playout Curve bits bits bits t t t Streaming Server Backbone VBR Network Receiver Channel Base Station Buffer Mobile ClientGoal: Quantify the tradeoff between displayinterruptions (playout jitters) and various systemparameters. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 4/2
  5. 5. Related Work[1] T. Stockhammer, H. Jenkac, and G. Kuhn.“Streaming Video over Variable Bit-Rate WirelessChannels,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, 2004;[2] B. Wang, J. Kurose, P. Shenoy, and D. Towsley,“Multimedia Streaming via TCP: An AnalyticPerformance Study,” ACM Multimedia, 2004;[3] L. Xu and J. Helzer, “Media Streaming via TFRC: AnAnalytical Study of the Impact of TFRC onUser-Perceived Media Quality,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM2006;[4] F.H.P. Fitzek and M. Reisslein, “Mpeg-4 and H.263Video Traces for Network Performance Evaluation,”IEEE Network, 2001. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 5/2
  6. 6. An example of streaming and jitters p(L) Playback curve p(t) Playout curve J2 Receiver curve G(t) Second jitter data First jitter J1 Jitter buffering delays 0 −∆ 0 L time Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 6/2
  7. 7. Network ModelOne video streaming serverOne video streaming clientPre-encoded variable bit-rate (VBR) videocharacterized by a playback curve p(t)VBR channel modeled by a discrete-time Markov chain(S, R, A) S = {S1 , ..., SK } - set of channel states R = {r1 , ..., rK } - set of transmission rates associated the states A - transition probability matrix Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 7/2
  8. 8. Network Model (con’t)Example: Gilbert-Elliot Model 1−α αS = {G, B}, R = {1, 0},A = β 1−βConstruct a Markov chain with states (g, s) g ∈ Z+ - the number of received packets s ∈ S - channel state Φ - transition matrix, can easily be obtained from (S, R, A) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 8/2
  9. 9. Frequency of Jitters (con’t) (1)First jitter distribution Pk (i) Probability that i is the first packet whose deadline is violated, and the channel state is Sk . States with g < p(t) should not be considered for the computation of the state distribution at t + 1. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 9/2
  10. 10. Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Next jitter distribution Ql,k (j, i) Given the last jitter occurred in state (j, Sl ), the probability of having the next jitter in state (i, Sk ). Depends on the jitter recover buffering scheme being used. Three jitter recover buffering schemes are considered: Fixed Jitter Buffering Delay (FBD) Fixed Buffered Playout Data (FPD) Fixed Buffered Playout Time (FPT) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 10/2
  11. 11. Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Jitter Buffering Delay (FBD) After a jitter, buffer for a fixed amount of time Djit , and then resume display. (1) Similar to Pk (i), Ql,k (j, i) can be computed by considering: Djit as the “initial” delay; (j − 1, Sl ) as the “initial” state. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 11/2
  12. 12. Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Buffered Playout Data (FPD) After a jitter, buffer for a fixed number of packets Bjit , and then resume display. The jitter recover buffering stage can be model as a Markov chain similar to Φ. States with g ≥ j + Bjit − 1 are absorbing states. The distribution with these states of exiting the jitter recover buffering stage can be obtained from the absorption probabilities. Similar to FBD, Ql,k (j, i) can be computed by considering the absorption probabilities as the “initial” state distribution. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 12/2
  13. 13. Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Fixed Buffered Playout Time (FPT) After a jitter, buffer the number of packets that corresponds to a fixed playout duration Tjit . The jitter recover buffering stage can be model as a Markov chain with absorbing states, similar to FPD. States with g ≥ p(p−1 (j) + Tjit ) are absorbing states. The procedure of computing Ql,k (j, i) is similar to that in the case of FPD. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 13/2
  14. 14. Frequency of Jitters (con’t) (1) (n)Given Pk (i) and Ql,k (j, i), Pk (i) can be obtainedrecursively by i K (n+1) (n) Pk (i) = Ql,k (j, i)Pl (j). j=1 l=1The probability of having at least n jitters is p(L) K (n) Pr{N ≥ n} = Pk (i). i=t k=1 Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 14/2
  15. 15. Frequency of Jitters (con’t)Finite Buffer Receiver buffer size is B . At most received p(t) + B − 1 packets at any video position t. Assume the client continuously updates its buffer fullness. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 15/2
  16. 16. Numerical ResultsSetup: Three-state extended Gilbert model with   0.9 0.1 0 R = {1, 0, 0}, A =  0.5 0 0.5  ;   0.2 0 0.8 Time interval between two consecutive transmissions: 80ms; MPEG-4 VBR video traces provided by [4]; Video length: 40s. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 16/2
  17. 17. Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Djit for FBD scheme for video “AlpinSki”: Infinite buffer with different initial delays 0.625 ana, ∆=1.6s ana, ∆=9.6s ana, ∆=17.6s 0.5 sim, ∆=1.6s frenquency of jitter (sec−1) sim, ∆=9.6s sim, ∆=17.6s 0.375 0.25 0.125 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 jitter buffering delay Djit (sec) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 17/2
  18. 18. Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Bjit /Tjit for FPD/FPT schemes forvideo “Alpin Ski”: Infinite buffer with different initial delays 0.625 0.625 ana, ∆=1.6s ana, ∆=1.6s ana, ∆=9.6s ana, ∆=9.6s ana, ∆=17.6s ana, ∆=17.6s 0.5 0.5 sim, ∆=1.6s sim, ∆=1.6s frenquency of jitter (sec ) frenquency of jitter (sec ) sim, ∆=9.6s sim, ∆=9.6s −1 −1 sim, ∆=17.6s sim, ∆=17.6s 0.375 0.375 0.25 0.25 0.125 0.125 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 jitter buffered playout data Bjit (bits) x 10 5 jitter buffered playout time Tjit (sec) (a) FPD (b) FPT Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 18/2
  19. 19. Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Djit for FBD scheme for video “AlpinSki”: Finite buffer with △ = 17.6s 0.625 ana, B=1.44×106 bits ana, B=20.16×106 bits 0.5 ana, B=25.92×106 bits ana, B=∞ frenquency of jitter (sec−1) 6 sim, B=1.44×10 bits 6 0.375 sim, B=20.16×10 bits 6 sim, B=25.92×10 bits sim, B=∞ 0.25 0.125 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 jitter buffering delay Djit (sec) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 19/2
  20. 20. Numerical Results (con’t)Frequency of jitters vs. Bjit /Tjit for FPD/FPT schemes forvideo “Alpin Ski”: Finite buffer with △ = 17.6s 0.625 0.625 6 6 ana, B=1.44×10 bits ana, B=1.44×10 bits 6 6 ana, B=20.16×10 bits ana, B=20.16×10 bits 6 6 0.5 ana, B=25.92×10 bits 0.5 ana, B=25.92×10 bits ana, B=∞ ana, B=∞ frenquency of jitter (sec ) frenquency of jitter (sec ) −1 −1 6 6 sim, B=1.44×10 bits sim, B=1.44×10 bits 6 0.375 sim, B=20.16×10 bits 0.375 sim, B=20.16×106 bits 6 6 sim, B=25.92×10 bits sim, B=25.92×10 bits sim, B=∞ sim, B=∞ 0.25 0.25 0.125 0.125 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 jitter buffered playout data Bjit (bit) 5 x 10 jitter buffered playout time Tjit (sec) (c) FPD (d) FPT Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 20/2
  21. 21. Numerical Results (con’t)Comparison of jitter recover buffering schemes: Frequency of jitter vs. average jitter recover buffering delay 0.625 FBD, B=1.44×106 bits FPD, B=1.44×106 bits 0.5 FPT, B=1.44×106 bits FBD, B=20.16×106 bits frenquency of jitter (sec−1) FPD, B=20.16×106 bits 0.375 FPT, B=20.16×106 bits FBD, B=25.92×106 bits FPD, B=25.92×106 bits 0.25 FPT, B=25.92×106 bits 0.125 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 expected jitter delay (sec) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 21/2
  22. 22. Numerical Results (con’t)Comparison of jitter recover buffering schemes: Variance of jitter recover buffering delay 1.5 FBD FPD FPT variance of jitter delay 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 average jitter delay (sec) Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 22/2
  23. 23. Numerical Results (con’t)Optimal Delay-Buffer Tradeoff: 6 x 10 0.2 0.3 2.5 0.4 0.5 receiver buffer size B (bit) 2 0.3 1.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 slope = α/(α−1) → 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 initial delay ∆ (sec)minimize the cost function C = α△ + (1 − α)B, α ∈ [0, 1]. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 23/2
  24. 24. ConclusionsQuantify the distribution of display jitters, the frequencyof jitters and average jitter recover buffering delay;For VBR video streaming service over random VBRchannels, a certain level of QoS can be guaranteed byselecting appropriate jitter recovery schemes;Provide a convenient framework to optimize thetradeoffs between various systems parameters. Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 24/2
  25. 25. Thank you! Balancing Interruption Frequency and Buffering Penalties in VBR Video Streaming – p. 25/2
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