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M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua)   The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)
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M Sc Dissertation 08 (Christopher Chua) The Potential Of The Uk Water Quality Regulatory Model For Asean Cities (L Res)

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  • 1.     The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities - Further development of a unique Singapore model and a study of technical example of metaldehyde-containing pesticides in UK as an illustration of regulatory issues in the UK By Christopher CHUA Wee Hong A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in Water Regulations & Management   Centre for environmental Health Engineering (CEHE) Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences University of Surrey   September 2008 © Christopher CHUA 2008  
  • 2. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Declaration of Originality “I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled ‘The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities’ for the partial fulfilment of the degree of MSc in Water Regulations & Management, has been composed by myself and has not been presented or accepted in any previous application for a degree. The work, of which this is a record, has been carried out by myself unless otherwise stated and where the work is mine, it reflects personal views and values. All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information have been acknowledged by means of references including those of the Internet.” ……………………………………. Christopher Chua Wee Hong Date: ……………………………... Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -ii- Dissertation 2008
  • 3. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Abstract This dissertation considers the possibility of adapting the UK water quality regulatory models for use in assisting ASEAN countries to develop high levels of drinking water quality in their cities and surrounding rural communities. The UK model could also potentially be modified by Singapore in an innovative manner to further develop a unique water quality regulatory model. Technology is available for ASEAN cities to provide safe drinking water, but there is a concurrent need to develop the existing inadequate regulatory framework to ensure a sustainable water supply. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -iii- Dissertation 2008
  • 4. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Acknowledgement This dissertation is in fulfilment of the 1st MSc in Water Regulations & Management and would not have been possible had it not been for: God almighty for His blessings and guidance. Classmates, staff, lecturers and visiting professors of the Centre of Environmental Health Engineering (CEHE) at the University of Surrey (UniS), especially Prof Barry Lloyd and my supervisor, Mr Brian Clarke, who has provided lots of support and made water policies & issues discussions so interesting and so enlightening. Special thanks to Ms Collette Laurens, who provided the best administrative support and advice throughout the course. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) for their support and for the many inspectors who has provided support and lectured during the modules & industrial attachment and for sharing their experiences, in particularly Prof. Jenni Colbourne, Dr Jim Foster, Ms Sharon Evans, Dr Steve Lambert and Mr Andy Taylor. Special thanks to Dr Annabelle May and Ms Allen Jane for their help and advice. Ms Jill Dryer from Severn Trent Water Limited for providing valued advice and comments. Dr Lee Tung Jean & Mr Ridzuan Ismail from the Water Services Division of the Ministry of Environment & Water Resources (MEWR), Singapore, for providing advice and experience sharing on the regulatory situation in Singapore. Colleagues from PUB, especially Mr Harry Seah, Mr Chong Hou Chun, Mr Haja Nazarudeen, Mr Woo Chee Hoe, for their help and patience in answering my queries. Special thanks to my Director, Mr Ng Han Tong, for his help and his support. Georgia, my supportive wife and my 2 girls, Natalie and Rebecca, for being patient with me in not being able to bring them on more European sightseeing tours and not spending more time playing during this period. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -iv- Dissertation 2008
  • 5. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Acronyms and Abbreviations ADB Asian Development Bank ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nation AWGWRM ASEAN Working Group on Water Resources Management AWGESC ASEAN Working Group on Environmentally Sustainable Cities BOD Biochemical Oxygen Demand CIA Central Intelligence Agency, US CCTV Close Circuit Television COD Chemical Oxygen Demand DALY Disability-adjusted life year DBOO Design, Build Own & Operate DBPs Disinfection by-products DEFRA Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK DoH Department of Health DWD Drinking Water Directive DWU Drinking Water Unit, NEA, Singapore DWI Drinking Water Inspectorate of England & Wales DT50 Half-life of 50% of chemical after application to degrade EA Environment Agency, UK EEC European Economic Community EPHA Environmental Public Health Act 1987, Singapore EOI Expression of Intent EU European Union FAO Food & Agricultural Organisation, United Nations FSA Food Safety Authority GAC Granulated Activated Carbon GCMS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HPA Health Protection Agency, UK IuWRM Integrated urban Water Resources Management Koc Adsorption coefficient Kow Octonol-water partition coefficient LOAEL Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level MDG Millennium Development Goals MGD Million Gallons per day Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -v- Dissertation 2008
  • 6. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities MEWR Ministry of Environment & Water Resources, Singapore NOAEL No Observed Adverse Effect Level NEA National Environment Agency, Singapore NEWater Singapore’s third national tap Ofwat Water Services Regulation Authority OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PCV Parameter Concentration Value PSD Pesticide Safety Directorate PUB PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency QMRA Qualitative Microbial Risk Assessment RESCP Regional Environmental Sustainable Cities Programme RO Reverse Osmosis membrane filtration SIWW Singapore International Water Week TAC Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia TDI Total daily Intake TEU Treaty of European Union 1992 TOC Total Organic Carbon TQM Total Quality Management UK United Kingdom UKAS United Kingdom Accredited Service UKWIR United Kingdom Water Industry Research UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme WHO World Health Organisation WHOPES WHO Pesticide Evaluation Programme WHOROE WHO Regional Office for Europe WSD Water Studies Division, MEWR, Singapore WSP Water Safety Plans YLD Years of healthy life lost in states of less than full health YLL Years of life lost by premature mortality Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -vi- Dissertation 2008
  • 7. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Contents Page Abstract..................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgement................................................................................................. iv Acronyms and Abbreviations ................................................................................ v Contents ................................................................................................................ vii 1. Introduction ................................................................................................- 1 - 2. Aims & Objectives ...................................................................................... - 2 - 3. Water Quality & Treatment ....................................................................... - 4 - 3.1. Water quality ........................................................................................ - 7 - 3.1.1. Microbiological water quality ................................................................ - 8 - 3.1.2. Chemical water quality ......................................................................... - 11 - 3.1.3. Acceptability water quality ...................................................................- 13 - 3.1.4. Radiological water quality ....................................................................- 14 - 3.2. Water treatment .................................................................................. - 15 - 4. Water Regulations ................................................................................... - 19 - 4.1. World Health Organisation................................................................- 19 - 4.1.1. Guidelines for safe drinking water ...................................................... - 20 - 4.1.2. Health- based targets ............................................................................- 21 - 4.1.3. Water Safety Plans ............................................................................... - 22 - 4.1.4. Surveillance .......................................................................................... - 27 - 4.1.5. Other Recommendations ..................................................................... - 29 - 4.2. European Union..................................................................................- 31 - 4.2.1. Drinking Water Directives ................................................................... - 33 - 4.3. United Kingdom................................................................................. - 35 - 4.3.1. England & Wales .................................................................................. - 35 - 4.3.2. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 ...................... - 38 - 4.3.3. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) ........................................... - 39 - 5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK ........................................ - 50 - 5.1. Metaldehyde ....................................................................................... - 50 - 5.2. Role of Regulation ............................................................................. - 53 - 5.3. Case Study .......................................................................................... - 54 - Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -vii- Dissertation 2008
  • 8. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Page 6. Water Situation in Southeast Asia .......................................................... - 57 - 6.1. Association of Southeast Asian Nations........................................... - 57 - 6.2. Singapore ............................................................................................ - 62 - 6.2.1. Water Quality Regulations .................................................................. - 64 - 6.2.2. Integrated Water Resources Management ......................................... - 68 - 7. Discussion................................................................................................. - 74 - 7.1. International guidelines .................................................................... - 75 - 7.2. EU & ASEAN perspectives ................................................................ - 77 - 7.3. UK and Singapore water quality regulatory model ......................... - 78 - 7.4. Proposed ASEAN Water Quality Regulatory Model ....................... - 82 - 7.5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticides, a practical issue..................... - 86 - 8. Conclusion ................................................................................................ - 87 - Appendix A - The UN Millennium Development Goals .............................. - 90 - Appendix B – International Drinking Water Guidelines ............................ - 92 - Appendix C – EU Drinking Water Regulations .......................................... - 104 - Appendix D – Drinking Water Regulations in UK ...................................... - 114 - Appendix E – The Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008 ............................................................................. - 122 - References ..................................................................................................... - 125 - Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -viii- Dissertation 2008
  • 9. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities List of Figures Page FIGURE 1 OVERVIEW OF DISSERTATION .................................................................................... - 3 - FIGURE 2. DISEASES CONTRIBUTING TO THE WATER-, SANITATION- & HYGIENE-RELATED DISEASE BURDEN .................................................................................................................... - 5 - FIGURE 3 ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AT CONCENTRATION .................................- 12 - FIGURE 4 MEMBRANE PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................. - 18 - FIGURE 5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER SAFETY PLANS ........................................................ - 25 - FIGURE 6 PARTIES ACTIVE IN EU WATER POLICY PROCESS ...................................................... - 32 - FIGURE 7 MAP OF UK ............................................................................................................. - 35 - FIGURE 8 THE CURRENT UK WATER INDUSTRY ...................................................................... - 36 - FIGURE 9 THE DRINKING WATER INDUSTRY IN ENGLAND & WALES ........................................ - 37 - FIGURE 10 ORGANISATION OF THE DWI................................................................................... - 41 - FIGURE 11 ASSESSMENT OF INCIDENTS FLOW DIAGRAM .......................................................... - 46 - FIGURE 12 INFORMATION PROFILE OF METALDEHYDE. ............................................................ - 50 - FIGURE 13 MAP OF ASEAN...................................................................................................... - 57 - FIGURE 14 ASEAN ORGANISATION STRUCTURE ....................................................................... - 58 - FIGURE 15 ASEAN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE .............................................. - 59 - FIGURE 16 MAP OF SINGAPORE ................................................................................................ - 62 - FIGURE 17 CURRENT SINGAPORE WATER QUALITY REGULATORY MODEL .................................. - 65 - FIGURE 18 CLOSING THE WATER LOOP IN SINGAPORE ............................................................. - 68 - FIGURE 19 SINGAPORE'S CATCHMENT AREAS ............................................................................ - 70 - FIGURE 20 PROPOSED BASIC WATER INDUSTRY MODEL ............................................................. - 83 - List of Tables Page TABLE 1 PARAMETERS USED IN ASSESSING WATER QUALITY IN DIFFERENT SITUATION .......... - 10 - TABLE 2 CATEGORISATION OF SOURCE OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS ..................................... - 11 - TABLE 3 SUMMARY OF MAIN WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES ................................................ - 16 - TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF DEFINITION FOR LIKELIHOOD AND CONSEQUENCES OF A HAZARDOUS EVENT ..................................................................................................................... - 24 - TABLE 5 RISK MATRIX ........................................................................................................... - 24 - TABLE 6 MINIMUM FAECAL INDICATOR TEST FREQUENCY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS ............ - 29 - TABLE 7 MINIMUM SAMPLE FREQUENCY FOR PIPED SUPPLY .................................................. - 29 - TABLE 8 TOXICITY STUDIES ON METALDEHYDE ......................................................................- 51 - TABLE 9 METALDEHYDE PROPERTIES TABLE ......................................................................... - 52 - TABLE 10 WATER STATISTICS FOR SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES (1995 & 2004) .................. - 60 - TABLE 11 WATER RESOURCES STATISTICS FOR SINGAPORE ..................................................... - 69 -  Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management -ix- Dissertation 2008
  • 10. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 1. Introduction ASEAN cities are growing at a rapid pace, yet it seems that safe drinking water is still a growing issue which needs to be addressed for the protection of public health and for the country’s developments. While the ASEAN member countries have access to available funding, technology and skills necessary for the provision of water services, it seems that their institutional arrangements and regulatory framework are inadequate to support these developments. Within ASEAN, Singapore has successfully implemented an integrated water resources management strategy that allows its population to have access to an uninterrupted supply of safe drinking water. However, Singapore has just started to develop its water quality regulatory model to ensure sustainable drinking water quality. The Ministry of Environment & Water Resources (MEWR), together with its two operational statutory boards (National Environment Agency (NEA) and PUB, Singapore’s national water agency), is responsible for environment and water resources in Singapore. PUB is responsible for water resources management, while NEA is responsible for environmental and public health issues. Most of the European Union (EU) member states are developed countries with access to safe drinking water. The EU implements the Drinking Water Directive (DWD) to ensure a common approach to the provision of water services in the EU. In the UK, the water quality regulatory model is unique with a privatised water industry in England & Wales. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) is the independent water quality regulator which has been successful in ensuring that England & Wales enjoy a high quality of safe drinking water. It is highly likely that the effective UK water quality regulatory model could be adapted to assist the ASEAN countries to develop high levels of drinking water quality for its population. Singapore’s fledging water quality regulatory model could also be refined by adopting some of the experiences gained by the DWI in implementing the UK model. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 1 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 11. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 2. Aims & Objectives The focus of this dissertation is on the water quality regulatory models. While there are other issues relating to regulating any water industry, such as financial and environmental issues, these are beyond the scope of this dissertation. Nevertheless, these issues need to be studied further to develop a comprehensive model for the water industry. This dissertation aims to: • Analyse international drinking water quality guidelines, EU & UK drinking water quality regulatory model; • Assess water quality regulatory issues in the ASEAN member countries; • Assess the water quality regulatory model in Singapore; and • Assess issues relating to the metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK as an example of a current issue in the regulatory system The objectives of this dissertation are: • Compare and contrast the regulatory approach in the UK and in Singapore; • Propose measures to enable Singapore to develop a unique water quality regulatory model; • Complete a detailed literature review, including DWI, MEWR, PUB & NEA source materials; • Develop a water quality regulatory model for the potential improvement to safe drinking water in ASEAN cities and • Complete a detailed study of issues and information relating to metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK The overview of the dissertation is shown in Figure 1. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 2 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 12. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Water Quality International Regional National United Nations European Union United Kingdom • Millennium • Organisation • Regulations Development Goals • DWD framework • Regulators (DWI) WHO • Directives & Regulations • Guidelines Association of Southeast Asian Nations Metaldehyde- ASEAN containing pesticide • Organisation • Metaldehyde • Approach to issues • Role of regulations • Water Quality guidelines and objectives • Case study   Rural Communities Urban Cities Singapore • Integrated Water Resources Management • Statutory Authorities & Water Suppliers • Current Regulations Discussion & Conclusion • Review of the WHO guidelines • Comparison of the regulatory approach in UK & Singapore • Proposed ASEAN Water quality regulatory model • Proposed development of the Singapore water quality regulatory model Figure 1 Overview of dissertation C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 3 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 13. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3. Water Quality & Treatment World leaders of the 189 United Nation (UN) member states, at the United Nations Millennium Summit held in New York on 6 - 8 September 2000, agreed to a common goal of the United Nations Millennium Declaration to work together on global social issues and to ensure that the benefits of globalisation be inclusive and equitable to all people, especially for those in the developing countries or economies (UN, 2000)1. This declaration led to the development of the time bound and measurable Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which provides a framework for global action towards a common goal. The MDGs, comprising of 8 goals and 18 targets, are listed in Appendix A. The relevant target and goal related to water and sanitation are Goal 7 and target 10, which states, “Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.” (Lenten R. et al, UNDP, 2005)2 At the opening of the water exhibition organized by the American Museum of Natural History and the UN Department of Public Information in Oct 07, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that “Safe drinking water and adequate sanitation are crucial for poverty reduction, crucial for sustainable development, and crucial for achieving any and every one of the Millennium Development Goals.” Mr Ban also noted that high population growth, unsustainable consumption patterns, poor management practices, pollution, inadequate investment in infrastructure, and low efficiency in water-use are putting huge stresses on the earth’s water resources and estimates that the current 700 million people in 43 countries affected by water scarcity could swell to more than 3 billion by 2025 (UN News centre, 24 Oct 2007)3. The World Health Organisation (WHO) (2008) 4 affirms that “the combination of safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation facilities is a precondition for success in the fight against poverty and hunger (Goal 1), primary education (Goal 2), gender equality and women empowerment (Goal C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 4 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 14. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3), child mortality (Goal 4), maternal health (Goal 5), HIV/AIDS and Malaria (Goal 6), ensure environmental sustainability (Goal 7) and develop global partnerships (Goal 8).” Prüss-Üstün A. et al (2008)5 wrote that at least 10% of the world’s disease burden (in disability-adjusted life years or DALYs, a weighted measure of deaths and disability) could be alleviated by improvement in drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and water resources management and these only include those diseases which are quantifiable or have adequate evidence. The proportion of diseases contributing to this disease burden is shown in Figure 2. Drinking water quality and access improvements are mainly related to the reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, malnutrition and Trachoma. Figure 2 Diseases contributing to the water-, sanitation- & hygiene- related disease burden (Prüss-Üstün A. et al, pp 11, 2008)5  Prüss-Üstün A. et al (2008)5 further concluded from a systematic review of diarrhoeal disease literature, that improvement in water supply and water quality would reduce the frequency of diarrhoeal diseases by 25% and 31% respectively. The WHO (2006)7  uses Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as the common measurement to objectively evaluate and compare the effects of the C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 5 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 15. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities diverse hazards associated with very adverse health outcomes and is defined as the weighted sum of years of life lost by premature mortality (YLL) and years of life lived in disability (YLD) or DALY = YLL + YLD. Each health effect is weighted for its severity from 0 (normal good health) to 1 (death) and multiplied by time duration and the number of people affected. DALYs are used to compare health effects of different agents in water. The Guidelines’ reference level of risk is 10-6 DALYs per person-year. A major concern of water supply is the spread of the infectious water- related diseases through the water supply. This refers to diseases caused by living organisms (bacteria, viruses or parasites like protozoa or helminths) which are usually spread from person to another, or to or from animal, and is related to water. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 classified these diseases by their distinct route of transmission through water: a) Water-borne route – transmission occurs when pathogens in water is drunk by a person or animal; b) Water-washed route – transmission is reduced when there is sufficient quantity of water for hygiene purposes; c) Water-based route – transmission is due to infection by pathogens which spend part of its life cycle in water; and d) Insect-vector route – transmission is spread by insects which either breed in water or bite near water. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 further recommended that water- borne and water-washed diseases could be prevented with an improvement in quality and sufficiency of safe drinking water supply and using this supply rather than an unsafe source. This underlies the importance of water and sanitation for any sustainable developments in a country. Evidence exists to support the need for improvements in drinking water, but there are still questions in determining what it actually means to have adequate access to water of a suitable water quality. What would be a safe concentration of any parameter, such that it is considered safe? C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 6 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 16. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1. Water quality The WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (WHO, 2006) 7 defines safe drinking water as water of a certain microbiological, chemical, physical and radiological quality that does not represent any significant health risk over a lifetime of consumption. In the 3rd edition of the WHO Guidelines, the WHO has moved away from setting an international standard for drinking water quality to a risk-based approach for setting national or regional standards and regulations. The WHO framework for safe drinking water is covered in Chapter 4.1.1. As the setting of water quality standards depends on the local context and conditions, the WHO recommends a preventive rather than remedial approach to the management of water supplies. There is still a need then to monitor at sufficient frequency and ensure that the final water quality meets certain water quality standards. Water quality standards should be scientific & evidence based and must be determined by local authorities based on international guidelines, regional recommendations and national requirements. The WHO (2006)7 advises that national regulatory agency and local water authorities determine and respond to the constituents of public health significance, as under any given circumstances, only a few constituents are of concern. The WHO (2006)7 guidelines assumes a per capita consumption of 1 litre of unboiled water for microbial hazards and for chemical hazards, the daily per capita consumption of 2 litres by a person weighing 60kg. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 7 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 17. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.1. Microbiological water quality The WHO (2006)7 considers the control of outbreaks of water borne diseases as the foremost priority in drinking water quality control. This is because such infectious outbreaks could affect a large number of people in a short period of time. The public health burden of the diverse pathogen- causing infectious diseases depends on the severity, infectivity and exposed population size. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 highlighted that all faecal-oral diseases and most of the water based diseases are caused by pathogens transmitted in human excreta, normally in faeces. Cairncross S. & Feachem R. (1993)6 also explained that as many of the pathogens are present in very small number in polluted water, it is therefore common practice to detect “indicator bacteria” instead. Lloyd (2007)8 noted that Thermotolerant coliform and Escherichia coli met 7 (bold) out of the following 11 criteria for the ideal water industry indicator of the presence of enteric-pathogens: - Presence of indicator denote the presence of all relevant pathogens; - Detectable whenever a waterborne pathogen is present - Present in greater number than the pathogens - Absent when the pathogens are absent - Abundant in human and animal excreta and absent from other sources - Unable to grow in water - Survive longer than pathogens in water - More resistant than pathogens to disinfectants - Rapidly and reliably isolated - Easily identified. - Precisely enumerated. The WHO (2006)7 recognised that these 2 indicator bacteria are important parameters for verification of microbial quality and recommends that E. coli or Thermotolerant coliform must not be detectable in a 100-ml C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 8 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 18. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities sample of treated potable water. The guidelines for microbiological quality for drinking water are found in Appendix B-1. While indicator bacteria tests provide a quick overview of the possible health risk due to faecal contamination, it does not allow the detection of some pathogenic viruses and protozoan like Cryptosporidium or Giardia. OECD & WHO (2003) 9 explained that this is because the viruses and protozoa have different environmental behaviour and survival characteristics compared to faecal bacteria. There is no single indicator organism that can be universally used for all purposes in surveillance, as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, there might be a need for direct pathogen testing, which is still in a developmental stage and requires a highly specialised laboratory, highly trained staff, appropriate safety measures and time. OECD & WHO (2003)9 discussed some of the possible microbiological alternative and non-microbial parameters which could be used to assess microbial water quality in different situations. This is summarised in Table 1. It is noted that all the parameters, except for Pseudomonas and Aeromonas spp. are suitable parameters in outbreak investigations. A more detailed explanation of the parameters is found in Appendix B-2. The WHO (2006)7 thus recommends a qualitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), epidemiological studies and case histories of outbreaks to determine the necessary microbial water quality improvements needed. This takes into account the following: • Hazard identification – identifying all potential hazardous events such as the source(s) and possible time of occurrence and the selection and control of possible representative organism to ensure the control of all pathogens of concern. • Exposure assessment – subjective estimation of the concentration of pathogenic microbes ingested and the volume of water consumed (treated and/or unboiled) by exposed individuals; C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 9 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 19. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Dose-response assessment – study of dose-response of healthy volunteer to derive the probability of adverse health effect after exposure to pathogenic organisms and to determine the infective dose; • Risk characterisation - integration of all available information from exposure, dose-response, severity and risk of infection to determine the disease burden of each potential disease in DALYs. Table 1 Parameters used in assessing water quality in different situation Sanitary survey, Treatment Disinfection Treated water Ingress in Regrowth in Source-water & removal efficiency Distribution distribution groundwater efficiency system system characterization Enteric viruses Total coliforms Total coliforms Total coliforms Total coliforms Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant Thermotolerant coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms coliforms Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Faecal streptococci Total bacteria Total bacteria Total bacteria Total bacteria (enterococci)* (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) Somatic coliphages Viable bacteria Viable bacteria Viable bacteria Viable bacteria (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) (microscopic) F specific RNA Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Heterotrophic phages bacteria bacteria bacteria bacteria Bacteroides phages Aerobic spore- Aerobic spore- Pseudomonas, forming bacteria forming bacteria Aeromonas Clostridium Clostridium Somatic perfringens perfringens coliphages Giardia cysts, Giardia cysts, F specific RNA Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidiu phages oocysts m oocysts Rainfall events* Particle size Bacteroides analysis phages Flow * Turbidity Flow Flow Flow Solids (Total and pH Colour dissolved) Conductivity Disinfectant Disinfectant Disinfectant residual residual residual Turbidity Organic matter Organic matter (TOC, BOD, COD) (TOC, BOD, COD) Microscopic particulate analysis Ammonia * faecal streptococci and flow parameter are for sanitary survey and surface water characterisation only, while rainfall is only used for sanitary survey and microscopic particulate analysis is meant for groundwater characterisation. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 10 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 20. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.2. Chemical water quality Natural occurring or pollution derived chemicals are found in varying quantities in water and can be a significant contribution to public health problems. The chemicals can be grouped according to their original source as shown in Table 2. The adverse health effects of most chemical contaminants are associated with long-term exposure. Thomson T. et al (2007) 10 recommended that it is more effective to identify and focus on priority chemicals of concern, as assessing and developing strategies for every chemical would be impractical and require plenty of resources. Table 2 Categorisation of source of chemical constituents Source of Chemical constituents Example of sources Naturally occurring (including Rocks, soils, cyanobacteria in eutrophic naturally occurring algal toxins) lakes Agricultural activities Manures, fertilizers, pesticides, intensive animal practices Human settlements Sewerage & waste disposal, urban runoff, fuel leakage, Industrial activities Mining, manufacturing, processing, Water treatment or materials in Water treatment chemicals, disinfection contact with water by-products (DBPs), storage tank/pipes material corrosion and leeching (Thomson T. et al, 2007)10 The WHO guidelines for drinking water quality (2008) 11 provide guideline values for “36 inorganic constituents, 27 industrial chemicals, 36 pesticides, 4 disinfectants and 23 disinfectant-by-products”, of which the 95 chemicals of health significance in drinking water are found in Appendix B-1. These chemicals are chosen based on the following criteria: • Credible evidence of chemicals occurring in drinking water together with evidence of actual or potential toxicity; • Significant international concern; or • Considered for inclusion or is included in the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) programme C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 11 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 21. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The derivation of these guideline values are scientifically based on health effect studies on human populations or toxicity studies on laboratory animals, supported by other appropriate studies. Health effects studies on human population are preferred, but there is limited value on such studies because of the lack of qualitative information on the concentration to which people have been exposed to and due to simultaneous exposure to other agents. There is uncertainty in the findings from the more frequently used toxicity studies on laboratory animals because of the relatively small number of animals used and relatively high dose administered. This requires extrapolating the results from animals to humans as the human populations are usually exposed to low doses (WHO, 2006)7. This means that most guideline values are likely to be very conservative. As illustrated in Figure 3, different approaches are taken for the different groups of chemicals: • Carcinogens – non-threshold chemicals, where there are adverse health effects at any level of concentration and no safe dose; • Toxic substances – threshold chemicals, where there are no adverse health effects below a certain concentration; • Essential elements – necessary for humans and animals for normal functions, for which there is a safe concentration range, where adverse health effects are observed from deficiency (below safe concentration range) and over-exposure (above concentration range). Carcinogenic substances Toxic substances Adverse (Boron, Cyanide, Lead) (Arsenic, Vinyl Chloride) health effects Essential elements (fluoride, selenium, iodine, manganese, copper) Concentration NOAEL  Safe concentration range (mg/l) Figure 3 Adverse health effects of chemical at concentration C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 12 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 22. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities For threshold chemicals, there is a need to derive the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI), which is defined as amount of substances in food and drinking water, expressed on a body weight basis (mg/kg of body weight), that can be consumed over a lifetime without appreciable health risk. The guidelines values are derived as follows: Where     NOAEL = No Observed Adverse Effect Levels LOAEL = Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level* UF = Uncertainty factor bw = body weight P = fraction of TDI allocated to drinking water C = daily drinking-water consumption * If LOAEL is used, an additional uncertainty factor has to be applied (WHO, 2006) 7 3.1.3. Acceptability water quality Drinking water must not only be safe, but it must be acceptable to consumers. While most consumers are not able to determine the safety of their drinking water due to lack of equipments, they could reject the water due to its physical appearance, taste and odour and use an alternate unsafe source. The physical appearance, taste and odour of drinking water are affected by microbiological and chemical contaminants in water (attached as Appendix B-3), but the acceptability of drinking water by consumers is also subjective and influenced by individual and local factors. As most of these contaminants have microbiological and chemical health-based guidelines, the parameters that fall into this category would include colour, pH, turbidity, hardness and total dissolved solids. (WHO, 2006)7 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 13 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 23. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.1.4. Radiological water quality The WHO (2006)7 stated that the long-term incidence of cancer in humans and animals could increase as a result of low to moderate dose of radiation exposure. Radiation arises from naturally-occurring and man-made sources. The guideline value is the recommended reference dose level equivalent to a cumulative 0.1mSv in annual drinking water consumption, given as activity concentration (Bq/l). The WHO (2006)7 states that “The SI unit for radioactivity is the Becquerel (Bq), where 1Bq = 1 disintegration per second...The SI unit for equivalent and effective dose is the sievert (Sv) where 1Sv = 1 J/kg”. (WHO, 2007)7 The guidance levels for radionuclide in drinking water are attached as Appendix B-1 and is calculated by . Where GL = guidance level of radionuclide in drinking water (Bq/litre) IDC = individual dose criterion, equal to 0.1mSv/yr for this calculation Hing = dose coefficient for ingestion by adults (mSv/Bq) q= annual ingested volume of drinking water, assumed to be 730l/yr As the concentration of radionuclide in drinking water is relatively low, the WHO (2006)7 recommends that it might not be justified to identify individual radioactive species using sophisticated and expensive analysis without first carrying out a screening procedure for detection limits of 0.5 Bq/litre for gross alpha activity and 1 Bq/litre for gross beta activity. (WHO, 2007)7      C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 14 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 24. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 3.2. Water treatment It is common to treat raw water to produce safe drinking water for the protection of public health, as most raw water quality does not meet safe drinking water standards. Allan S.C. (1997)12 cited that there are eight specific reasons for treatment water: • To remove disease-causing pathogens; • To remove potentially toxic natural or synthetic substances; • To remove dissolved and gaseous radioactivity; • To improve organoleptic quality of water to prevent consumer rejecting water due to its physical appearance, taste or odour; • To prevent bacterial after-growth in the distribution system; • To prevent deposition and silting up of pipes; • To prevent corrosion and dissolution of pipes and fittings; and • To comply with local, national and international law on water quality. Water treatment is based on a multi-barrier approach to removing contaminants and depends, amongst other things, on the quality of the source water and final water quality desired. The conventional approach is to choose a combination of the appropriate processes at the treatment works. Some of the main treatment processes can be found in Table 3. Typical water treatment processes usually comprises of pre-treatment, main treatment and disinfection. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 15 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 25. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Table 3 Summary of main water treatment processes Processes Functions Screens Sets of coarse (100mm spacing) to fine screens used as a physical removal of larger particles such as litters or branches and for protection of downstream processes Roughening Coarse media (rock or gravel with size 4 – 12mm) pre-filter used to reduce filters turbidity (60-90% removal) and faecal coliform bacteria (93 – 99.5% removal) Micro-strainers Stainless steel or polyester wire fabric mesh of apertures 15 – 45mm pre- treatment strainers for removing 40-70% algae cells and large protozoa and 5-20% turbidity removal. Aeration The use of a cascade or fountain system to introduce air into the raw water to increase dissolved oxygen in water to protect downstream processes, reduce CO2, raise pH, remove iron and manganese from water and improve taste in water by stripping out hydrogen sulphide and volatile organic compounds. Off-stream/ bank Self-purification reservoir storage to improve water quality before treatment side storage and to ensure adequate supplies at periods of peak demand. Storage also eliminates variation in water quality due to floods and surface run-offs. Exposure to sunlight (natural UV radiation) kills some pathogens and removes colour. Long term storage allows suspended solids to settle and reduces turbidity, while algae can remove hardness by converting bicarbonates to precipitate carbonates. Coagulation & Chemical coagulant like alum (aluminium sulphate) or other salts of flocculation aluminium or iron are added and rapidly mixed to allow colloidal particles in the water to coagulate and then agitated to flocculate so that the flocs can be removed more easily later. The efficiency of the process depends on the raw water quality, coagulant dose, coagulant aid, mixing conditions and pH. Jar tests are usually carried out to determine the optimum dose required. Optimal coagulation can carry out 1-2 log removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa, as well as removing turbidity, suspended solids, certain heavy metals and low-solubility organochlorine pesticides. Sedimentation Solid-liquid separation process to remove the solids from the raw water by allowing the flocs to settle. Dissolved Air- DAF functions like a sedimentation tank to remove flocs, except that air flotation (DAF) bubbles are introduced from the bottom of the tank to allow the floc particles to attach to the air bubbles and float to the surface, where it can be skimmed off. DAF is found to be effective in the removal of algal cells, Cryptosporidium oocysts or humic acids. Lime softening The addition of lime or soda ash to increase the pH of water to reduce hardness by precipitating calcium and magnesium from the raw water. Lime softening can also aid in the removal of bacteria (2 log removal maximum), viruses (up to 4 log removal) and protozoa (up to 2 log removal) at high pH (>11) depending on temperature, time of exposure and pH. Ion Exchange The adsorption processes where there is a reversible interchange of same charge ions between a solid ion-exchange medium and the raw water. With different resins used, ion exchange can be used for water softening and for removal of radionuclide and heavy metals, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, selenium, uranium and dissolved organic carbon. Rapid gravity The use of single, dual- or multi-media of granular material like sand or filtration anthracite of different grades to allow water to pass rapidly through the relatively large gaps in between the grains to remove the suspended solids C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 16 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 26. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Processes Functions through straining, adsorption, adhesion and sedimentation. Filtration rates are typically 5 – 10 m/h. rapid gravity filtration can also remove turbidity, adsorbed chemicals, oxidised iron and manganese from raw water. Under optimum coagulation conditions, up to 2 log removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa can be achieved. Pressure filters The rapid gravity filter process is carried out in an enclosed in an enclosed cylindrical shell to eliminate the need for a separate pumping stage. Slow Sand A non-pressurised, chemical-free biological filtration process where the raw Filtration water is passed through 0.15-0.3mm diameter fine sand of 0.5m to 1.5m depth and a flow rate of 0.1 to 0.3 m3/m2.h. There is a thin biological active filter skin at the top called the Schmutzdecke. A matured slow sand filter can remove biological particles such as bacteria, viruses, Cryptosporidium, faecal coliform and other organic debris up to 4-log removal, iron and manganese biologically and is effective for the removal of algae and organics, including certain pesticides and ammonia. Membrane – Physical pressure-driven filtration process to remove contaminants from Microfiltration water using a semi-porous membrane media of pore size of 0.01-12µm at (MF) operating pressure of 1 -2 bars. Microfiltration can remove algae, protozoa, bacteria and microbes larger than 0.2 micron and is widely used to remove chlorine resistant pathogens like Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to MF except that pore size is in the range of 1nm – 100nm. UF filtration – operates at less than 5bars and is capable of removing suspended solids ultrafiltration (turbidity <0.1 NTU), organics (molecular cut-off weight of 800), bacteria (UF) and viruses, including Cryptosporidium (at least 4 log removal). Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to UF, except pore size is in the range of 0.001mm to 0.01mm. NF filtration – operates at about 5 bars and rejects divalent ions (magnesium and calcium), nanofiltration organics (molecular cut-off weight above 200), suspended solids, bacteria (NF) and viruses. Please see Figure 4. Membrane Similar to NF, except pore size is less than 0.002mm. Operating at 15- 50 filtration - reverse bar, only water essentially passes through, while dissolved salts, suspended osmosis (RO) monovalent ions and organics (molecular cut-off weight above 50). Complete removal of bacteria, viruses and protozoa is possible with pre- treatment and membrane integrity conserved. Please see Figure 4. Activated carbon Normally in powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) form using porous adsorption carbonaceous material with large surface area (500-1500 m2/g) for the removal of removal of pesticides and other organic chemicals, cyanobacterial toxins, total organic carbon and for control of taste and odour. Chlorine Chlorine is commonly used in destroying or inactivating most water-borne disinfection disease-causing micro-organisms, and as a powerful oxidant to improve water quality by removing reduced nitrogen, iron, manganese, sulphide and certain organic species. Chlorine can combine with ammonia to form chlorine residual (chloramines) to provide protection against recontamination in the distribution network. Chlorine, chlorine dioxide or chloramines can be used. Ozone As a powerful oxidant, ozone is used as a primary disinfectant to effectively disinfection inactivate harmful protozoan that form cysts and almost all other pathogens. Ozone is also effective in removing some pesticides and organic materials. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 17 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 27. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Processes Functions Ultra-violet (UV) The adsorption of UV radiation with a frequency of 250 – 256 nm in their disinfection DNA can inactivate microorganisms. A quick, chemical-free process, UV is able to remove bacteria up to 8 log removal; viruses up to 6 log removal and protozoa like Cryptosporidium oocysts by a 4 log removal depending on dosing. Plumb solvency Small quantities of phosphate can be added to reduce lead in pipe dissolving reduction in treated water. (Wikipedia, 2008)13 (WHO, 2006)7 (WHO & OECD, 2003)9 (Koch membrane, 2008)14 (Gray N.F., 2005)15   Figure 4 Membrane process characteristics (Koch membrane, 2008)14 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 18 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 28. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4. Water Regulations The purpose of drinking water regulations is to ensure that the consumers have safe potable water through effective control. Legislation need to: • Define clearly the roles and responsibility of the stakeholders (water supplier, policy and regulatory authorities, public health authorities, consumers, chemical and material suppliers, analytical services providers, etc) involved in drinking water supply; • Have sufficient enforcement measures; • Allows for changes and amendments needed for future conditions; and • Be flexible enough to cater to different situations. (WHO, 2006)7 The UNDP (2008)16 recognises that the lack of access to safe drinking water results mainly from profound failure in water governance. Water governance requires an integrated political, social, economic and administrative system to manage water resources and provide water services to the population. To gain a better understanding of drinking water regulations, it is useful to look at the international guidelines from the WHO, the regional directives of the EU and the national regulations of the UK. 4.1. World Health Organisation The WHO was established in 1948 with the aim of attaining the highest possible levels of health for all people in all countries. Representatives of the 193 WHO member states and 2 associate members form the WHO Assembly, which sets policies, approves budget and appoints the Director-General for a 5-year term. The WHO Assembly also elects the 34 member Executive Board. Six regional committees focus on regional health matters. The WHO constitution comprises of 82 articles which details the operations and functions of the WHO. (WHO, 2006)17 (WHO, 2008)18 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 19 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 29. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The WHO published international drinking water standards in 1958, 1963 and 1971. These are superseded by the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, published in 3 volumes. The 1st edition and 2nd edition were published in 1983-84 and 1993-97 respectively. (WHO, 2008)18 The 3rd edition of volume 1 of the Guidelines, a rolling edition, was published in 2004 and the 1st addendum was added in 2006. Parts of the previous Volume 2 are replaced by a series of publications providing information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and by internationally peer-reviewed risk assessments for specific chemicals, while the previous volume 3 is still valid in providing guidance on good practices in surveillance, monitoring and assessment of drinking water quality in community supplies. (WHO, 2008)18 The 4th edition for Volume 1 of the Guidelines is currently in progress (Davidson A. et al, 2005)19 (WHO, 2008)20. More than 20 WHO water quality experts last met in Singapore to review the technical work for the 4th edition on 24-27 Jun 08. This was held in conjunction with the Singapore International Water Week (SIWW, 2008)21. The WHO guidelines for safe drinking water are commonly used as the reference source and form the basis of water quality standards for most countries in the world. The guideline values for water quality parameters are found in Appendix B-1. 4.1.1. Guidelines for safe drinking water The Guidelines for drinking water quality (WHO, 2006)7 outline a framework to ensure that safe drinking water could be provided as part of the strategy for the protection of public health and the reduction of water-related diseases. The idea is to critically analyse any drinking water system from catchment to tap for hazards control and prevention. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 20 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 30. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The framework comprises of the following: • Health-based targets based on national and local conditions for the purpose of protecting and improving public health; • Water safety plans for a systematic multi-barrier approach to a comprehensive risk analysis and management of water supply; and • Surveillance to monitor and verify on the compliance with the water safety plan and ensure the adequacy of supply for public health. (WHO, 2006)7  4.1.2. Health- based targets Health-based targets set the health and water quality goals for the implementation of the safe drinking water framework to ensure realistic targets for the effective protection of overall public health in the local context. Every country and community will have different and unique levels of health- based targets, as there is a need to take into account the status, trends, contribution of drinking water to the transmission of infectious diseases and to overall exposure to hazardous chemicals both in individual and overall public health management, access to water, local situations (including economic, environmental, social and cultural conditions) and local (financial, technical and institutional) resources. (WHO, 2006)7 The 4 principal types of health-based targets include: • Health outcome targets based on the reduction in the total disease burden for a particular microbial or chemical hazards largely attributable to water; • Water quality targets for mainly chemical constituents, additives or treatment by-products in water with stable concentrations that represent health risks from long term exposure, typically expressed as guideline values; • Performance targets for control of constituents with fluctuations in numbers or short periods that represent health risks in short term exposure, typically expressed as required reductions; and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 21 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 31. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Specified technology targets for specific equipment or processes or actions for smaller municipal, community and household drinking water supplies, which typically include recommendations and guidance for application and operation of such technology. (WHO, 2006)7 The proportion of exposure to enteric pathogens or hazardous chemicals attributed to drinking water needs to be considered, as there could be other sources of exposure. 4.1.3. Water Safety Plans The Water Safety Plan draws upon the multi-barrier approach and the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) methodology used extensively in the food industry, as well as approaches found in the quality assurance standards management systems like ISO 9000 and total quality management (TQM) (Godfrey S. & Howard G., 2004)22. Drury D. (2007)23 highlighted that the WSPs analyse quality assurance within the operations & procedures and do not depend on end-point quality assessments. The 3 components of the WSP are: • System assessment of the entire drinking water supply chain from catchment to tap, as a whole, can achieve the water quality as specified in the health-based targets. The assessment identifies potential hazards for each part of the supply chain, its individual level of risks and the appropriate control measures; • Operational monitoring of the rapid identification of deviation of the required performances of each control measure for the hazards in the systems; and • Management plans to document the system assessment, normal and incident operations, monitoring, validation, remedial actions, reporting and communication procedures and supporting programmes. (WHO, 2006)7 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 22 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 32. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities DWI (2005)24 highlighted that the team responsible for developing the water safety plans requires: • Complete in-depth knowledge of each element of the specific water supply chain and its capability to supply safe water which meets the health-based standards and requirements; • Identification of the hazards for each element of the water supply chain, the consequences and frequency of occurrence of each hazard and the level of risk each of these presents; • Identification and validation of the short-term, medium-term and long- term control measures to reduce each identified risk to an acceptable level; • Implementation of a routine monitoring system of those control measures with action trigger criteria when the control measures are not within the specified targets; • Implementation of remedial action plans when a control measure is outside of the specified target with checks to certify that the system is brought back under control; • Validation monitoring to determine whether the system is performing as assumed in the system assessment; and • Independent verification for the correct implementation of the WSP to ensure that the water supplied is safe and meets health-based and other regulatory targets. The water safety plan team looks critically at the entire water system and their individual components (from catchment, intake, each treatment process, distribution, to the customer’s tap) to identify what the risk of every possible hazard is, how to reduce and control the risk of the hazards and how to show that the controls are working. Drury D. (2007)23 explains that the development of a successful WSP requires the involvement and participation by company staff members who have a deep understanding on how the company operates each component of the water supply systems. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 23 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 33. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities A hazardous event is an incident or situation that can lead to the presence of a hazard, which is anything that could cause harm. There is a need to determine the risk of every hazardous event. Risk is defined as the combination of the likelihood of a hazardous event occurring and the consequences of the hazard. The definition of the likelihood and consequences of an event, with examples in bracket, are shown in Table 4. Table 4 Examples of definition for likelihood and consequences of a hazardous event Likelihood of a hazardous event Severity of the Consequences of a hazardous occurring event if it occur A Almost certain (Once a day) 1 Insignificant (No significant impact) B Likely (Once a week) 2 Minor (minor impact to a small population) C Moderate (Once a month) 3 Moderate (minor impact to a large population) D Unlikely (Once a year) 4 Major (major impact to a small population) E Rare (Once every 5 years) 5 Catastrophic (major impact to a large population) Risk prioritisation can then be carried out using a matrix as shown in Table 5  to identify the significance of the hazard, the importance of each hazard and the prioritisation of improvements needed. For example, an insignificant hazard that is almost certain to occur will be ranked as a medium risk event, while a catastrophic hazard which is unlikely to occur will be ranked as a high risk event. Table 5 Risk matrix Consequences Likelihood 1 2 3 4 5 A (Almost certain ) V High B (Likely) C (Moderate) Medium High D(unlikely) Low E (rare) Negligible (WHO, 2005)25  C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 24 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 34. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The steps taken to develop a WSP are illustrated clearly in Figure 5 (WHO, 2005)25. Assemble the WSP Team Review experience and future System assessment Document and describe the system needs Carry out a hazard assessment and risk characterisation Identify control measures Supporting Define operational limits and Operational monitoring programmes monitoring of control measures Establish verification procedures Review, Establish management procedures approval and for corrective actions, normal Communications audit Management & operations and incident response Establish record keeping Validation and verification Figure 5 Development of the Water Safety Plans (WHO, 2005)25 A multi-disciplinary team of experts with a thorough understanding of the individual elements of the water system needs to be assembled to develop the WSP. The team should consist of specialists with knowledge of the catchment and raw water sources, treatment processes, distribution networks, drinking water quality, public health, domestic distribution system and customer matters. Senior management support is crucial in the development of the WSP. A team leader with sufficient authority, interpersonal and organisation skill should be selected to drive the project and ensure focus. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 25 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 35. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The role of each individual member should be defined properly. Communication procedures with all stakeholders should also be established. Next, the team should collect and evaluate information to document and describe the entire water supply system. If information is missing, then there is a need to determine how and where to collect the information. A detailed flow diagram will be helpful in providing an overview. Stakeholders and users are also identified. For each element of the water supply system, the team should identify potential failures, problems, their locations and implications in terms of hazards and hazardous events. The team should also consider influencing factors. This involves assessment of historic information and events as well as predictive information based on expert knowledge. Next, the WSP team should determine the consequence and likelihood of each hazardous event and the need for action. This is usually done using the risk scoring matrix. Concurrently with the identification of hazards and evaluation of risk, the WSP team should document existing and potential control measures and decide if these control measures are effective. There is also a need to determine if the control measures could introduce or affect any other hazard/risk and their subsequent control measures, if necessary. Risk of the hazardous events should be reprioritised after the control measures are put in place. At the same time, if there are insufficient control measures or the risks are not sufficiently reduced or mitigated, then the team should develop a short-term, medium-term and long-term action and improvement plan to mitigate or control each significant risk. Following the identification of all hazardous events, their hazards, associated risk and control measures, the WSP team will need to define operational limits of all critical control points to monitor the control measures and actions that need to be taken if there is a deviation. This ensures that the control measures are effectively working within the operational limits, and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 26 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 36. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities quick notification and remedial actions taken when there is a deviation. The documentation of the monitoring includes what to monitor, how to monitor, where the monitoring is carried out, who will carry out the monitoring, who will do the analysis and who receives the results for action. A formal verification and auditing process needs to be established to ensure that the WSP is working properly. Verification involves compliance monitoring; internal & external auditing of operational activities; and consumer satisfaction. Management procedures can then be documented for standard and incident operating conditions and the resultant corrective actions to be taken when necessary. Emergency supplies, investigation plan, communication procedures with stakeholders, reporting procedures and procedures for regular review and management update are also included. Supporting programmes should also be determined for each step of the water safety plan, as the delivery of safe water through the WSP involves managing people and processes. These programmes include training, calibration, operation & maintenance, R&D, legal, hygiene and sanitation aspects. The entire WSP needs to be documented, presented and approved by all stakeholders to allow “buy-in” and support. This is important if the WSP is to be implemented effectively. There is also a need to include a provision for the WSP to be reviewed and regularly updated. 4.1.4. Surveillance Drinking water suppliers are legally and morally responsible for the control of drinking water quality and the sufficiency of supply. The WHO (2006)7 recommends the setting up of a separate surveillance agency responsible for overseeing public health assessment in drinking water to complement the water supplier in view of the conflict of interest between public health and operational costs. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 27 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 37. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Drinking water surveillance requires the long-term constant assessment of the safety and suitability of drinking water supply for the protection of public health. Surveillance provides information, which should be effectively managed and used, as a collaborative mechanism and support for the surveillance agency and water supplier, for the prioritisation of water supply improvements. However, the surveillance agency would also require legal instruments and authority to use enforcement, which should be used only as a last resort. The basic parameters for adequacy of supply that the surveillance agency needs to assess public health are: • Quality – validation and compliance audit of the approved WSPs; • Quantity – proportion of population using different levels of drinking water supply; • Accessibility – percentage of population with reasonable access to improved drinking water supply; • Affordability – tariff paid by domestic customers; and • Continuity – percentage of the time when drinking water is available. (WHO, 2006)7  WHO (2006)7 recommended surveillance be carried out by audit-based or direct assessment approaches. The audit-based approach basically requires the water supplier to undertake assessment activities, verification testing of water quality and to furnish all relevant information to the surveillance agency, while the surveillance agency is responsible for 3rd party auditing to verify compliance. Accredited external laboratories commonly carry out analytical services, paid for by the water supplier. The surveillance agency needs to have the expertise and capability to: • Review and approve water safety plans; • Audit the water safety plans implementation periodically (at regular intervals, following significant incidents or changes to the systems); and C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 28 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 38. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Investigate and assess incident reports to ensure that the cause is correctly determined and corrective actions taken and reported to prevent reoccurrence of a similar situation. The direct assessment approach will require the surveillance agency to carry out independent testing of water supplies. The surveillance agency will require its own or 3rd party analytical facilities and trained staff to carry out sampling, analysis and sanitary inspection. 4.1.5. Other Recommendations With a preventive approach, the WHO guidelines (2007)7 recommend minimal dependence on end-point monitoring, as the sampling is meant only as verification of water quality. Simple and more frequent faecal indicator tests are recommended to detect contamination in water supply. Faecal contamination is not distributed evenly throughout the piped distribution system and can vary with local conditions. The recommended minimum sampling frequencies for faecal indicator tests are shown in Table 6. Table 6 Minimum faecal indicator test frequency in distribution systems Population Total no of samples per year Point sources Progressive sampling of all sources over 3- to 5-year cycles Piped supplies 5000 – 100 000 12 per 5000 population (rounded up) >100 000 – 500 000 12 per 10 000 population plus additional 120 samples >500 0000 12 per 100 000 population plus additional 180 samples (WHO, 2006)7 Table 7 Minimum sample frequency for piped supply Population Served No. of monthly samples < 5000 1 5000 – 100 000 1 per 5000 population > 100 000 1 per 10 000 population, plus 10 additional samples (WHO, 1997)26 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 29 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 39. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The principal source of the chemicals found in water will determine the location and frequency of sampling. However, the WHO (2006)7 recognises that source water sampling once a year may be adequate for stable groundwater source, while the variable surface water source might require higher frequency. For piped supply, the recommended minimum sampling frequencies are based on the population served, as shown in Table 7. The sampling frequencies for other supplies in small communities are attached in Appendix BAppendix B – International Drinking Water Guidelines. Each location where the samples are taken should be individually considered, but the samples must be representative of the water source, treatment plant, storage facilities, distribution network, customer delivery points and points of use. The general criteria of the selection of locations are that: - Samples need to be representative of the different sources as it is obtained or enters the system; - Yield samples, representative of the conditions at the most unfavourable sources or places in the supply system and points of possible sources of contamination, need to be included; - Sampling locations should take into account the number of inhabitants served by each source in multiple source systems; - Locations need to be uniformly distributed throughout the distribution system, taking into account population distribution and proportional to the number of branches or links; - Samples need to be representative of the system as a whole and of its main components; - There is a need to sample water in reserved tanks and reservoirs and there should at least be one sampling point directly after the outlet at each treatment works; and - Sampling locations can be fixed or variable. Fixed sites are useful in allowing results to be compared over time, while local problems are more readily detected using random locations. (WHO, 1997)26 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 30 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 40. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4.2. European Union The European Economic Community (EEC) was originally set up to create a common market between the constituent Member States, but has now been extended to a large number of common policy goals which is directly or indirectly related to attain conditions leading to a single market within the combined territories of the member countries. The EEC was renamed as the European Union (EU) in 1992 by virtue of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). (Hedemann-Robinson M., 2007)27 The Single European Act amending the Treaties was enacted on 1 Jul 1987. The Act aims to create a single internal market and formulates a European foreign policy. More importantly, it introduces explicit references to the EU’s powers relating to environmental protection for the 1st time. This includes: ‐ Article 100a which allows for environmental protection legislation affecting the internal market to be adopted by the majority of member states; and ‐ Article 130r, 130s & 130t, which specifies the objectives, means and procedures for unanimous adoption of environmental legislation. (European Community, 1996)28 The EU comprises of 27 member states, which are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania. (Europa, 2008)29 What is unique about the EU is that there are distinct, separate legislative, executive and judicial organs of government, the power of which is transferred from the member states to the community by virtue of treaties and that the community law overrides the national laws. (European Community, 1996)28 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 31 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 41. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The EU adopts the following type of legislation: ‐ Non-binding recommendations or resolutions ‐ Regulations which are binding and directly applicable to Member States and overrides national laws ‐ Decisions which are directly binding to the persons (member states, individual and legal persons) they are addressed to; and ‐ Directives which member states are required to transpose and implement through their national law or regulations within a specified time period (normally 18 months to 2 years). (European Community, 1996)28 As illustrated in Figure 6, the EU water policy formation involves the core European institution, Member States government and non-governmental organisations with interest in water. The Council decides on the policy objectives and directions, while the Commission develops and drafts the directions into appropriate policy text and directives. The European Parliament actively debates on the legislation and can amend the draft legislation presented by the Council. The European Parliament shares the responsibility of passing European laws with the European Council. Representatives of sectors affected by water-related regulations and various water-related organisations try to influence the process by lobbying. This reflects the similar situation at the national level. The scientist and technologist group is consulted on water-related technical issues and their recommendations are critical to the nature of the policies. EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONS ORGANISED EUROPEAN EUROPEAN INTERESTS REPRESENTATIVES/ PARLIAMENT ASSOCIATIONS SCIENTISTS EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGISTS COMMISSION MEMBER STATES’ COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT MINISTERS NATIONAL LEVEL EUROPEAN LEVEL Figure 6 Parties active in EU water policy process (Kallis G. & Nijkamp P., 1999) 30 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 32 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 42. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Kallis G. et al. (1999) 30 describe EU water policies as split between water use directives and water pollutant directives. Water use directives are concerned with setting the Europe-wide quality standards of water intended for a particular use that all Member States are to comply with, while water pollutant directives deal with emission control and standards for discharges into water. 4.2.1. Drinking Water Directives The EU council (1998) 31 adopted the Drinking Water Directive 98/83/EC (DWD) on 3 November 1998 for all member states to transpose into national law to ensure that potable water for consumption is clean and wholesome for the protection of public health in the EU. This fulfils one of the objectives specified in article 174 of the European treaty, which relates to the protection of human health, aims at the highest level of environmental protection and takes into account available scientific data (EU, 2008)32. The DWD (1998)31 states that water intended for human consumption is wholesome and clean if it contains no micro-organism, parasites and concentration of substances that endanger human health; and meet the minimum parametric values and requirements set out in the DWD. Member States are allowed to impose stricter parametric values and add other parameters for the protection of human health within their territory. The parametric concentration values (PCV) are generally based on the WHO guidelines and recommendations of the Commission's Scientific Advisory Committee. The committee, comprising of Member States’ representatives and a chairman appointed by the Commission, carry out a 5 year review of the PCV and monitoring requirements of the DWD and propose other measures relating to the DWD. (EC, 1998)31 The DWD (EC, 1998)31  specifies 2 microbiological parameters (5 for water for sale in bottles or containers); 26 chemical parameters and 20 indicator parameters. The directive parametric values, indicator parameters, C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 33 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 43. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities sampling frequency and analysis specifications are clearly defined in the DWD and are attached as Appendix C. Member States are required to carry out regular water quality monitoring programme based on the frequency and sampling points set out in the DWD to show evidence of compliance. Samples taken must be representative of the water quality throughout the year. Compliance sample is collected at the point where the water is taken for consumption and use. For piped supply, the sample is taken at the consumer’s tap. (EC, 1998)31 Any failure in meeting the parametric values has to be investigated immediately to determine the cause of the failure. Member States have to ensure that appropriate remedial actions are carried out as soon as possible and give priority to their enforcement actions. Supply of water which constitute a potential danger to human health need to be prohibited or restricted. Article 10 in the DWD also requires that Member States ensure that any materials and substances for new installations of water treatment and distribution do not have an adverse impact on human health. (EC, 1998)31 Derogation, the act of failing or likely to fail the DWD standards, is allowed if there is no likely danger to human health and if the water supply in the area cannot be maintained by any other means. Member States can decide on the 1st derogation for a period up to 3 years to allow remedial actions to be taken. The Member States can inform the Commission of a 2nd derogation (up to a period of 3 years); if the progress review showed that the progress made in the 1st derogation is not sufficient. The Commission’s approval will be required if there is a need for a 3rd derogation (up to a period of 3 years). (EC, 1998)31 Adequate and up-to-date water quality information must be made available to consumers. Member States publish and submit a report every 3 years on the water quality and the measures taken to fulfil the DWD. Arising from these reports, the Commission will then produce a synthesis EU report on water quality. (EC, 1998)31 C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 34 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 44. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4.3. United Kingdom The United Kingdom comprises of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Figure 7). There are 12 water and sewerage services providers and 15 water suppliers in the UK as shown in Figure 8. Scotland and Northern Ireland each has public-owned water and sewerage service provider and independent water quality regulator. The situation is unique in England & Wales, as it is privatised with several companies being subsidiaries of international enterprises. (Water UK, internet, 2008)34 Figure 7 Map of UK (CIA World Factbook, 2008)33 4.3.1. England & Wales May A. (2007)35 gives an overview of the main parties involved in the water industry in England & Wales, summarised in Figure 9. The WHO is the international health authority and provides the basis of all health-related regulations and standards, though it is not strictly providing standards for the EU Member States. The EU is the regional authority, which decides on the regional standards for the Member States. The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) is the UK government ministry responsible for the water policies of UK. The regulatory agencies exist to ensure that public water suppliers comply with the water regulations and support the local authorities, which are responsible for regulating the private water supplies. Water UK represents the public water supplier, while there are other organisations representing the manufacturers. The Consumer Council for Water acts as the consumer’s voice to protect consumer interests. C   hristopher Chua MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 35 ‐  Dissertation 2008   
  • 45. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Figure 8 The current UK water Industry (Water UK, Internet, 2008)36 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 36 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 46. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities WHO (International Advisory) Regional European Union (Regional) UK Govt Ministries (DEFRA) UK Government Agencies (Regulatory) (England & Wales) National Local Authorities Water UK & Other Associations Private Water Public Water Consumer Supplies Suppliers Council for water Consumer Figure 9 The drinking water industry in England & Wales The water industry in England & Wales is regulated by different government appointed regulators focusing on different key areas: • Financial & economic – The Ofwat regulates the water services and prices charges; • Environmental – The Environmental Agency (EA) is responsible for raw water quality and resources, abstraction, pollution control and discharges into the environment; and • Drinking Water Quality – The Drinking Water Inspectorate regulates drinking water quality compliance. (Water UK, 2008)37 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 37 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 47. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 4.3.2. The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 Drinking water quality standards are specified in the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 and are based on the 1998 EC Drinking Water Directives. “Wholesome water” is defined by the water quality standards in the regulations, which includes 2 microbiological & 26 chemical Directive Standards, 2 microbiological & 10 chemical National Standards and 12 Indicator Parameters (This is because the 8 DWD indicator parameters have been adopted as the National Standards). The regulations also specify a catch-all standard that the water supplied does not contain any micro- organism or substances at a concentration or value which would constitute a potential danger to human health. The parameters, sampling frequency, compliance location and analysis specification are shown in Appendix D. (UK parliament, 2000) 38  The regulations (UK parliament, 2000)38 require public water companies to pre-fix the water supply zone annually, which is limited to a maximum of 100,000 consumers and must be of uniform water quality. Audit monitoring is carried out to establish that the specifications of the parameters in the regulations are satisfied, while check monitoring obtains information on the organoleptic and microbiological water quality and the drinking water treatment effectiveness for the purpose of satisfying the provisions of “wholesomeness” in the regulations. The frequencies of the compliance monitoring programme are specified within the regulations so that compliance statistics are not influenced by significant over-sampling. However, water companies may identify additional non-compliance sampling programme for more information on water quality. (DWI, 2005)39 Sampling points are required to be selected at random unless there is authorisation from the Secretary of State. Permanent sampling points are allowed only if there is no adverse change on the parameter between the sampling point and the consumer’s tap. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 38 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 48. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities It is clearly stated in the regulations that water companies are required to investigate any failure (or potential failure) and notify DWI of the cause of the failure and the actions taken by the water company. The regulations also set out actions taken by DWI once notification is made to either impose an enforcement order or have the water company seek a departure, so that remedial work could be carried out. An Authorised Departure (for Directive standards) or Derogation (for National Standards) is only allowed for parameters which pose no potential harm to human health and is only allowed for a maximum period of 3 years. (UK parliament, 2000)38 To satisfy article 10 of the Drinking Water Directive (1983)31, the DWI (2008)40, on behalf of Secretary of State for the Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, approves materials and chemicals used by water companies that come in contact with water, as stated in regulations 31 - 33 of the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 (2000)38. This is known as the Regulations 31 approval and is carried out on a case by case basis. 4.3.3. The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) Section 57 of the Water Act 2003 (UK parliament, 2003)41 amended Section 86 of the Water Industry Act 1991 (UK parliament, 1991) 42 to specifically designate the Chief Inspector, on behalf of the secretary of state, to independently carry out the powers and duties specified in sections 67 – 70 & 77 – 82 with respect to quality and sufficiency of supply of drinking water. The Chief Inspector publishes an Annual Report on Drinking Water in fulfilment of the requirements as stated in section 86(2b) of the Water Industry Act 1991 (UK parliament, 1991)42. Section 86(2b) requires the Chief Inspector to report to the Secretary of State on the status of the water industry with respect to water quality. Colbourne J. (2008)43 explains that the Chief Inspector is specifically designated by legislation to be independent from the government in discharging the specified duties and is subjected to judicial review on the Chief Inspector’s competencies. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 39 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 49. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The DWI ensures that the drinking water supplied to customers in England and Wales is safe and in compliance with the water quality regulations by carrying out the following core duties: • Carry out technical audit of public water companies; • Initiate enforcement action as necessary for contraventions of the wholesomeness standards or other enforceable environmental duties; • Investigate incidents which adversely affect drinking water quality; • Prepare cases for prosecution if there is sufficient evidence that water unfit for human consumption has been supplied; • Provide technical and scientific advice to Ministers and DEFRA officials and the office for the Welsh Assembly Government on drinking water policy issues, • Identify and assess new issues or hazards relating to drinking water quality and initiate research as required; • Assess and respond to consumer complaints on drinking water quality when local procedures have been exhausted; • Assist in the Authorities’ approval process for substances, products and processes used in the public water supplies; • Provide authoritative guidance on matters such as the analytical methods used in the monitoring of drinking water; • Provide technical advice to local authorities responsible for enforcing the Private Water Supplies Regulations 1991 (UK parliament, 1991)44 and regulating private water supplies; and • Report to the EU on UK’s drinking water quality under the European Drinking Water Directive (Ofwat, 2006)45 (May A, 2007)35  The current staff and organisation structure of the DWI are shown in Figure 10. The lean organisation is structured according to teams with specific core functions. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 40 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 50. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Figure 10 Organisation of the DWI (DWI, 29 May 07)46 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 41 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 51. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The water industry in England & Wales operates on a self-regulatory model. The DWI does not take or analyse samples or carry out investigations or remedial actions. Instead the DWI provides an independent check on all water quality data provided by water companies, carries out technical assessments on whether the investigation and actions by water companies are appropriate when there is a breach in standard and carries out audits for prioritised high risk water supply systems. Rouse M. (2000)47 confirmed that the technical audits comprise of the following activities: ‐ An annual assessment, based on water quality and other compliance information provided by companies ‐ Inspection of individual companies, focusing on whether the individual components of the treatment processes as a whole, is functioning as planned; identifying and mitigating areas of high vulnerabilities within the systems which compromise drinking water quality; and the accuracy of the companies’ sampling and analysis programme to ensure a reliable measure of drinking water quality; and ‐ Interim checks made on particular aspects of compliance with the regulations based on information provided periodically by the companies. May A. (2008)35 further elaborated that the DWI carries out inspection checks on: ‐ Sampling & analytical arrangements (review of sampling programme, audit of sampler, laboratory inspections); ‐ Reporting arrangements (audit trails); ‐ Compliance programmes (selected schemes audits, review of programmes to meet standards; undertakings review) ‐ Public records (whether the results are correct); ‐ Appropriate treatment processes in the treatment works; ‐ Operation and maintenance of the treatment works and distribution networks; and ‐ Consumer complaints. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 42 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 52. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The DWI has implemented a risk-based audit process to prioritise and focus their audits in high risk systems and processes. The process utilises all available information from water company data, inspector’s knowledge of the issues, process types and sites to time of last inspections, and ranks the systems and processes according to their risk. The inspectors then work through the list in order of risks, ensuring that the high risk sites are audited first using available resources. This is only possible and justifiable as water companies are required to provide all relevant water quality data to allow the DWI to get an accurate picture of water quality at the treatment works, service reservoirs and supply zones. (May A., 2007)35 From 1990 to 2003, the water companies were only required to submit annual compliance data to DWI for their assessment. Since 2003, the DWI requires water companies to submit monthly returns of all compliance sampling results to allow the: • Creation of a database to rigorously analyse and assess the water companies’ compliance with the standards; and • UK to comply with the requirements specified in the European Community Standardised Reporting Directive (91/692/EEC). (DWI, 2003)48 The DWI database is the key support for the DWI in carrying out its core duties more effectively. May A. (2007)35 found that the searchable water quality database (with over three million results a year) aids the DWI in their assessment, decision making and other regulatory functions. Taylor A. (28 Apr 08)49 shared that the database contains all records from the monthly compliance data submissions, incident reports, public enquiries, DWI’s investigations and other related information. The database allows the creation of visual maps of hotspots, which are used for analysis and included in the annual report. The DWI inspectors have the flexibility of working anywhere by having restricted access to the database on the DWI server using internet connections. Taylor A. (28 Apr 08) also confirmed that there is a strict format for the inputs of the compliance data as stated in DWI information letter 6/2003 (DWI, 2003)48, or the database will reject the data. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 43 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 53. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities S.68 (1) (a) of Water Industry Act 1991 (UK parliament, 1991)42 requires water companies to supply wholesome water, as defined by the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000. The duty of the DWI, on behalf of the secretary of state, is to consider enforcement when there is a breach in regulations. As explained in Chapter 4.3.2, water companies are required to notify the DWI of failures to supply wholesome water, the DWI thus provides guidance to water companies on notification of such events in their information letter 02/2004 (DWI, 2004)50. Water companies are required to notify the DWI of all events, the nature of which have, or are likely to have • Adversely affected the quality and sufficiency of the water supplied by them; • Given rise to a significant risk to the health of the consumers; • Been matters of national significance • Attracted local or national publicity relating to the supply or causing concern to consumers; • Been reports of disease in the community associated with water supply. The DWI will then carry out an investigation of the incident. (DWI, 2004)50  The DWI (2008)51 defines an incident as a sub-set of events, including combination, but not limited to the following: • Any sudden and unexpected breach of part III of the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 amendment regulations (England) & 2001 amendment regulations (Wales) on wholesomeness of water supplied • Any breach of Part IV of the above regulations on water treatment • Any usual deterioration of water quality • Any significant risk to the health of the consumer • Significant consumer perception of water quality changes • Significant consumer concern about the quality of the water supplied Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 44 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 54. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Examples of notification for the above events include any: • Event or sequence of events leading to a significant and unexpected or unusual deterioration in the quality of water at the source, on entering supply, or at any point in the distribution, resulting in customer concern • Malfunction of the disinfection or pre-treatment equipment • Notification made to local health authority under regulation 35 • Treated water sample with Cryptosporidium oocyst or Giardia cysts or significant increase in cryptosporidiosis • Burst mains or significant loss of supply or potential depressurisation of any point in distribution system • Suspected backflow/back siphonage • Significant publicity or contact made by local consumer representative or media interest All other event notifications are not classified as incidents. (DWI, 2008)51 The DWI inspectors use the flowchart in Figure 11 for their incident investigation. The water company should contact the DWI, either by telephone and email, as soon as it is aware of a notifiable problem or of a developing situation, which might become notifiable. An interim report with information set out in annex 4 of the information direction 03/2008 has to be submitted. Upon receipt of the initial notification, the DWI circulates outline details of the events to DEFRA, Welsh Assembly government and key external stakeholders (FSA, EA, DoH), as appropriate. Ministers may be advised of high profile events or events in their constituencies. Within 5 working days, the DWI will advise the company, in email or writing, about whether the event is considered an incident, non-incident or there is insufficient information to classify the event. If classified as an incident, the DWI might require the company to submit a final 20-day report. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 45 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 55. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities * Targeted time frames that Notification of Event may be extended should via Telephone/Other further investigation or means information be needed. ** Targeted time frame that 72 hours may be influenced by the Court. Assessment of initial Report *** Targeted time frame for this process from notification 5 days to report submitted by the Water Company 1 Month ***  Classified as Incident? 3 Months*  YES NO Full Report submitted Reclassified as a Signing off of by Water Company Non-Incident Non-Incident Assessment and Investigation Prosecution Assessment 12 Months**  NO YES  3 Months* Completion of Signing off of incident Prosecution Following Actions upon Proceedings Recommendations Figure 11 Assessment of Incidents Flow Diagram (DWI, online, 2008)52 The DWI (2008)53 evaluates and determines: • Cause of the event and whether it is avoidable; • Company response and handling of the event; • Lessons learnt to prevent future similiar events; • If any breach of enforceable regulations occurred; and • If water unfit for human consumption was supplied. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 46 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 56. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Upon assessment, the DWI will issue a concluding letter to the company and the relevant stakeholders. The concluding letter will include the findings and conclusions of the assessment, and any recommendations which the company can respond to within 20 working days. If a non-trivial failure of a directive standard was contravened that is likely to recur and was not due to consumers' tap, the DWI may invite the water company to apply for an Authorised Departure (EC Directives Standard) or Derogation (National Standard) provided there is no health risk involved. This allows the company to temporary supply water that is not wholesome up to a maximum of 3 years, provided the company carry out an undertaking to rectify the issue. The DWI can also consider an enforcement order on the water company to carry out specified rectification work for failures where there is a health risk. If the wholesomeness standard was contravened during the event and the problem is likely to recur, the DWI may consider initiating enforcement action under section 18 of the Water Industry Act 1991. Investigation and prosecution for the supply of water unfit for human consumption under s.70 of the Water Industry Act 1991 (amended under section 20 of schedule 8 of Water Act 2003 - enforceable on 1 Oct 04) and s.57 of Water Act 2003 (amended S86 of Water Industry Act 1991) allows prosecution of anyone whose action result in backflow or back siphonage incidents which affects the quality of water in the distribution. Prosecution will also be considered if: • At least 2 consumers experienced illness as a result of or reject the water supplied; • Evidence indicates that the company does not have a due diligence defence; and • It is in public interest to prosecute. (38 out of 40 cases since 1990 were successful prosecution.) (DWI, 2008)51 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 47 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 57. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The DWI (2008)54 carries out the Regulations 31 approval for products and chemicals used by public water companies on behalf of the Secretary of State as discussed in Chapter 4.3.2. The applicant submits all relevant information on the product or chemical to be approved, which the DWI regulations 31 team will review. The DWI might require further information, testing at an approved laboratory or seeking expert advice before allowing such products or chemicals to be used. At least once a year, the Secretary of State issues a list of all substances and products for which approval has been granted, refused, modified, revoked or prohibited. (DWI, 2008)55 Research on water quality issues, as a core duty, serves to augment the other core duties of the DWI. The DWI manages a DEFRA-funded research programme on drinking water quality and health. The purpose is to: • Provide a scientific basis for policy decisions, both within the UK and in international bodies like the EU, UN and WHO; • Provide technical information to understand present and upcoming drinking water contaminants on public health and consumer acceptability; • Obtain technical information to assist the DWI in carrying out its core duties more effectively and efficiently; and • Provide a basis for assessing regulatory activities’ impact on the public. (Watts and Crane Associates, 2006)56 An annual research ideas meeting is held to brainstorm and prioritise research projects to be carried out in the year. Representatives from DEFRA, DWI, HPA, UKWIR, EA and other stakeholders will present their proposed projects and the meeting will decide on the projects to be funded. (Foster J. 28 Apr 08)57 The DWI drafts the specifications for the projects to ensure that there is a clear objective and outcome. The most suitable procurement route, including co-funding, single tender or Expression of Intent (EOI), is selected for the project types. Upon tender closing, three independent scorers from DWI assess the award of the contract by using a scoring system. The most Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 48 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 58. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities important criterion is to determine if the proposal is realistic. The scoring also includes pricing, as the projects are government-funded and there is a need to be transparent. (Foster J. 28 Apr 08)57 Research projects are usually carried out by private consultants, academics, commercial research companies and water companies. The DWI Science and Strategy team manages the research project by monitoring progress, meeting with the contractor, processing/approving payment, reviewing and commenting on reports and evaluating the research project upon completion. (Foster J. 28 Apr 08)57 May A. (2006)58 conclude that “privatisation has achieved significant benefits in drinking water quality, but only with strong regulation and a regulator specifically dedicated to drinking water quality.” This would also apply to any water supplier, whether private or public. The reason is that the regulations should be based on evidence and facts to show where the companies are meeting the regulatory requirements, and where the improvements have to be made in the water systems. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 49 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 59. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticide in the UK 5.1. Metaldehyde Metaldehyde is the common active component for molluscicide pellets used for snail and slug control. The compound is also poisonous to animals. Metaldehyde is also used as camping stove fuel and was used in 1981 – 1982 in a cloud seeding experiment at the University of Utah. (Wikipedia, 17 Jun 08)59 A “cyclic polymer of acetaldehyde”, metaldehyde is an easily fractured colourless crystal with powdery appearance, tasteless and has a formaldehyde odour. It is soluble in benzene and chloroform; slightly soluble in diethyl ether and ethanol, but is insoluble in acetone and acetic acid. Metaldehyde will also polymerise at high temperature (>80○C) and by strong acid (WHO & FAO, 2008) 60 . Figure 12 provides more information. Clayden J. et al (2001) 61 wrote that metaldehyde is formed from acetaldehyde with hydrochloric acid (HCl) below 0○C and on heating, reverts back to acetaldehyde. Bieri M. (2003) 62 noted that metaldehyde is a pure hydrocarbon which degrades finally to water & carbon dioxide after first degrading to acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. Polymerisation is the chemical process of substances merging to form new compounds (Nathan et al, 1975)63. IUPAC name: r-2, c-4, c-6, c-8-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetroxocane. CAS name: 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetraoxacyclooctane. CAS registry number: 108-62-3. (The homopolymer is 9002-91-9). Molecular formula: C8H16O4 Relative molecular mass: 176.2 g/mol Density 1.27 g/cm3 Solubility: Water @ 17○C - 200 mg/litre Water @ 30○C - 260 mg/litre Synonyms: Metacetaldehyde Structural formula: Trade names: AntimiliceR; AriotoxR; CekumetaR; DeadlineR; HalizanR; LimatoxR; Limeol GR; MetaR; MetasonR; MifaslugR; NamekilR; Slug DeathR; Slug Fest Colloidel 25R; SlugitR; Slug-ToxR. Figure 12 Information profile of Metaldehyde. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 50 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 60. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Metaldehyde is effective by contact (absorption through skin or lungs) and by ingestion (absorption through the gastrointestinal tracts). The effective single dose which will kill off 50% of the rat population in laboratory tests (LD50) is about 227 mg/kg body weight (bw). Humans can experience symptoms of poisoning with a low dose of only a few mg/kg of their body weight. Other toxicity information can be found in Table 8. The WHO (2005) 64 classified metaldehyde as a class II or moderately hazardous chemical. Table 8 Toxicity studies on metaldehyde Toxicity – mammals Oral LD50 Dermal LD50 4-hr inhalation LD50 Rat 227-690 mg/kg bw >2275 mg/kg bw 200 µg/m3 Mouse* 200 mg/kg bw 203 µg/m3 Guinea pig 175-700 mg/kg bw Rabbit 290 – 1250 mg/kg bw * An oral dose of 1000 mg/kg bw can kill mice within 2 hrs of exposure. Symptoms of poisoning 10 minutes after dosing include sedation, shivering, whole body tremors, tonic-clonic convulsions and death. Toxicity - Man >50 mg/kg Drowsiness, tachycardia, spasms, irritability, salivation, abdominal cramps, fever, facial flushing, nausea, vomiting 50 – 100 mg/kg Ataxia and increased muscle tone 100 – 200 mg/kg Convulsions, tremors and hyperflexia 400 mg/kg Coma and death Toxicity – Non-mammals Rainbow trouts 96-hr LC50 = 62 µg/m3 Bluegills 96-hr LC50 = 10 µg/m3 Chickens Minimum lethal dose of 500mg/kg bw Ducks Minimum lethal dose of 300 mg/kg bw Pan UK (2008) 65 provides an explanation of the following physical properties of pesticides in measuring their interaction with the environment: • Half life (DT50) – defined as the time required for half of the pesticide present after application to degrade. The time depends on temperature, soil pH, soil microbe content, exposure to light, water or oxygen. This is further sub-divided into soil half-life (in soil), photolysis half-life (exposure to light) and hydrolysis half-life (reaction with water). Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 51 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 61. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities • Water solubility – measures “how readily the chemicals dissolve in water” and determines the likelihood of a pesticide being transported away from the application site by run-off. • Adsorption coefficient, Koc – measures the chemical’s adhesion strength to soil and is defined as “the ratio of mass of pesticide adsorbed per unit mass of soil to mass of pesticide remaining in solution at equilibrium”. Koc is dependent on type of soil and soil pH. High Koc value indicates a preference to soil adhesion rather than to dissolving in water. • Octanol-water partition coefficient, log Kow – measures chemical distribution between two immiscible solvents (polar water and non- polar octanol) and is defined as the “ratio of the concentration of pesticide in the octanol layer to the concentration of the pesticide dissolved in the water layer”. Low log Kow value indicates the chemical is more hydrophilic and more soluble in water. As shown in Table 9, it takes about 10 days for metaldehyde to degrade in soil. Bieri M. (2003)62 claimed that metaldehyde has a DT50 of about 5.3 to 9.9 days in average German top soil under aerobic conditions and expects metaldehyde to have a DT50 of 12 days in water. However, the US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) (2006)66 stated that metaldehyde has a half-life of 2 months in aerobic soil and >200 days in anaerobic conditions. Table 9 Metaldehyde properties table Common Pesticide Soil Half-life Water Solubility Sorption Name Movement (days) (mg/l) Coefficient Rating (soil Koc) Metaldehyde Low 10 230 240 (National Pesticide Information Centre, 2008)67 Rumsby P. (2007)68 stated that metaldehyde is one of the emerging contaminants that several UK water companies are facing, as it has recently exceeded the individual pesticide standard of 0.1 µg/l in 2007. Rumsby P. (2007)68 speculated that there could be a higher usage of the molluscicide in the wet 2007 summer to control snails and slugs and that metaldehyde might not be removed by GAC due to its low Kow value greater than 2. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 52 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 62. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities WRC (2008)69 is now commissioned by some of the water companies to work with them to carry out research to identify suitable treatment processes for the removal of metaldehyde. This in turn will help the companies to decide on appropriate treatment processes and provide evidence to support their discussion with DWI and other relevant authorities on proposals to resolve the metaldehyde issues. 5.2. Role of Regulation The DWI (2008)70 reported that in the western region, 2 out of 37, 239 tests for individual pesticides exceed the standard of 0.10µg/l for metaldehyde, although there was no PCV breach for total pesticides. The DWI (2007)71 is considering enforcement action after evaluating the incidents and found that: • There was inadequate notification of relevant authorities for the contravention; • There was little priority given to analysis of metaldehyde when the increased risks of hazards are known; and • Bristol Water plc failed to meet the requirements of the Water Undertakers (Information) Direction 2004 The DWI (2008)72 further reported that Sutton and East Surrey Water in the Thames region found metaldehyde in its reservoir and in the final water after extending its raw water monitoring programme. The extension of the raw water monitoring programme was a result of the DWI being critical of Sutton and East Surrey Water for not taking any action, nor was it mindful of the river water quality, despite being made aware of a potential source water pesticide problem three months earlier. Allen J. (2008) 73 said that the DWI is currently viewing the metaldehyde contraventions as any other breaches in the standard. The DWI is investigating the situation and ensuring that the water companies are working to resolve the issues to prevent reoccurrence. Bristol Water plc (2008)74 commented that from 2007, one of their greatest current challenges is the high metaldehyde pesticide levels found in Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 53 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 63. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities raw water. In 2007, 2 out of 31 tests for metaldehyde, in water sample from a supply point, were tested with a maximum concentration of 0.209µg/l, which failed to meet the individual pesticide standards of 0.1µg/l. Bristol Water plc (2008)74 carries out a pesticide monitoring strategy based on an independent assessment of the types of pesticide used within their catchment areas, and only carries out analysis for any pesticide with a concentration greater than 10ng/l. It was found that metaldehyde concentration in raw water and after treatment exceeded the standards at certain times of the year and under certain conditions, although the concentration levels detected in the treated water were not considered to be hazardous to human health. Nevertheless, Bristol Water plc has commissioned research to determine suitable treatment process to treat the water to the required standards. The Control of Pesticide Regulations (COPR) and Plant Protection Products Regulations (PPPR) legislation regulates the use, supply, storage and advertisement of pesticides in the UK. The Pesticide Safety Directorate (PSD) is responsible for agricultural pesticides, while the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) are responsible for non-agricultural pesticides. (PSD, 2008)75 PSD (2008) 76 approved 179 products containing metaldehyde from about 40 companies, for use with conditions in the UK until 21 Dec 2013. However with the enforcement of EC regulation 396/2005 on the maximum residue levels (MRLs), PSD (2008)77 has revoked about 127 products for on label use on Potato and Cauliflower crops. 5.3. Case Study The company was aware of industry concerns of metaldehyde occurring in drinking water supplies in December 2007, where the increase was likely due to increased usage within the catchment areas and heavy rainfall during the period. The company’s pesticide sampling programme did not include metaldehyde, as no significant quantities were detected previously in their catchments. (Water company, 2008)78 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 54 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 64. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Investigation sampling of raw and final water samples at four water treatment works were carried out on 14 Dec 07. Specialised analysis was carried out by an external professional laboratory. The results of the analysis indicated that metaldehyde (concentration range of 0.107µg/l to 0.125µg/l) was detected above the PCV at three of the water works. The analysis of re- sampling of the final water samples from three of the water works on 23 Jan 08 found that metaldehyde above the PCV was still detected from samples taken at one of the water treatment works. Further sampling on 25 Jan 08 at this water treatment works and its distribution system did not find any sample with metaldehyde above 0.1µg/l. (Water company, 2008)78 A further survey of metaldehyde carried out in the surface water treatment works in the region and a bulk supply from another water company from the same region on 25 – 29 Jan 08 revealed metaldehyde above or at PCV in several raw water sources and two treated water samples. From Feb to Mar 08, the company continued to carry out surveys to determine the risk and treatment removal efficiency for metaldehyde and found metaldehyde levels above 0.1µg/l at two new monitoring points and one of the earlier water works. The company has since included a monthly sampling programme for metaldehyde for the region for risk assessments purposes. (Water company, 2008)78 The water treatment works treats raw water with physical-chemical treatment processes including storage reservoirs, coagulation, clarification (dissolved air flotation or hopper bottom clarifiers), rapid gravity filtration, GAC adsorption and chlorine disinfection. One of the treatment works is even fitted with pre-ozonation and ozone before GAC adsorption. Based on the results of the sampling analysis and from the water industry sources, the company concluded that GAC and ozone might not remove metaldehyde efficiently. (Water company, 2008)78 & 79 The external professional laboratory used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) following solid-phase extraction (SPE). This analytical method is partly validated and accepted by UKAS & DWI, but is not UKAS- Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 55 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 65. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities accredited yet (Personal communication, 2008)78. Although the company was concerned about the results obtained from the analysis of sample having discrepancies (discussed below), the external professional laboratory claimed that further investigation indicated that the method used is specific to metaldehyde and is robust. Nevertheless, the company intends to work with all relevant stakeholders on establishing a properly accredited analytical method for metaldehyde. (Water company, 2008)78 An analysis of the results provided by the company (Water company, 2008) 78 indicates the following: • Some of the raw water samples were not available for comparison with treated water samples which indicated metaldehyde above PCV; • Some of the final treated water has a higher metaldehyde concentration than post-GAC sample, although all results were above the PCV; • Many of the raw water samples have a lower metaldehyde concentration than the final treated water sample; and • The time of collection of some raw water samples was later than the time of collection of the downstream final treated water sample. As a result of a number of water companies facing metaldehyde contravention, a meeting was held in Apr 08 to discuss the issue. This meeting was attended by the DWI, EA, Water UK, and representatives from manufacturers and water companies. It resulted in finding ways to investigate and proposing solutions to the challenge, such as • Reformulation of slug pellets to reduce solubility; • Comprehensive education programme for users; • Inter-laboratory trials on verification of analytical method • Research into treatment options for removal of metaldehyde (Government Agency, 2008)80 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 56 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 66. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 6. Water Situation in Southeast Asia 6.1. Association of Southeast Asian Nations The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (2008) 81 was established on 8 Aug 1967 to form an ASEAN community with the objective of regional peace, stability and economic co-operation and social-cultural development. The fundamental principles of ASEAN, contained in the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC), primarily rely on recognition of equality and sovereignty of each member country; non- interference in the internal affairs of other member countries; peaceful resolution of differences and intra-national issues; and effective co-operation among member countries. Figure 13 Map of ASEAN ASEAN comprises of 10 Southeast Asian countries (as shown in Figure 13), namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao People Democratic Republic (PDR) (or Laos), Myanmar and Cambodia. In 2006, ASEAN has 560 million people, 4.5 million square kilometres, about US$1,100 billion in combined gross domestic product and about US$1,400 billion in total trade. (ASEAN, 2008)81 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 57 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 67. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The annual Meeting of the ASEAN Heads of State and Government is the highest decision making body in ASEAN and convened the ASEAN Summit every year. The ASEAN Standing Committee coordinates the work carried out in between the annual ASEAN Ministerial Meeting. Member countries take turn to chair the ASEAN summit and meetings. Regular Ministerial meetings on specific sectors are supported by committees of senior officials, technical working groups and task forces. There are also several specialised bodies and arrangements promoting inter-governmental cooperation in various fields. This is illustrated in Figure 14. The Secretary- General of ASEAN is appointed on a five-year term, and accorded ministerial status, to initiate, advise, coordinate, and implement ASEAN activities. (ASEAN, 2008)81  ASEAN Summit ASEAN Economic  ASEAN  ASEAN Finance  Ministerial  Ministerial  Ministerial  Others Meetings (AEM) Meeting (AMM) Meeting (AFMM) Senior Economic  Senior Officials  ASEAN Senior  ASEAN Standing  Officials meetings  Meeting (SOM) Finance Officials  Committees Committee (ASC) (SEOM) Meeting (ASFOM) Sub‐committees/  Working Group Working Group Sub‐committees /  Sub‐committees /  Working Groups Working Group Working Group ASEAN  secretariat Figure 14 ASEAN Organisation structure (ASEAN, 2008)81  In 1997, the ASEAN leaders adopted the ASEAN vision 2020 which aims to build an outward-looking, peaceful, stable and prosperous group of Southeast Asian nations. One of the aims of the ASEAN Vision 2020 calls for “a clean and green ASEAN with fully established mechanisms for sustainable development to ensure the protection of the region's environment, the sustainability of its natural resources and the high quality of life of its Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 58 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 68. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities peoples." This highlights the emphasis placed by ASEAN in recognising that sustainable development and environmental protection as instrumental in long term economic growth and social developments in the region. The ASEAN governance environmental structure to develop, coordinate and implement environmental initiatives and programmes is shown in Figure 15. (ASEAN, 2008)82 ASEAN Summit  (ASEAN Heads of state/Government)  ASEAN Ministerial Meeting  ASEAN Ministerial Meeting  (AMM)  on the Environment   Secretary General  (ASEAN Foreign Ministers)  (ASEAN Environment Ministers)  of ASEAN  ASEAN Senior Officials  ASEAN Secretariat  ASEAN Standing Committee  (ASC)  on the Environment   (Bureau for Resources  (ASOEN)  Development)  ASEAN Working  ASEAN Working  ASEAN  ASEAN Working  ASEAN Working  Group on  Group on  Working Group  Group on  Group on Water  Nature  Coastal and  on Multilateral  Environmentally  Resources  Conservation &  Marine  Environmental  Sustainable Cities  Management  Biodiversity  Environment  Agreements   (AWGESC)   (AWGWRM)  (AWGNCB)  (AWGCME)  (AWGMEA)  Figure 15 ASEAN environmental governance structure The ASEAN Working Group on Environmentally Sustainable Cities (2008)83, chaired by Singapore, was formed in Jun 2003 to develop strategies and action plans for the Regional Environmentally Sustainable Cities Programme (RESCP). The RESCP focuses on economic developments of cities in the region in conjunction with the sustainable enhancement of the living environment within the city in the area of clean air, clean land and clean water. In the area of clean water, part of the strategies and programmes to achieve good accessibility and quality of water supply for ASEAN cities include: ‐ Enforcement of efficient supply and use of water by reviewing and enacting water policies and legislation; and ‐ Monitoring of water quality standards for drinking water by developing ASEAN indicators, benchmarks and associated monitoring programme on water sources quality, supply and accessibility. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 59 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 69. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The ASEAN Working Group on Water Resources Management (AWGWRM) focuses on the long term sustainable integrated water resources management plan to ensure sufficiency of water supply for ASEAN. One of the key needs in the ASEAN Strategic plan for water resources management (2005)84 is to develop a reporting system for a common set of water quality standard and parameters across ASEAN for evaluation and analysis. Table 10 Water statistics for Southeast Asian countries (1995 & 2004) Drinking water House connections for Population coverage drinking water Country Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) 2004 water statistics Cambodia 19 81 41 64 35 9 36 2 Indonesia 47 53 77 87 69 17 30 6 Lao PDR 21 79 51 79 43 14 44 6 Malaysia 64 36 99 100 96 94 98 87 Myanmar 30 70 78 80 77 6 16 2 Philippines 62 38 85 87 82 45 58 23 Singapore 100 0 100 100 100 100 Thailand 32 68 99 98 100 38 85 16 Brunei* - - - - - - - - Vietnam 26 74 85 99 80 24 73 6 1995 water statistics Cambodia 14 86 29 4 54 29 25 0 Indonesia 36 64 74 13 90 28 65 4 Lao PDR 17 83 49 13 79 44 43 6 Malaysia 56 44 98 100 98 96 Myanmar 26 74 61 5 85 17 53 1 Philippines 54 46 87 31 92 46 81 13 Singapore 100 0 100 100 100 100 Thailand 30 70 97 32 98 76 97 13 Brunei* - - - - - - - - Vietnam 22 78 68 11 91 44 61 1 * Statistics for Brunei are not available (WHO &UNICEF, 2008)85 The UN (2008) 86 reported that the percentage of population with access to clean water in urban areas have decreased from about 94% in 1990 to 89% in 2005, while the percentage in rural areas has increased from about 68% in 1990 to about 76% in 2004. The decrease in percentage for the urban Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 60 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 70. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities areas appears to be due to the fact that the service delivery systems are unable to keep pace with the rapidly growing population. As seen in Table 10, there is a shift in the population from the rural areas to the urban areas. Other than Singapore, Malaysia and urban Thailand, the percentage of houses with direct connections for drinking water is very low. Biswas A. (2003)87 believes that water management solutions must be found within the developing countries, rather than just copying solutions from other parts of the world. This is because of the differences in climatic and local water issues. In Southeast Asia, 80% of the annual rainfall is focused within 15 to 20 non-consecutive days within the monsoon period, which lasts about two to three months, and it is relatively dry the rest of the year. Therefore, ASEAN countries have to manage the large quantities of water within those periods for flood prevention and water supply. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2005)88 recommended the need for establishing a regulatory framework for water services in Asian countries. As the provision of water services is a natural monopoly in a city, companies could exploit their control with high tariff and inequitable service delivery while governments could keep water charges too low for political gains. Resource and economic regulations will ensure that all stakeholders’ interests are catered for and that water services are efficient and cost-effective. Based on ADB’s experience in Asia, there is a need for competent, credible and independent regulators within a transparent regulatory framework throughout Asia and that subsidies are the purview of the government and not the water services providers. ADB recognises that Singapore’s water agency, PUB, responsible for both water services and policy implementation, is able to self-regulate well because of the discipline and commitment by the government. Although most Asian countries self-regulate, they are unable to do so as well as Singapore, because legislation and policies are often overlooked and the agencies lack the autonomy to manage their own affairs, even though it is legislated but it is not enforced. ADB recommends that governments need to become regulators Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 61 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 71. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities instead of just service providers. Regulations are required to bring transparency, accountability, equitability and efficiency to the water sector and must apply to all public and private operators. Regulatory bodies must protect both consumers’ and operators' interests and need only ensure that policies and legislation are conformed with. (ADB, 2003)89 6.2. Singapore Located in Southeast Asia between Malaysia and Indonesia, Singapore is a tropical island city state with a land mass of 682.7 sq km, a population of 4.6 million people and virtually no natural resources (CIA, 2008) 90 . Tortajada C. (2006) 91 noted that Singapore is considered a water scarce country because of the limited land area to store the annual rainfall of 2400 mm/yr, Figure 16 Map of Singapore making water supply one of the CIA, 4 Jul 08)90 Singapore Government’s main concerns. At the dialogue session during the inaugural Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize Award Ceremony, Singapore’s Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew revealed that Singapore's quest to be less dependent on Malaysia for its water supply came about from day one when the country separated from Malaysia in 1965. Then the Prime Minister of Singapore, Mr Lee believed that technology would steer Singapore towards self-sufficiency and set up a unit within the Prime Minister’s Office to systematically plan to make every drop of water in Singapore potable (Channel Newsasia, 25 Jun 08)92. This highlights the need for any country to put in place a long term sustainable water resources management strategy. It also clearly shows that the Singapore government sees water as an important strategic resource for survival, public health and economic development. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 62 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 72. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities The World Bank (2006) 93 highlighted that the core water policy in Singapore is to ensure a long term sustainable clean water supply. This follows tremendous efforts in the 1980s to establish a strictly enforced environmental, legal and management system; integrated urban land-use planning; pollution clean-up and control systems and the construction of a complete urban sanitation system. Totajada C. (2006)91 believes that Singapore’s success in water management is due to: • Concurrent emphasis on water supply and demand management; • Institutional effectiveness; and • Creating an enabling environment, including strong political will, an effective legal & regulatory framework and an experienced and motivated workforce. During the World Water Week Conference 2007 held in Stockholm, Sweden on 15 Aug 07, the Singapore government and WHO signed a partnership agreement to work together in promoting safe management of drinking water globally. Mrs Susanne Weber-Mosdorf, WHO's Assistant Director-General for Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments, commented that "Singapore is an exemplary model of integrated water management and WHO hopes to work closely with Singapore to share such expertise in water management with its Member States." (WHO & MEWR, 2007)94 Deere et al (2007)95 reported that the main finding of the feedback from the WSP training of trainers workshop, held in Singapore on 3 – 5 Dec 07, is that while WSP trainers agree that implementing WSPs would be useful in improving water quality and the reliability of water supplies, water utilities are unlikely to implement WSP unless they are legally obliged to do so, as the WSP will not be their main priority. Water regulators would be required to implement legislation or provide incentives to encourage water suppliers to implement WSP. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 63 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 73. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 6.2.1. Water Quality Regulations The Ministry of Environment and Water Resources (MEWR) is responsible for ensuring a sustainable living environment for Singaporeans and focuses on the management of water, land, air and public health. MEWR has two statutory boards, the National Environment Agency (NEA) and PUB (the national water agency) to carry out the operational undertakings. PUB is responsible for water issues, while NEA is responsible for issues relating to the quality of the living environment in Singapore, environmental protection and environmental public health. Both statutory boards are answerable to the Minister for Environment & Water Resources and the Government of Singapore in discharging their responsibilities. The current Singapore water quality regulatory model is summarised in Figure 17. (MEWR, 2008)96 Within MEWR, the Water Studies Division (WSD) is responsible for the strategic oversight of water issues in Singapore, including the water master plan, pricing, legislation, policies and planning considerations. MEWR also takes on the role of regulating the efficiency and performance of PUB, the sole public water supplier. (Ministry, 2008)97 PUB is responsible for the technical and operational requirements of water supply. The country’s water collection and drainage systems, reservoirs, public water treatment plants, public water distribution networks, sewerage systems, water reclamation plants, public NEWater factories and NEWater distribution networks are owned and managed by PUB. Under the public- private-partnership (PPP), PUB also purchases water from private-owned NEWater factories and desalination plant, carried out under the design, built, owned and operate (DBOO) arrangements. NEWater is Singapore’s third national tap or water source and is produced from treated used water using dual-membrane filtration and UV disinfection. Chapter 6.2.2 discusses this further. (PUB, 2008)98 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 64 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 74. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Ministry of Environment and Water Resources Water Services Division ‐ Responsible for overall strategic policy on all water issues ‐ Formulates policies for water industry ‐ Regulates PUB on efficiency & performance ‐ Determines the tariff structure for public drinking water supplies  PUB National Environment Agency (NEA) ‐ Manages the entire water cycle ‐ Environment and water quality regulator ‐ Responsible for integrated urban ‐ Responsible for approval of Water Safety water resources management Plans and sampling programme ‐ Sole public drinking water supplier ‐ Regulations sets the WHO (except for small private supplies guidelines (1 microbiological, 3 for internal consumption) physical, 3 radiological, 94 chemical ‐ Regulates operational parameters) for quality parameters requirements for water supply and sampling frequency system (including plumbers) ‐ Responsible for regulating water quality of ‐ Operational training for utilities private water supplies PUB-owned drainage Private owned NEWater Private water supplies for systems, reservoirs, water factories and internal consumption treatment works, desalination plant (campsites on offshore NEWater factories, owned & operated under islands) sewerage systems the PPP arrangement – NEA is responsible for water quality Water Supply system to household, public buildings, private buildings and industries Figure 17 Current Singapore water quality regulatory model Since Jan 08, MEWR has worked with NEA to introduce the new Environmental Public Health (Quality of piped drinking water) Regulations 2008, which becomes enforceable in Aug 2008. The newly formed Drinking Water Unit (DWU), under the NEA’s Environmental Public Health Department, is responsible for regulating water quality for both public and private water suppliers. As such, the DWU is responsible for approving the WSPs that PUB and other private water suppliers will prepare. The DWU is Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 65 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 75. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities working closely with the WHO in developing and promoting the water safety plans amongst developing member states and is a member of the WHO Regional Office for Europe’s (WHOROE) International Network of Water Regulators. The WHOROE (2008)99 explained that only regulators are invited to join this network for the purpose of knowledge sharing and networking. While there are limited private piped water supplies, these are mainly for internal use in the offshore islands and there is usually no tariff charged, so the tariffs are not regulated. However, NEA is responsible for regulating the water quality for these water supplies. With the new regulations, MEWR is working closely with PUB and NEA on their role in regulating the private water supplies. It is likely that PUB will regulate the technical efficiency of these water supplies, while NEA is responsible for the public health aspect of water quality. (Personal communication, 2008)97 The Public Utilities Act 2001 (Singapore Government, 2001) 100 was enacted to reconstitute the Public Utilities Board (PUB) and matters connecting to water services. S.6 of the Act specifies the functions and duties of the board including, amongst other things, the responsibilities to “secure and provide an adequate supply of water at reasonable prices” and “regulating the supply of piped water for human consumption”. PUB is also responsible for the levy and regulates the tariffs for water supplied for human consumption, but the Minister’s approval is required for setting the tariff structure. S.41 of the Act also stipulates that only PUB is allowed to supply piped water for human consumption, unless explicit approval with conditions is granted by PUB. The Public Utilities (Water Supply) Regulations specifies that water meter and water saving devices are mandatory in Singapore, unless exemptions are approved by PUB (World Bank, 2006)93.  It seemed highly unlikely that PUB will allow exemption in the public supplies, as this will have an impact on the tariff collection and the efficient use of drinking water. The Minister for Environment and Water Resources appoints the Director-General of Public Health to discharge the duties specified in the Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 66 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 76. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Environmental Public Health Act 1987 (EPHA) under section 3 of the Act. S. 58 requires the approval of the Director-General for any wells, tanks or reservoirs used for drinking, domestic or other purposes. S.78 – 80 of the EPHA specifies that only wholesome or unpolluted water may be sold for human consumption and allows NEA to introduce regulations to define water quality standards. (Singapore Government, 1987)101 Although Singapore has always adopted the WHO guidelines on water quality, the Environmental Public Health (Quality of piped drinking water) Regulations 2008 is the first to be introduced that legally defines water quality standards. The specified water quality parameters, attached as Appendix E, include 1 microbiological parameter, 95 chemical parameters, 3 radiological parameters and 3 physical-chemical parameters. These are essentially extracted wholesale from the WHO Guidelines for Safe Drinking Water. The regulations also require all water suppliers to implement a WSP and sampling programme, approved by the Director-General, which has to be reviewed annually. (Singapore Government, 2008)102 NEA also produced a “Code of practice on piped drinking water sampling and safety plan” to help water suppliers in complying with the regulations. The code of practice (NEA, 2008) 103 recommends a basic sampling for microbiological parameters only at the frequency specified in the WHO guidelines (as shown in Chapter 4.1.5), while the minimum frequency of the comprehensive sampling plan for all parameters specified in the regulations is at least once a year, except those approved and identified as not of concern. Lye L.H. (2006)104 argued that environmental laws can be effectively enforced only if an effective system of governance is established, starting with effectively organised government institutions, offices and enforcement agencies. Lye L.H. (2006)104 concluded that Singapore owes its success in environmental management to its merit-based systems, political leadership, administrative service and civil servants in the various environmental agencies. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 67 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 77. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 6.2.2. Integrated Water Resources Management PUB (2008) placed equal emphasis on both components of IWRM - water supply and water demand management. This is neatly summed up in its vision “Water for All: Conserve, Value, Enjoy” (MEWR, 2008)106. However, water supply management will be the main focus of this chapter. Figure 18 Closing the Water Loop in Singapore (PUB, internet, 2008)105 Since 2001, PUB (2008) 105 manages, in an integrated manner, Singapore’s water resources from drainage systems, rivers, reservoirs, waterworks, distribution network, water reclamation plants, NEWater factories and sewerage systems to optimise Singapore’s limited water resources. Using advanced technology, PUB short-circuit the water loop with NEWater (reclamation of treated used water) and desalination as shown in Figure 18. Some of the key water statistics can be found in Table 11. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 68 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 78. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Table 11 Water resources statistics for Singapore Water Resource Management Unit 2005 2006 2007 Drinking water (% access) % 100 100 100 Adequate sanitation (% access) % 100 100 100 Drinking water quality (meeting WHO standard) % 99.96 99.99 99.96 Water consumption as % of water demand met by % 100 100 100 total water resources Unaccounted for water % 5.0 4.5 4.4 No. of accounts served per employee - 396 400 393 Monthly bill collection efficiency % 99 99 99 Monthly bill collection efficiency Days of sales 33 32 32 outstanding Water Supply Unit 2005 2006 2007 No. of raw water reservoirs in Singapore - 14 14 14 No. of desalination plants - 1 1 1 Sales of potable water in Singapore ‘000m3/day 1,206 1,230 1248 - Domestic 694 702 724 - Non-domestic 512 528 524 No. of NEWater plants - 3 3 4 Sale of NEWater ‘000m3/day 73 81 134 Sale of Industrial Water ‘000m3/day 107 112 80 Volume of used water treated ‘000m3/day 1,352 1399 1469 Water Demand Unit 2005 2006 2007 Domestic water consumption per capita litres/day 160 158 157 (MEWR, pg 7, 2008)106 Singapore has developed the Four National Taps or four water sources to ensure a sustainable and diversified water supply for Singapore. These comprise of local catchment water, imported water, NEWater and desalination. (MEWR, 2008)106  Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 69 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 79. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities i) Local Catchment Water Singapore practises large scale rainwater harvesting from protected, unprotected and urbanised catchments. This is made possible by integrated land-use planning and development, including siting of pollutive industries in designated zones, strict pollution control and a comprehensive separate sewerage and drainage systems. There are currently 14 reservoirs in Singapore, but two-thirds of Singapore’s land surface will be water catchment by 2011 with the completion of the Marina Barrage and Punggol- Serangoon Reservoir Scheme as shown in Figure 19. The reservoirs are integrated with excess water collected from one reservoir pumped into another for storage to reduce water wastage under the reservoir integration scheme. (Lee P.O., 2005)107 Punggol‐   Figure 19 Singapore's catchment areas PUB is working on the Marina Barrage project, which is a unique 3-in-1 project. The barrage is a dam across the 350m Marina Channel and comprises of nine steel crest gates. The benefits of the Marina barrage are to act as a tidal barrier to control flooding in some of the low-lying parts in the city, create the 15th freshwater reservoir with a catchment area of 100 sq km in the already built-up city centre of Singapore, and to become a major Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 70 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 80. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities lifestyle attraction with many opportunities for lifestyle, recreational and sports activities in downtown Singapore. (Lee P.O. 2005)107 ii) Imported Water Singapore currently imports water from the neighbouring Malaysian state of Johor under two long term agreements signed in 1961 and 1962. These agreements allow Singapore an entitlement of raw water until 2011 and 2061 respectively. The water is treated in Johor and transferred via three large pipelines across the 2km causeway between the two countries. (Tortajada C., 2006)91 iii) NEWater All used water in Singapore is collected via the sewerage systems and treated at water reclamation plants to international standards. The use of advanced water technology allows Singapore to reclaim the treated used water. This ultra-clean NEWater is treated using a multi-barrier micro- filtration, reverse osmosis and ultra-violet disinfection. The technology is discussed in Table 3 of Chapter 3.2. Although a small percentage is mixed into the raw water reservoirs for indirect potable use (IPU), most of the NEWater is supplied for use in the industries and commercial buildings as part of a substitution strategy. This meant that potable water, previously used by the industries, can now be available for human consumption. PUB owns and operates 3 NEWater factories, and purchase NEWater from the Keppel Seghers Ulu Pandan NEWater Plant on a 20 years Design, Built, Own & Operate (DBOO) contract, which can supply up to 148, 000 m3/day (32 MGD or million gallons per day). (PUB, 2008)108 PUB (2008)109 also recently signed a 25-year NEWater agreement with Sembcorp Utilities Pte Ltd to design, build, own and operate the 50 MGD NEWater plant on the rooftop of the new PUB’s Changi Water Reclamation Plant. As with all NEWater factories, PUB will put in place a comprehensive system of water quality tests and audit, and the plant’s online water quality monitoring system will be linked to PUB for Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 71 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 81. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities continuous real-time monitoring. The 5 NEWater factories will supply up to 30% of Singapore’s current water needs by 2010. iv) Desalination The first Public-Private-Partnership project in Singapore is the desalination plant project awarded to Singspring Pte ltd, a subsidiary of Hyflux Ltd. PUB can purchase desalinated water from the 30 MGD (136,380 m3/day) Singspring Desalination Plant for 20 years. A 2-pass reverse osmosis process, with pre-treatment (Dissolved Air Flotation Filtration) and post-treatment (remineralisation) processes, produces desalinated water to supply up to 10% of Singapore’s current water needs. The desalinated water is blended with PUB’s treated potable water before being supplied to the public. The plant was officially opened by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on 13 Sep 05 and the project was accorded the Asia Pacific Water Deal of the year 2003 by Euromoney. As the plant’s online monitoring system is linked to PUB’s monitoring system, PUB is able to monitor the major water quality parameters on a continuous, real- time basis. (Hyflux, 2008)110 There are 14 integrated water supply zones in Singapore, comprising the distribution network from each of the 14 service reservoirs determined both by hydraulics and reservoir capacity, rather than by population size. This is because the supply zones serve both industry and domestic needs. These service reservoirs, consisting of one or more tanks, are regularly maintained and are shut down for inspection and cleaning at least once every 5 years or as and when necessary. (Haja N., 2008)111 Kok T.W. et al (2008)112 highlighted that PUB has a comprehensive integrated water quality management and operation system to monitor water quality for the water supply chain from source to tap. This allows real-time analysis and trending of water quality, which is used in operations and decision making. Woo C.H. (2008)113 explained that any abnormality will be Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 72 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 82. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities generated by the systems, which will alert the relevant officers to take necessary action. Together with monitoring of source water quality and operational water quality at the water treatment works, the water quality is also monitored extensively throughout the water supply network through: • Online water quality monitoring of surrogate parameters using onsite sensors and analysers located at strategic critical control points; • Daily routine sampling of about 170 samples collected at all service reservoirs, distribution mains, customers’ premises and specific sampling programme from schools and hospitals; • Toxicity monitoring using telemetric CCTV fish monitoring in conventional tanks or Fish Biosensors using de-chlorinated treated water from critical points along the trunk mains and service reservoirs. (Kok T.W., 2008)112 With regards to water quality management within the customer’s premises, Kok T.W. et al (2008)112 explained that PUB employs the following three-prong approach: • Legislation & enforcement – only PUB licensed plumbers can carry out plumbing works, and all plumbing works and fittings have to comply with the stipulated requirements. Customers are required to regularly inspect and properly maintain their water services installations. • Education – regular briefings and circulars are used to raise awareness and provide help to customers in maintaining their water services installations. • Physical measures – Advice on physical measures to ensure water quality is provided for customers. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 73 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 83. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 7. Discussion The UN has started to recognise that safe drinking water and sanitation are very important elements for supporting a country’s development. This can be seen in the targeted approach to solving global issues through the provisions of the MDGs, and the involvement of the various UN agencies, countries and other organisations in assisting those countries which are facing water shortages. Other than investment in technological developments, there is a need to ensure that there are sufficient supporting institutional arrangements for educational, legislative and regulatory structure to support the sustainable developments of the country. While technology provides the means to solve the micro issues, such as removing a certain contaminant from drinking water, the institutional and supporting arrangements provide a sustainable solution to the macro issues. Without proper access to safe and sustainable drinking water and sanitation for its population, a country’s developments can be severely limited. In the case of Singapore, drinking water is essential for both human and economic survival. The provision of a stable government and sustainable and reliable infrastructure (including amongst other things, uninterrupted, reliable drinking water supply and 100% sanitation services) ensure continued foreign investment in providing jobs and development of Singapore’s growth as a nation. This makes Singapore attractive as a regional headquarters for many multi-national companies looking to invest and develop their businesses in the Asia-Pacific region. It can be appreciated that the development of Singapore’s integrated water resources management systems has taken time to continuously develop and maintain, ensuring its high standards today. While governments are usually committed to providing safe drinking water for the population, there is uncertainty as to what determines that drinking water is safe. It is not possible to determine whether water is safe unless it is tested and measured against a set of parameters regularly. The challenge is that there are both natural (which was previously unknown) and man-made (previously not available) contaminants that can be found in water Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 74 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 84. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities that needs to be treated to potable standards. Unless there is sufficient evidence to show the safe contaminant concentration levels, the setting of acceptable standards is determined by a government authority’s judgement, based on perceived health, social and economic considerations. Monitoring and sampling programmes require resources, which have to be balanced with other necessary developments. As monitoring programmes usually provide long term intangible results, they are given less priority than other short term tangible developments. Countries, in different regions and in different stages of development, face different issues in relation to drinking water quality. The development of regional groupings, like the EU and ASEAN, provides common grounds for networking and sharing of knowledge on common water quality issues, ensuring consistent policies among the regional member states in providing a minimum level of safe drinking water in the region. With a regional minimum safe drinking water level, it would allow the region to raise the safe drinking water quality level in a sustainable, continuous manner. Raising the safe drinking water quality level requires time, commitment and resources, and has to be consistent with the developments in other areas in the country. 7.1. International guidelines As an international health authority, the WHO is able to pull resources together to provide public health advice to the WHO member states. This allows the cross-sharing of knowledge in determining and handling known public health risks. The WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality is the result of water experts around the world collaborating on producing recommendations for the provision of safe drinking water. The guideline values for the parameters stated in the Guidelines are the minimum standards that all countries could aspire to achieve in their national drinking water quality standards. Being an international advisory document, the guidelines have to be comprehensive and have to cater for all situations, whether in developed or Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 75 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 85. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities developing communities. It is up to the national authorities to determine the application of the guidelines. The success of implementing the framework for safe drinking water depends on the political will, government stability and the institutional arrangements within the country. The government leaders must have the political will to ensure that water remains one of their top priorities, so that the necessary resources can be committed to developing and maintaining the drinking water infrastructures to meet the national requirements. This can be seen in the case of Singapore, where there is political will in ensuring that water remains a priority on the national agenda. Together with scientific evidence, the political will of the leaders in accepting and promoting NEWater is also one of the main reasons that NEWater is generally accepted by the public as one of Singapore’s national taps, allowing reclaimed water to be used nationwide. Drinking water and sanitation infrastructure require resources to support both development and maintenance. This is only possible if there is stability in the country with a government committed to providing the necessary climate and support for investments. There is a need to ensure that the private or public water utilities can recover the cost and that sufficient incentives are provided to allow private water utilities to consider investing in water services in the country. It is unlikely that a company will provide services and invest in an unstable country, where there is no regular and effective collection of sufficient tariffs to at least cover the cost of the water services and generate some profit. The WSP is only a tool to ensure that the health-based targets are achieved. It is for the national health authority to determine what targets are required to be achieved based on the local conditions, as highlighted in Chapter 4.1.2. The WSP will not be effective without a proper definition in the legislation defining “drinking water quality”. Although the WSP is a simple tool, there is a need to determine the necessary institutional arrangement that will allow the sustainable Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 76 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 86. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities implementation of the WSP. One of the institutional arrangements is the legislative instrument to require the use of WSPs in water services. As highlighted by Deere et al (2007) on page - 63 -in chapter 6.2, feedback from the WDP trainers indicated that there is a need to include WSP in the legislation to ensure that water utilities give it priority. The UK and Singapore are some of the few countries which have specifically amended their legislation to ensure that water utilities implement WSPs. However, there is a parallel need for an independent regulator who must be competent enough to verify that the WSP is implemented effectively. Existing well-managed water utilities have already been practising the hazard analysis and critical control mentioned in the WSP, especially in the water treatment works and distribution systems. The WSP allows water utilities to involve other stakeholders to put in place WSP in the catchment and consumer’s premises, which are usually outside the control of the water utilities. The WHO has recommended shifting the emphasis for the provision of safe drinking water to a preventive approach instead of relying on end-point monitoring. End-point monitoring is now used as a verification tool to ensure that the WSP is implemented properly. As such, the sampling frequency is very minimal, as seen in Table 6 & Table 7. The Guidelines do recommend a higher sampling frequency for variable surface water sources. This is necessary, as sampling only provides water quality information at the point of collection. There is definitely a need to monitor water quality regularly and frequently to ensure a safe drinking water supply. It is important to take into account water quality changes due to the local (seasonal, geological, cultural, industrial, etc) conditions. 7.2. EU & ASEAN perspectives It can be seen from analysing the EU and the ASEAN that the 2 regional groups function quite differently. There are also political, cultural and social differences. While both regional groups were formed for the common Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 77 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 87. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities economic and social development of their region, the approaches to achieving these objectives are quite different. The EU has created an independent EU government that presides over the member states and as such, can create legislation to govern and push regional objectives. However, the ASEAN has to ensure that ASEAN objectives do not constitute interference in the internal affairs of member states and functions mainly through consensus. The ASEAN therefore does not have the legislative authority to allow the creation of regulations similar to the EU DWD to ensure a minimum water quality among the ASEAN region. It would be more useful for the ASEAN to provide guidance, advice and resources through the ASEAN working groups, as shown in Figure 15, to share resources on water quality management. A regional grouping of water quality regulators, affiliated to the WHOROE’s International Network of Water Regulators (of which the Singapore water quality regulator is a member of) could be set up to allow the sharing of knowledge and networking among the ASEAN water quality regulators. It can be seen that there is a shift in the population in Southeast Asian countries and the ASEAN cities are growing. As highlighted by Tortajada C. (2006)91, Singapore’s experience and performance in integrated water resources managements could be emulated by other countries to ensure sustainable water supplies for their urban cities. However, to cater to the entire country, Singapore’s experiences have to be adapted to each city in the country, and expanded to the surrounding rural communities. The key is then to ensure that there are suitable institutional arrangements to allow for such developments. 7.3. UK and Singapore water quality regulatory model While the UK has adopted a privatised industry in England & Wales, with independent regulators to allow for private investments to meet the EU DWD, Singapore has elected for public agencies to provide water and sewerage services, with the provision for public-private partnership in water treatment. Both drinking water industries are funded by the collection of Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 78 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 88. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities tariffs, which is based on a set of criteria to allow the UK water companies and the Singapore water agencies to be sufficiently financed. Subsidies are provided separately by the governments, and not by the companies and utilities. This allows a fairer payment of water services, both for the consumers and the water utilities. In the UK, the water quality is governed by legislation, strictly enforced by the DWI. The water utilities are self-regulated, as they provide the necessary sampling results to show compliance with the regulatory requirements. The legislation requires the compliance of the relevant parameters at specified concentration values and the water companies are only obliged to supply such information. The water companies will not sample, test and provide information to the DWI on parameters that are not required by the regulations. As such, there is a need to ensure that the legislation caters for all possible parameters and situations. It is thus crucial to have the DWI monitoring and ensuring that the companies are carrying out their obligations and to introduce changes to the legislation when required. The collection of monthly water quality data allows the DWI to analyse and determine contraventions and possible trends, so that further contraventions can (hopefully) be avoided. The UK water quality regulatory model, with the DWI functioning as an independent water quality regulator, is a cost effective model. The model allows the water utilities to carry out monitoring programmes, ensure compliance with the water quality standards, and carry out improvement programmes and remedial actions for water quality incidents. Water utilities would then be able to gain competencies in handling water quality issues in their provision of services. At the same time, it allows the government to focus on being regulators, rather than service providers. The regulators exist as a check to ensure compliance, while the water utilities focus on operational efficiency and cost recovery through tariffs. The DWI is well established with more than 18 years of regulatory experience, which shows that a strong regulator within a well defined Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 79 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 89. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities regulatory structure is required for ensuring that there are improvements to water quality. It is important to the DWI that they are seen to be acting independently from the UK government and without interference from political leaders, especially since the DWI is funded through DEFRA. This is to assure the public that their interests are being protected. This independence can be seen in the heavy reliance of science-based evidence used in decision making within the DWI and the sharing of water quality information with the public through media releases and the annual reports by the Chief Inspector. This would certainly apply to both public and private utilities. In Singapore’s case, PUB is responsible for the provision of drinking water of the highest quality to the public, and reports directly to the Minister for Environment and Water Resources in discharging its duties. PUB is also considered self-regulated, although there is a difference from the term used in the UK. This is because the legislations do not provide an exact meaning to the definition of water quality. As drinking water is of high importance in Singapore, PUB has to take extra measures to determine and ensure safe drinking water based on the guideline values recommended by the WHO Guidelines for safe drinking water. The move to introduce the Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008, with the requirements of the use of WSP and water quality parameters, and the setting up of the Drinking Water Unit within the NEA are important steps to ensuring the continued provision of safe drinking water within Singapore. As the DWU is a relatively new setup within the Environmental Health Department of the NEA, the functions of the DWU are still being worked out so that there is no conflict between the functions of PUB and NEA. It is likely that PUB will remain responsible for the technical and efficient operation of water services, while DWU is responsible for ensuring that public health risks arising from drinking water are minimised. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 80 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 90. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities It would certainly be useful for the DWU to develop capabilities similiar to those of the DWI, to allow the DWU to carry out its roles and functions competently. This is because of the need for competent knowledge in public health risks, water treatment processes, water quality issues, legislation and local conditions to allow the DWU to carry out the regulatory duties effectively. Other than the approval of WSPs, the DWU would have to carry out technical audits to verify that the water suppliers are implementing the approved WSPs appropriately. This would require the setting up of a technical audit framework that allows the DWU to carry out regular assessment and checks to assure themselves and the public that the risks are being managed properly. The development of a water quality database and proper procedures in the submission of water quality data would allow the DWU to carry out evidence-based decision making and water quality assessment, and also to carry out a risk-based approach to auditing water supplies, focusing their limited resources on high risk parts of the water supply systems. The DWU would have up-to-date water quality information for the entire country available, thus allowing the DWU to investigate and determine current and potential water quality issues. All the WHO Guidelines parameters have been adopted as the water quality parameters in the regulations, some of which might not be applicable in Singapore. This has meant that additional resources are used in potentially unnecessary sampling and monitoring. It is reasonable for the legislation to allow the water companies and utilities to carry out testing of all of the water quality parameters for a period of time, to effectively determine which relevant parameters should be monitored. The DWU could analyse the water quality data to refine the water quality parameters in the regulations and independently determine the relevant water quality parameters to be monitored more frequently. The legislation does not clearly specify the functions of the DWU, the actions and procedures to be carried out in the event of a breach in the Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 81 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 91. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities drinking water standards, nor the penalty or enforcement actions for such breaches. As such, it is unclear what the DWU or the Director-General of Public Health will do in the event of such breaches. It would likely include notices to the water suppliers to carry out remedial actions to ensure that such contraventions would not happen again. It is also not a requirement in the legislation to inform the DWU of water quality incidents, which means that the DWU will be unable to investigate all incidents, thereby ensuring that the water companies are carrying out proper remedial actions. An independent regulator with sufficient authority is crucial in providing an independent check on the drinking water quality and ensuring that water utilities implement suitable improvement programmes to meet regulatory compliance. Although both PUB and NEA report to the same ministry, it is highly certain that there is independence in regulating water quality, as PUB & NEA are separate entities with separate funding. 7.4. Proposed ASEAN Water Quality Regulatory Model Arising from the studies, a flexible basic water quality regulatory model for ASEAN cities is proposed, as shown in Figure 20. The model is divided into three sections: International; Regional/Sub- regional and National arrangements. The purpose of the model is to provide the basic regulatory framework to ensure adequacy and sufficiency of an uninterrupted supply of safe drinking water. The UN agencies and the WHO form the international arrangements, in the form of co-ordinators and advisors for the region and countries in ensuring safe drinking water. The UN could focus on international co- operation, development and implementation of strategies to achieve the MDGs for the regions. The WHO provides advice and support on public health risks arising from drinking water. The international bodies would have broad global overviews of the critical health issues and could coordinate resources in assisting countries dealing with drinking water issues. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 82 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 92. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities United Nations WHO International (International Co-ordinator & Support) (International Health Authority & Advisor) ASEAN (Regional co-ordinator and advisor) Sub-regional Regional & ASEAN Network of Water Regulators National Environment Ministry Regulatory Agencies Ψ Water Quality Accredited Regulator Laboratories Public Water Agency Public Statutory Private Water Water Supply Supplier companies Public owned drainage and National reservoir system Public Owned Private Public Statutory works Water works Supplier works Public Water Agency Public Statutory Distribution Network Supplier distribution ж ж ж network Consumer Ж – Consumer Representative group Ψ – Regulatory agencies include the financial regulator, environment agencies, land use/town planning authorities, accreditation authority, and local authorities/councils Figure 20 Proposed basic water industry model Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 83 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 93. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities In Southeast Asia, the ASEAN could continue to play an active role in ensuring and promoting safe drinking water in the agenda. The formation of the ASEAN Network of Water Regulators, affiliated with the International Network of Water Regulators, will allow the ASEAN regulators to share and collaborate on water regulatory challenges and water quality issues pertaining to the region. An ASEAN agency could also be instituted to develop the reporting system for a common set of water quality standard and parameters across the ASEAN for evaluation and analysis. Within the country, the national Environment Ministry could be responsible for policies and legislation on water resources and quality. The ministry could introduce and maintain suitable institutional arrangement and legislative authority to regulate water resources and water services. This allows the Environment Ministry to exercise a national overview of the water challenges of the country and coordinate the developments needed. The country could look at every practicable source of water and develop an integrated water resources management strategy to ensure sustainable water resources for the population and for national developments. The IWRM strategy must be consistent with the developments of the country. Most ASEAN countries already have public water agencies in place to provide water services. This could be developed further to practice IWRM and carry out the operational functions of IWRM for the Environment Ministry. The public water agency could be responsible for the water resources and sanitation infrastructure, including the rivers, lakes, reservoirs, drainage systems and sewerage collection systems. The public water agency or the environment agency could also be responsible for abstraction and discharge into the water resources infrastructure to ensure the sufficient use of water resources and that the water resources are not heavily polluted. The water quality regulator could be one of the independent regulators set up to ensure drinking water quality. The other regulators could include land-use authority, accreditation authorities, financial regulator, environment agencies and local councils/governments. The water quality regulator ensures Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 84 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 94. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities that the safe drinking water is supplied in accordance with the regulations by carrying out similar functions like the DWI as discussed in Chapter 4.3.3. Water supply services would be provided by three different types of entities, which are the public water agency, public statutory water supply companies and private water supplies. The public water agency could operate its own water treatment works to gain operational experience and maintain a basic water supply, and could also enter into public-private-partnership agreements to purchase treated water from treatment works owned and operated by private companies. The public agency would still be responsible for the distribution network and supply to the consumers. Private water companies could also be licensed to be public statutory water supply companies, which could have separate water supply systems to consumers. There could also be connections in the separate distribution networks to ensure continuity of supply and need only be used in rare circumstances. In certain areas, there might be a need to maintain and allow for private water supplies. However, these should be the exception, rather than the norm, as private water supplies will usually be used in places which are beyond the reach (both economic and physical conditions) of the public water supply networks. There should also be feedback channels, including consumer representatives groups to allow for feedback and complaints to the water suppliers. Such complaints are usually the first indications of water quality and sufficiency issues. The basic water quality model will allow a consistent approach to developing and ensuring that there is an uninterrupted supply of safe drinking water to the public. It is also flexible enough to be adapted to the local conditions in the country. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 85 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 95. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 7.5. Metaldehyde-containing pesticides, a practical issue Metaldehyde is one of the emerging contaminants that UK water utilities are required to deal with in their treatment systems. The main issue is that water utilities are finding that GAC and ozone might not be efficient in removing metaldehyde from drinking water and thus there might be a risk that this might contravene the pesticide standards. There is also no accredited approach for analysing metaldehyde in water. Analytical results from the case studies raised many questions as the data does not seem to make sense, especially since some of the final treated water samples have higher metaldehyde concentration than that found in the raw water sample. As with all contaminants, there is a need for a multi-faceted approach to involve stakeholders in resolving the issue. It can be clearly seen from the studies of the metaldehyde incidents that the sampling programmes were extended to monitor for the presence of metaldehyde, due to the information sharing amongst the water companies and with the DWI. This was in addition to having the DWI as an independent regulator to audit the water companies on their monitoring programmes and regulatory compliance. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 86 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 96. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 8. Conclusion While technologies are available to treat water to a suitable quality and can be adopted by countries to provide safe drinking water, technologies focus on the micro issues. Regulatory and management frameworks focus on the macro policies and issues to ensure the sustainable use of technology in providing safe drinking water for the population. Technology and regulatory frameworks need to be incorporated concurrently to ensure a consistent approach to ensure a sustainable water supply for the population’s basic needs and national developments. Regulations are not meant to deter or hinder water utilities in discharging their duties. It is meant to help water utilities (both public and private) in ensuring that they are providing the best possible water services to the public. Regulations also ensure that both the interests of the water utilities and the consumer are protected. Well-managed utilities would have already carried out the necessary checks to ensure compliance and incorporated possible strategies to handle potential issues in their water services. The water quality regulators independently verify regulatory compliance and assure the public that the water utilities are providing safe drinking water. At the same time, this arrangement allows the water quality regulators to obtain and analyse information on current and potential water issues. The WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality provide a framework that could be adapted to different countries and situations in different stages of development to ensure the provision of safe drinking water. The institutional arrangements within the region and country are important factors to ensure that the framework is properly implemented. One of the important criteria in the implementation would be to amend the legislation to require the water utilities to implement WSPs. Although the emphasis is on a preventive approach to safe drinking water, there is a need to balance the approach with regular and sufficiently frequent Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 87 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 97. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities monitoring programmes. There is no assurance of water quality unless there is evidence through proper sampling and analysis of water samples. The effective UK water quality model has advantages in that it allows the government to focus on being regulators, rather than service providers. It has a regulatory framework with a strong independent water quality regulator that has been proven to be effective in ensuring that safe drinking water is provided through regulatory compliance. It is also cost effective, as it allows water utilities to be self-regulated and provide for sampling and monitoring of compliance parameters with no need for duplicating resources in a parallel sampling and monitoring programme operated by a regulator or health ministry. The ASEAN has seen a shift in the populations from rural communities to urban cities. This meant that there is a critical need to ensure that there are sufficient and adequate safe drinking water supplies for these rapidly growing cities. It is important that the ASEAN ensures that member countries review and enact the relevant water policies and legislation, as well as develop ASEAN water quality standards. There are certainly great potential and advantages in adapting the UK regulatory model for the ASEAN cities. ASEAN member countries could also emulate Singapore’s success in integrated water resources management. These led to the development of the water quality regulatory model in Figure 20. Singapore has successfully implemented water resources management and has been focusing on technology development. The government has just started on developing a regulatory framework for drinking water quality. The introduction of the new regulations in Singapore and the DWU are positive steps in aligning with the WHO Guidelines on drinking water quality and in ensuring the sustainable development of safe drinking water in the country. As the DWU is a relatively new regulatory unit, it would be useful to collaborate with the DWI to develop its competencies in a unique Singaporean model. To discharge its duties, some of the possible areas in which the DWU can develop to strengthen its competencies and knowledge are to: Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 88 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 98. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Set up water quality database for water quality analysis; Develop frameworks for technical audits and incident investigations; Refine the Singapore water quality standards and tighten the water quality legislation; Focus research on emerging water quality issues; and Provide continual training for staff in water treatment, water quality and public health issues required in carrying out their regulatory functions. Metaldehyde contaminant is an emerging cause of concern in the UK. Water utilities are finding that their current treatment processes do not seem to be effective in removing metaldehyde. Sampling and analytical approaches need to be developed to ensure the timely and accurate detection of metaldehyde in water. These studies indicate that the UK water quality regulatory structure and the presence of the DWI have ensured that water companies are working to monitor and resolve the metaldehyde issue and other contraventions in a consistent manner. The dissertation focuses only on water quality regulatory models and has only covered the tip of the iceberg of the challenges faced in the provision of a sustainable, uninterrupted and safe drinking water supply to the ASEAN cities. Some potential areas of further studies are the: Further development and implementation of the ASEAN water quality regulatory model, taking into consideration the local conditions within the ASEAN member countries; Development of a training framework for competent regulators; Review and tighten the Singapore water quality legislations; Identification of the institutional arrangements required for the implementation of the WHO framework for safe drinking water; and Development of strategies for the effective treatment and control of metaldehyde in drinking water. ~ End ~ Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 89 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 99. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix A - The UN Millennium Development Goals (Lenton R. et al, pp xviii – xix, 2005)2 Goals Target 1. Halve, between 1990 & 2015, the proportion of 1. Eradicate Extreme people whose income is less than $1 a day. poverty & hunger 2. Halve, between 1990 & 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. 3. Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and 2. Achieve universal girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of Primary Education primary schooling. 3. Promote gender 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and equality and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all empower women levels of education by 2015. 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the 4. Reduce child under-5 mortality rate. mortality 5. Improve maternal 6. Reduce by three-quarter, between 1990 and 2015, health the maternal mortality rate. 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, spread of HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources. 7. Ensure 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people Environmental without sustainable access to safe drinking sustainability water and basic sanitation. 11. Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 90 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 100. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 8. Develop a global 12. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, partnership for non-discriminatory trading and financial system development (includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally) 13. Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (include tariff- and quota-free access for Least Developed Countries’ export, enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt and more generous official development assistance of countries committed to poverty reduction) 14. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly provision) 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 16. In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries 18. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially Information and Communication Technologies Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 91 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 101. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix B – International Drinking Water Guidelines Appendix B-1: The WHO Guidelines for safe drinking water (WHO, 2006)7 Guideline values for verification of microbial quality a Organisms Guideline value All water directly intended for drinking E. coli or Thermotolerant coliform bacteria b,c Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample Treated water entering the distribution system E. coli or Thermotolerant coliform bacteria b Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample Treated water in the distribution system E. coli or Thermotolerant coliform bacteria b Must not be detectable in any 100-ml sample a. Immediate investigative action must be taken if E. coli is detected. b. Although E. coli is the more precise indicator of faecal pollution, the count of Thermotolerant coliform bacteria is an acceptable alternative. If necessary, proper confirmatory tests must be carried out. Total coliform bacteria are not acceptable indicators of the sanitary quality of water supplies, particularly in tropical areas, where many bacteria of no sanitary significance occur in almost all untreated supplies. c. It is recognized that in the great majority of rural water supplies, especially in developing countries, faecal contamination is widespread. Especially under these conditions, medium-term targets for the progressive improvement of water supplies should be set. Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water Chemical Guideline Remarks value a (mg/litre) Acrylamide 0.0005b Alachlor 0.02b Aldicarb 0.01 Applies to aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone Aldrin and dieldrin 0.00003 For combined aldrin plus dieldrin Antimony 0.02 Arsenic 0.01 (P) Atrazine 0.002 Barium 0.7 Benzene 0.01b Benzo[a]pyrene 0.0007b Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 92 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 102. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Chemical Guideline Remarks value a (mg/litre) Boron 0.5 (T) Bromate 0.01b(A,T) Bromodichloromethane 0.06b Bromoform 0.1 Cadmium 0.003 Carbofuran 0.007 Carbon tetrachloride 0.004 Chlorate 0.7 (D) Chlordane 0.0002 Chlorine 5 (C) For effective disinfection, there should be a residual concentration of free chlorine of >0.5 mg/litre after at least 30 min contact time at pH <8.0 Chlorite 0.7 (D) Chloroform 0.3 Chlorotoluron 0.03 Chlorpyrifos 0.03 Chromium 0.05 (P) For total chromium Copper 2 Staining of laundry and sanitary ware may occur below guideline value Cyanazine 0.0006 Cyanide 0.07 Cyanogen chloride 0.07 For cyanide as total cyanogenic compounds 2,4-D (2,4- 0.03 Applies to free acid dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 2,4-DB 0.09 DDT and metabolites 0.001 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 0.008 Dibromoacetonitrile 0.07 Dibromochloromethane 0.1 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 0.001b 1,2-Dibromoethane 0.0004b (P) Dichloroacetate 0.05b (T, D) Dichloroacetonitrile 0.02 (P) Dichlorobenzene, 1,2- 1 (C) Dichlorobenzene, 1,4- 0.3 (C) Dichloroethane, 1,2- 0.03b Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 93 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 103. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Chemical Guideline Remarks value a (mg/litre) Dichloroethene, 1,2- 0.05 Dichloromethane 0.02 1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) 0.04 (P) 1,3-Dichloropropene 0.02b Dichlorprop 0.1 Dimethoate 0.006 Dioxane, 1,4- 0.05b Edetic acid (EDTA) 0.6 Applies to the free acid Endrin 0.0006 Epichlorohydrin 0.0004 (P) Ethyl benzene 0.3 (C) Fenoprop 0.009 Fluoride 1.5 Volume of water consumed and intake from other sources should be considered when setting national standards Hexachlorobutadiene 0.0006 Isoproturon 0.009 Lead 0.01 Lindane 0.002 Manganese 0.4 (C) MCPA 0.002 Mecoprop 0.01 Mercury 0.006 For inorganic mercury Methoxychlor 0.02 Metolachlor 0.01 Microcystin-LR 0.001 (P) For total microcystin-LR (free plus cell- bound) Molinate 0.006 Molybdenum 0.07 Monochloramine 3 Monochloroacetate 0.02 Nickel 0.07 Nitrate (as NO3-) 50 Short-term exposure Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) 0.2 Nitrite (as NO2-) 3 Short-term exposure 0.2 (P) Long-term exposure Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 94 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 104. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Chemical Guideline Remarks value a (mg/litre) Pendimethalin 0.02 Pentachlorophenol 0.009b (P) Permethrin 0.3 Only when used as a larvicide for public health purposes Pyriproxyfen 0.3 Selenium 0.01 Simazine 0.002 Styrene 0.02 (C) 2,4,5-T 0.009 Terbuthylazine 0.007 Tetrachloroethene 0.04 Toluene 0.7 (C) Trichloroacetate 0.2 Trichloroethene 0.02 (P) Trichlorophenol, 2,4,6- 0.2b (C) Trifluralin 0.02 Trihalomethanes The sum of the ratio of the concentration of each to its respective guideline value should not exceed 1 Uranium 0.015 (P,T) Only chemical aspects of uranium addressed Vinyl chloride 0.0003b Xylenes 0.5 (C) a. P = provisional guideline value, as there is evidence of a hazard, but the available information on health effects is limited; T = provisional guideline value because calculated guideline value is below the level that can be achieved through practical treatment methods, source protection, etc.; A = provisional guideline value because calculated guideline value is below the achievable quantification level; D = provisional guideline value because disinfection is likely to result in the guideline value being exceeded; C = concentrations of the substance at or below the health-based guideline value may affect the appearance, taste or odour of the water, leading to consumer complaints. b. For substances that are considered to be carcinogenic, the guideline value is the concentration in drinking-water associated with an upper-bound excess lifetime cancer risk of 10-5 (one additional cancer per 100 000 of the population ingesting drinking-water containing the substance at the guideline value for 70 years). Concentrations associated with upper-bound estimated excess lifetime cancer risks of 10-4 and 10-6 can be calculated by multiplying and dividing, respectively, the guideline value by 10. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 95 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 105. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Guidance levels for radionuclide in drinking-water Radionuclide Guidance Radionuclide Guidance Radionuclide Guidance level level level (Bq/litre)a (Bq/litre)a (Bq/litre)a 3H 10 000 93Mo 100 140La 100 7Be 10000 99Mo 100 139Ce 1000 14C 100 96Tc 100 141Ce 100 22Na 100 97Tc 1000 143Ce 100 32P 100 97mTc 100 144Ce 10 33P 1 000 99Tc 100 143Pr 100 35S 100 97Ru 1000 147Nd 100 36Cl 100 103Ru 100 147Pm 1000 45Ca 100 106Ru 10 149Pm 100 47Ca 100 105Rh 1000 151Sm 1000 46Sc 100 103Pd 1000 153Sm 100 47Sc 100 105Ag 100 152Eu 100 48Sc 100 110mAg 100 154Eu 100 48V 100 111Ag 100 155Eu 1000 51Cr 10000 109Cd 100 153Gd 1000 52Mn 100 115Cd 100 160Tb 100 53Mn 10 000 115mCd 100 169Er 1000 54Mn 100 111In 1000 171Tm 1000 55Fe 1 000 114mIn 100 175Yb 1000 59Fe 100 113Sn 100 182Ta 100 56Co 100 125Sn 100 181W 1000 57Co 1 000 122Sb 100 185W 1000 58Co 100 124Sb 100 186Re 100 60Co 100 125Sb 100 185Os 100 59Ni 1000 123mTe 100 191Os 100 63Ni 1000 127Te 1000 193Os 100 65Zn 100 127mTe 100 190Ir 100 71Ge 10 000 129Te 1000 192Ir 100 73As 1 000 129mTe 100 191Pt 1000 74As 100 131Te 1000 193mPt 1000 76As 100 131mTe 100 198Au 100 77As 1 000 132Te 100 199Au 1000 75Se 100 125I 10 197Hg 1000 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 96 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 106. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Radionuclide Guidance Radionuclide Guidance Radionuclide Guidance level level level (Bq/litre)a (Bq/litre)a (Bq/litre)a 82Br 100 126I 10 203Hg 100 86Rb 100 129I 1000 200Tl 1000 85Sr 100 131I 10 201Tl 1000 89Sr 100 129Cs 1000 202Tl 1000 90Sr 10 131Cs 1000 204Tl 100 90Y 100 132Cs 100 203Pb 1000 91Y 100 134Cs 10 206Bi 100 93Zr 100 135Cs 100 207Bi 100 95Zr 100 136Cs 100 210Bib 100 93mNb 1000 137Cs 10 210Pbb 0.1 94Nb 100 131Ba 1000 210Pob 0.1 95Nb 100 140Ba 100 223Rab 1 224Rab 1 235Ub 1 242Cm 10 225Ra 1 236Ub 1 243Cm 1 226Rab 1 237U 100 244Cm 1 228Rab 0.1 238Ub,c 10 245Cm 1 227Thb 10 237Np 1 246Cm 1 228Thb 1 239Np 100 247Cm 1 229Th 0.1 236Pu 1 248Cm 0.1 230Thb 1 237Pu 1000 249Bk 100 231Thb 1 000 238Pu 1 246Cf 100 232Thb 1 239Pu 1 248Cf 10 234Thb 100 240Pu 1 249Cf 1 230Pa 100 241Pu 10 250Cf 1 231Pab 0.1 242Pu 1 251Cf 1 233Pa 100 244Pu 1 252Cf 1 230U 1 241Am 1 253Cf 100 231U 1 000 242Am 1000 254Cf 1 232U 1 242mAm 1 253Es 10 233U 1 243Am 1 254Es 10 234Ub 10 254mEs 100 a. Guidance levels are rounded according to averaging the log scale values (to 10n if the calculated value was below 3 × 10n and above 3 × 10n-1). b. Natural radionuclide. c. The provisional guideline value for uranium in drinking-water is 15 mg/litre based on its chemical toxicity for the kidney Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 97 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 107. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis of water supplies (WHO, pp 54, 1997)26 Source and mode Minimum frequency of sampling and Remarks of supply analysis Bacteriological Physical/chemical Open wells for Sanitary protection Once initially for Pollution usually expected community supply measures; community wells to occur bacteriological testing only if situation demands Covered dug wells Sanitary protection Once initially, Situations requiring testing: and shallow tube measures; thereafter as change in environmental wells with hand- bacteriological testing situation demands conditions, outbreak of pumps only if situation waterborne disease, or demands increase in incidence of waterborne diseases Deep tube wells Once initially, Once initially, Situations requiring testing: with hand-pumps thereafter as situation thereafter as change in environmental demands situation demands conditions, outbreak of waterborne disease, or increase in incidence of waterborne diseases Protected springs Once initially, Periodically for Situations requiring testing: thereafter as situation residual chlorine if change in environmental demands water is chlorinated conditions, outbreak of waterborne disease, or increase in incidence of waterborne diseases Community Sanitary protection Not needed - rainwater collection measures; systems bacteriological testing only if situation demands Piped distribution 12 Faecal indicator 1 per 5000 system test sample per year population (up to 100 000 per 5000 population population) rounded up Piped distribution 12 Faecal indicator 1 per 10 000 system (100 000 – test sample per year population, plus 10 500 000 per 10000 population additional samples population) plus additional 120 samples Piped distribution 12 Faecal indicator 1 per 10 000 system test sample per year population, plus 10 (>500 000 per 10000 population additional samples population) plus additional 180 samples Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 98 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 108. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix B-2: Analysis of Microbial water quality OECD & WHO (pp48 - 73, 2003)9 provided an analysis of microbial and non- microbial parameters which are used to assess drinking water quality. Microbial parameters include: a) Total coliform – Basic information on source water quality, it is easy to detect and enumerate in water, include non faecal coliform. Detectable using simple inexpensive cultural method b) Thermotolerant coliform – Refers to a group of total coliform able to ferment lactose at 44 - 45○C and comprises genus Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter & Citrobacter. Total coliform can originate from faeces, industrial effluent. It is easily detectable. c) E. coli – taxonomically well defined; abundant in faeces concentration of 109 per gram. Detectable by simple inexpensive cultural methods. d) Enterococci & faecal streptococci – mostly of faecal origin and generally regarded as specific indices of human faecal pollution. Faecal streptococci is more resistant to stress and chlorination. Enterococci can be used to supplement E.coli in catchment assessment in tropical climates as an index of faecal pollution and can also be an additional indicator of treatment efficiency. Detectable by simple inexpensive cultural methods e) Ratio of counts of Thermotolerant and faecal streptococci – >4 indicate a human source while <0.7 indicate animal source. Not recommended as means of differentiating pollution f) Direct total counts and activity tests (total and viable bacteria) – provide basic info on no of bacteria in water during abstraction and treatment. Not used in routine monitoring as the test assesses only general microbial levels and not faecal contamination. Simple and rapid. g) Heterotrophic aerobic and aerobix spore former bacterial counts – used to assess general bacterial content of water (only those able to grow and produce visible colonies on media under prescribed temp and incubation time. Useful for long term assessment of water treatment efficiency and cleanliness & integrity of distribution system and suitability of water for use in food & drink manufacture. Simple, inexpensive cultural methods. h) Bacteriophages – viruses that infect bacteria; easy to detect and enumerate. Coliphages is detectable by simple, inexpensive and rapid methods, while Bacteroides bacteriophages require anaerobic culture facilities & more expertise and lab resources Somatic Coliphages – infect host-specific strain via cell walls (somatic) receptors and frequently detected in human and animal faeces. Normal host is E. coli. Somatic coliphages occurs very likely to be related to faecal pollution. However inadequate knowledge of their natural history limit usefulness. Suitable index of faecal contamination in raw water and treatment virus inactivation and removal F-specific RNA bacteriophages (male-specific coliphages) – infect bacteria through F- or sex-pili. Commonly found in huge number in sewage. Has relatively high persistence and similarity to viruses, it is a primary index Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 99 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 109. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities for sewage contamination, treatment efficiency or groundwater protection. Possible to distinguish human from animal contamination by grouping F- specific RNA coliphages. 2 groups of RNA and DNA containing F-specific coliphages; 4 basic sub-group of F-specific RNA coliphages (similar in size, shape and basic composition to many human enteric viruses) Bateroides phages – outnumber coliform group in human faeces with Bacteroide fragilis most commonly found more resistant to natural inactivation and water treatment processes that bacterial indicators an decay rate similar to human enteric viruses. However, low densities in raw water and currently unreliable methods of detection i) Sulphite-reducing clostridia & clostridium perfingens – C. perfingens is faecally specific and is preferred. Clostridia not recommended for routine monitoring because of their longer length of survival (false alarm). C. perfingens without E. coli in groundwater indicate intermittent contamination. Presence in finished water indicates deficiencies in treatment filtration processes and potential for protozoan cysts to have passed through treatment process. j) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aeromonas spp. – environmentally widespread. Ps. Aeruginosa commonly found in faeces, soil, water and sewage, but multiply in enriched aquatic environment and on organic material surface in contact with water. Aeromonas spp. can be found in treated distribution mains because of regrowth. Both are useful for assessing regrowth in distribution. Detectable by simple, inexpensive cultural methods. Considered as health risk to laboratory staff, as both are pathogenic k) Presence-absence test (P-A) – the most probable number method reduced to a single tube, indicates if coliform bacteria are present or not. Effective screening device for occasional contamination. Very simple to tests. Standard procedure in APHA, AWWA, WEF l) Hydrogen sulphide test – some bacteria associated with faecal contamination produce H2S. H2S strip test is potentially useful for screening water sources and drinking water for faecal contamination without access to water testing lab, or a simple advanced warning system. m) Pathogens – detecting actual risks of infections rather than potential indicator. However, it is impossible to monitor all known pathogens and other unknown pathogenic agents Enteric viruses – always associated with human and animal faecal pollution. Can survive for long periods in environment and quite resistant to treatment. Enumeration is expensive and time consuming. Most cannot be grown in laboratory condition. Requires well-equipped lab and highly trained staff Protozoan parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts) – variable number found in faeces in human and animal sources including amphibians, birds and mammals. Long survival in environment and very resistant to treatment. Isolation and enumeration is expensive and requires well equipped lab. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 100 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 110. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Non-microbial parameters include: a) Rainfall events – major cause of degradation of source water quality as rainfall drives pathogen and soil into and through water bodies, resuspend sediments, infiltrate groundwater and cause overflow in combined and poorly maintained sewers. b) Flow – determines availability and production of quality water. Flow affects discharge volumes, coagulation & sedimentation processes and disinfection efficiencies c) Colour – denotes presence of humic and fulvic substances, metal and highly coloured industrial waste in water; and reflects degradation of source water, corrosion problem in distribution system and performance in adsorptive treatment processes like GAC. Simple and cheaply measured on site d) pH – affects treatment processes. Simple and inexpensive testing methods which can be online or in-situ. e) Solids – amount of total, suspended and dissolved solids in water affect removal and disinfection processes, as well as taste and appearance of drinking water. In-situ or online tests are generally inexpensive and fast. f) Turbidity – measure of light refracted by suspended solids in water, and is the most widely used general application non-microbial parameters which provide significant data on treatment processes. Relatively inexpensive and fast in-situ or online tests are available. g) Particle size analysis – general index of removal effectiveness and a good quality parameter for filtration. However, online tests are expensive and require a high level of skill h) Microscopic particulate analysis – provide microscopic information on the nature of particulates in water. More for research and investigation, rather than for routine monitoring. Test is generally not available as it is time-consuming and requires well-trained skilled personnel. i) Disinfectant residual concentration – primary data on quality control of disinfection. j) Organic matter – indicates potential of heterotrophic bacteria regrowth in reservoirs and distribution systems. Measured as Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) or Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD). Tests can be carried out with basic laboratory facilities and adequately trained personnel. TOC tests, which are applicable to drinking water, can be carried out using online instrumentation. k) Specific chemical parameters like Ammonia or Boron – Relatively simple and rapid in-field ammonia tests could be used as initial detection of fresh sanitary waste contamination. Boron is proposed as an index of faecal pollution, but is limited, as use of boron as a water softener in detergents is widely being discontinued. Further research, well-equipped laboratories and well-trained staff are required for other proposed index chemical parameters like faecal sterols, secretory immunogolobulin type A and urobilin. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 101 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 111. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix B-3: Acceptability water quality (WHO, 2006)7 Biologically derived contaminants Actinomycetes & fungi Abundant in surface water sources and can grow on unsuitable materials in the distribution network; give rise to geosmin, 2- methyl isoborneol and other substances Animal life Invertebrate animals can be present in raw water sources and can pass through the inadequate processes in water treatment works and reside in the distribution system. Can also act as secondary hosts to parasites Cynobacteria and algae Algae blooms may impede coagulation and filtration processes, causing colour and turbidity issues in treated water. Can give rise to geosmin, 2-methyl isoborneol and other chemicals and can induce cyanotoxins in drinking water, which is of public health significance Iron bacteria Causes oxidation of ferrous and manganese salts, leaving deposits Chemically derived contaminants Aluminium Aluminium in excess of 0.1-0.2 mg/l results in aluminium hydroxide floc in distribution system and iron discolouration Ammonia Threshold odour concentration of ammonia at alkaline pH is about 1.5mg/l and a taste threshold of about 35 mg/l Chloride High concentrations give salty taste. The taste threshold is about 200 – 300mg/l for sodium, potassium and calcium chloride. Chlorine Detectable at concentrations even at 0.3 mg/l to below 5mg/l. Taste threshold is about 0.6 – 1.0mg/l Chlorophenols Very low taste and odour thresholds. Taste thresholds for 2- chlorophenols, 2,4-dichlorophenols and 2,4,6-trichlorphenols are 0.1, 0.3 and 2mg/l. Odour thresholds are 10, 40 and 300µg/l respectively. Colour Primarily due to the presence of humic and fulvic acids (organic matter). Colour levels are detectable above 15 true colour units Copper Mainly arises from water leaching copper from copper pipes and can vary significantly with length of contact with the pipes. Staining occurs at copper concentration of 1 mg/l, and imparts colour and bitter taste at 5mg/l Dichlorobenzenes Odour thresholds for 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene are at 2-10 & 0.3 – 30 mg/l respectively. Tastes thresholds are 1 and 6 mg/l respectively. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Reduction in DO in water can lead to an increase in ferrous iron concentration, causing subsequent discolouration at the tap when the water is aerated Ethyl benzene Odour threshold is about 2 - 130µg/l, while the taste threshold is 72 - 200µg/l Hardness Taste threshold for calcium causing hardness is about 100-300 mg/l, while that for magnesium is likely to be much lower Hydrogen sulphide Taste and odour threshold is about 0.05 – 0.1 mg/l Iron Promotes the growth of iron bacteria. At concentrations of 0.3 mg/l, iron causes staining and imparts taste Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 102 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 112. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Manganese Concentrations above 0.1 mg/l, manganese causes undesirable tastes and cause staining. Monochloramine Monochloramine is formed when chlorine reacts with ammonia in water, and can be detected at 0.3 mg/l. Petroleum oils Low molecular weight hydrocarbon with low odour thresholds can occur in water due to petroleum oils. pH pH is an important operational control parameter for treatment processes efficiency, although it has no direct impact on customer. Low pH water can corrode water mains and pipes in household water systems, which can have an adverse impact on taste and appearance. Sodium Taste threshold is about 200 mg/l and depends on the associated anions and temperature of water Styrene Styrene’s sweet odour could be detected in water at 4- 2600µg/l. Sulfate The noticeable taste of Sodium & Calcium Sulfate can be detected at 250 mg/l and 1000 mg/l respectively. Toulene The sweet, pungent, benzene-like odour of Toulene can be detected at 24 - 170µg/l. The reported taste threshold is 40 - 120µg/l Total Dissolved Solids High TDS causes scaling in water pipes, heaters, boilers and (TDS) household appliances. The taste threshold of TDS is at 600 mg/l Trichlorobenzenes The odour-threshold for 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene are 10, 5-30 and 50µg/l. Turbidity Turbidity less than 5 NTU is usually acceptable. Xylene Concentrations at 300µg/l will give rise to detectable taste and odour. The guideline value for xylene is based on the lowest odour threshold of 20µg/l Zinc Concentrations at 4mg/l will impart an undesirable astringent tastes. Concentrations of 3-5mg/l will cause water to appear opalescent and greasy film appears on boiling. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 103 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 113. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix C – EU Drinking Water Regulations Appendix C-1: Drinking Water Directive (PARAMETERS AND PARAMETRIC VALUES) (EC Council, 1998)31 PART A - Microbiological parameters Parameter Parametric value (number/100 ml) Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0 Enterococci 0 The following applies to water offered for sale in bottles or containers: Parameter Parametric value Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0/250 ml Enterococci 0/250 ml Pseudomonas aeruginosa 0/250 ml Colony count 22 °C 100/ml Colony count 37 °C 20/ml PART B - Chemical parameters Parameter Parametric value Unit Notes Acrylamide 0.10 µg/l Note 1 Antimony 5.0 µg/l Arsenic 10 µg/l Benzene 1.0 µg/l Benzo(a)pyrene 0.010 µg/l Boron 1.0 mg/l Bromate 10 µg/l Note 2 Cadmium 5.0 µg/l Chromium 50 µg/l Copper 2.0 mg/l Note 3 Cyanide 50 µg/l 1,2-dichloroethane 3.0 µg/l Epichlorohydrin 0.10 µg/l Note 1 Fluoride 1.5 mg/l Lead 10 µg/l Notes 3 and 4 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 104 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 114. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Parameter Parametric value Unit Notes Mercury 1.0 µg/l Nickel 20 µg/l Note 3 Nitrate 50 mg/l Note 5 Nitrite 0.50 mg/l Note 5 Pesticides 0.10 µg/l Notes 6 and 7 Pesticides — Total 0.50 µg/l Notes 6 and 8 Polycyclic aromatic 0.10 µg/l Sum of concentrations of specified hydrocarbons compounds; Note 9 Selenium 10 µg/l Tetrachloroethene and 10 µg/l Sum of concentrations of specified Trichloroethene parameters Trihalomethanes — 100 µg/l Sum of concentrations of specified Total compounds; Note 10 Vinyl chloride 0.50 µg/l Note 1 Note 1: The parametric value refers to the residual monomer concentration in the water as calculated according to specifications of the maximum release from the corresponding polymer in contact with the water. Note 2: Where possible, without compromising disinfection, Member States should strive for a lower value. For the water referred to in Article 6(1)(a), (b) and (d), the value must be met, at the latest, 10 calendar years after the entry into force of the Directive. The parametric value for bromate from five years after the entry into force of this Directive until 10 years after its entry into force is 25 µg/l. Note 3: The value applies to a sample of water intended for human consumption obtained by an adequate sampling method (1) at the tap and taken so as to be representative of a weekly average value ingested by consumers. Where appropriate the sampling and monitoring methods must be applied in a harmonised fashion to be drawn up in accordance with Article 7(4). Member States must take account of the occurrence of peak levels that may cause adverse effects on human health. Note 4: For water referred to in Article 6(1)(a), (b) and (d), the value must be met, at the latest, 15 calendar years after the entry into force of this Directive. The parametric value for lead from five years after the entry into force of this Directive until 15 years after its entry into force is 25 µg/l. Member States must ensure that all appropriate measures are taken to reduce the concentration of lead in water intended for human consumption as much as possible during the period needed to achieve compliance with the parametric value. When implementing the measures to achieve compliance with that value Member States must progressively give priority where lead concentrations in water intended for human consumption are highest. Note 5: Member States must ensure that the condition that [nitrate]/50 + [nitrite]/3 # 1, the square brackets signifying the concentrations in mg/l for nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2), is complied with and that the value of 0,10 mg/l for nitrites is complied with ex water treatment works. Note 6: ‘Pesticides’ means: organic insecticides, organic herbicides, organic fungicides, organic nematocides, organic acaricides, organic algicides, organic rodenticides organic slimicides, related products (inter alia, growth regulators) and their relevant metabolites, degradation and reaction products. Only those pesticides which are likely to be present in a given supply need be monitored. Note 7: The parametric value applies to each individual pesticide. In the case of aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide the parametric value is 0,030 µg/l. Note 8: ‘Pesticides — Total’ means the sum of all individual pesticides detected and quantified in the monitoring procedure. Note 9: The specified compounds are: benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(ghi)perylene, indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene. Note 10: Where possible, without compromising disinfection, Member States should strive for a lower value. The specified compounds are: chloroform, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and bromodichlorome-thane. For the water referred to in Article 6(1)(a), (b) and (d), the value must be met, at the latest, 10 calendar years after the entry into force of this Directive. The parametric value for total THMs from five years after the entry into force of this Directive until 10 years after its entry into force is 150 µg/l. (1) To be added following the outcome of the study currently being carried out. Member States must ensure that all appropriate measures are taken to reduce the concentration of THMs in water intended for human consumption as much as possible during the period needed to achieve compliance with the parametric value. When implementing the measures to achieve this value, Member States must progressively give priority to those areas where THM concentrations in water intended for human consumption are highest. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 105 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 115. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities PART C - Indicator Parameters Parameter Parametric value Unit Notes Aluminium 200 µg/l Ammonium 0,50 mg/l Chloride 250 mg/l Note 1 Clostridium perfringens 0 number/100 ml Note 2 (including spores) Colour Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change Conductivity 2 500 µS cm-1 at 20 °C Note 1 Hydrogen ion concentration 6.5 and 9.5 pH units Notes 1 and 3 Iron 200 µg/l Manganese 50 µg/l Odour Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change Oxidisability 5,0 mg/l O2 Note 4 Sulphate 250 mg/l Note 1 Sodium 200 mg/l Taste Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal change Colony count 22° No abnormal change Coliform bacteria 0 number/100 ml Note 5 Total organic carbon (TOC) No abnormal change Note 6 Turbidity Acceptable to consumers and no Note 7 abnormal change Tritium 100 Bq/l Notes 8 and 10 Total indicative dose 0.10 mSv/year Notes 9 and 10 Note 1: The water should not be aggressive. Note 2: This parameter need not be measured unless the water originates from or is influenced by surface water. In the event of non-compliance with this parametric value, the Member State concerned must investigate the supply to ensure that there is no potential danger to human health arising from the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms, e.g. Cryptosporidium. Member States must include the results of all such investigations in the reports they must submit under Article 13(2). Note 3: For still water put into bottles or containers, the minimum value may be reduced to 4,5 pH units. For water put into bottles or containers which is naturally rich in or artificially enriched with carbon dioxide, the minimum value may be lower. Note 4: This parameter need not be measured if the parameter TOC is analysed. Note 5: For water put into bottles or containers the unit is number/250 ml. Note 6: This parameter need not be measured for supplies of less than 10 000 m³ a day. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 106 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 116. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Note 7: In the case of surface water treatment, Member States should strive for a parametric value not exceeding 1.0 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) in the water ex treatment works. Note 8: Monitoring frequencies to be set later in Annex II. Note 9: Excluding tritium, potassium -40, radon and radon decay products; monitoring frequencies, monitoring methods and the most relevant locations for monitoring points to be set later in Annex II. Note 10: 1. The proposals required by Note 8 on monitoring frequencies, and Note 9 on monitoring frequencies, monitoring methods and the most relevant locations for monitoring points in Annex II shall be adopted in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 12. When elaborating these proposals the Commission shall take into account inter alia the relevant provisions under existing legislation or appropriate monitoring programmes including monitoring results as derived from them. The Commission shall submit these proposals at the latest within 18 months following the date referred to in Article 18 of the Directive. 2. A Member State is not required to monitor drinking water for tritium or radioactivity to establish total indicative dose where it is satisfied that, on the basis of other monitoring carried out, the levels of tritium of the calculated total indicative dose are well below the parametric value. In that case, it shall communicate the grounds for its decision to the Commission, including the results of this other monitoring carried out. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 107 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 117. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix C-2: Drinking Water Directive (MONITORING) TABLE A: Parameters to be analysed 1. Check monitoring The purpose of check monitoring is regularly to provide information on the organoleptic and microbiological quality of the water supplied for human consumption as well as information on the effectiveness of drinking-water treatment (particularly of disinfection) where it is used, in order to determine whether or not water intended for human consumption complies with the relevant parametric values laid down in this Directive. The following parameters must be subject to check monitoring. Member States may add other parameters to this list if they deem it appropriate. Aluminium (Note 1) Ammonium Colour Conductivity Clostridium perfringens (including spores) (Note 2) Escherichia coli (E. coli) Hydrogen ion concentration Iron (Note 1) Nitrite (Note 3) Odour Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Note 4) Taste Colony count 22 °C and 37 °C (Note 4) Coliform bacteria Turbidity Note 1: Necessary only when used as flocculant (*). Note 2: Necessary only if the water originates from or is influenced by surface water (*). Note 3: Necessary only when chloramination is used as a disinfectant (*). Note 4: Necessary only in the case of water offered for sale in bottles or containers. (*) In all other cases, the parameters are in the list for audit monitoring. 2. Audit monitoring The purpose of audit monitoring is to provide the information necessary to determine whether or not all of the Directive's parametric values are being complied with. All parameters set in accordance with Article 5(2) and (3) must be subject to audit monitoring unless it can be established by the competent authorities, for a period of time to be determined by them, that a parameter is not likely to be present in a given supply in concentrations which could lead to the risk of a breach of the relevant parametric value. This paragraph does not apply to the parameters for radioactivity, which, subject to Notes 8, 9 and 10 in Annex I, Part C, will be monitored in accordance with monitoring requirements adopted under Article 12. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 108 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 118. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities TABLE B1: Minimum frequency of sampling and analyses for water intended for human consumption supplied from a distribution network or from a tanker or used in a food- production undertaking Member States must take samples at the points of compliance as defined in Article 6(1) to ensure that water intended for human consumption meets the requirements of the Directive. However, in the case of a distribution network, a Member State may take samples within the supply zone or at the treatment works for particular parameters if it can be demonstrated that there would be no adverse change to the measured value of the parameters concerned. Volume of water distributed or Check monitoring Audit monitoring number of produced each day within a number of samples per samples per year (Notes 3 and supply zone (Notes 1 and 2) year (Notes 3, 4 and 5) 5) m³ ≤100 (Note 6) (Note 6) >100 ≤1 000 4 1 >1 000 ≤10 000 1 + 1 for each 3 300 m³/d and part thereof of the total volume >10 000 ≤100 000 4 3 + 3 for each 1 000 m³/d + 1 for each 10 000 m³/d and and part thereof of the part thereof of the total volume total volume >100 000 10 + 1 for each 25 000 m³/d and part thereof of the total volume Note 1: A supply zone is a geographically defined area within which water intended for human consumption comes from one or more sources and within which water quality may be considered as being approximately uniform. Note 2: The volumes are calculated as averages taken over a calendar year. A Member State may use the number of inhabitants in a supply zone instead of the volume of water to determine the minimum frequency, assuming a water consumption of 200 l/day/capita Note 3: In the event of intermittent short-term supply the monitoring frequency of water distributed by tankers is to be decided by the Member State concerned. Note 4: For the different parameters in Annex I, a Member State may reduce the number of samples specified in the table if: (a) the values of the results obtained from samples taken during a period of at least two successive years are constant and significantly better than the limits laid down in Annex I, and (b) no factor is likely to cause a deterioration of the quality of the water. The lowest frequency applied must not be less than 50 % of the number of samples specified in the table except in the particular case of note 6. Note 5: As far as possible, the number of samples should be distributed equally in time and location. Note 6: The frequency is to be decided by the Member State concerned. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 109 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 119. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities TABLE B2: Minimum frequency of sampling and analysis for water put into bottles or containers intended for sale Volume of water produced Check monitoring number Audit monitoring number of for offering for sale in bottles of samples per year samples per year or containers each day (1) m³ ≤10 1 1 >10 ≤60 12 1 >60 1 for each 5 m³ and part 1 for each 100 m³ and part thereof of the total volume thereof of the total volume (1) The volumes are calculated as averages taken over a calendar year. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 110 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 120. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix C-3: Drinking Water Directive (SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS) Each Member State must ensure that any laboratory at which samples are analysed has a system of analytical quality control that is subject from time to time to checking by a person who is not under the control of the laboratory and who is approved by the competent authority for that purpose. 1. PARAMETERS FOR WHICH METHODS OF ANALYSIS ARE SPECIFIED The following principles for methods of microbiological parameters are given either for reference whenever a CEN/ISO method is given or for guidance, pending the possible future adoption, in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 12, of further CEN/ISO international methods for these parameters. Member States may use alternative methods, providing the provisions of Article 7(5) are met. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ISO 9308-1) Enterococci (ISO 7899-2) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (prEN ISO 12780) Enumeration of culturable microorganisms - Colony count 22 °C (prEN ISO 6222) Enumeration of culturable microorganisms - Colony count 37 °C (prEN ISO 6222) Clostridium perfringens (including spores) Membrane filtration followed by anaerobic incubation of the membrane on m-CP agar (Note 1) at 44 ± 1 °C for 21 ± 3 hours. Count opaque yellow colonies that turn pink or red after exposure to ammonium hydroxide vapours for 20 to 30 seconds. Note 1: The composition of m-CP agar is: Basal medium Tryptose (30 g) Yeast extract (20 g) Sucrose(5 g) L-cysteine hydrochloride (1 g) MgSO4 · 7H2O (0,1 g) Bromocresol purple (40 mg) Agar (15 g) Water (1 000 ml) Dissolve the ingredients of the basal medium, adjust pH to 7,6 and autoclave at 121 °C for 15 minutes. Allow the medium to cool and add: D-cycloserine 400 mg Polymyxine-B sulphate 25 mg Indoxyl-β-D-glucoside to be dissolved in 8 ml sterile water before 60 mg addition Filter — sterilised 0,5% phenolphthalein diphosphate solution 20 ml Filter — sterilised 4,5 % FeCl3·6H2O 2 ml 2. PARAMETERS FOR WHICH PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS ARE SPECIFIED 2.1. For the following parameters, the specified performance characteristics are that the method of analysis used must, as a minimum, be capable of measuring concentrations equal to the parametric value with trueness, precision and limit of detection specified. Whatever the sensitivity of the method of analysis used, Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 111 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 121. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities the result must be expressed using at least the same number of decimals as for the parametric value considered in Annex I, Parts B and C. Parameters Trueness % of Precision % of Limit of Conditions Notes parametric parametric detection % of value value parametric value (Note 1) (Note 2) (Note 3) Acrylamide To be controlled by product specification Aluminium 10 10 10 Ammonium 10 10 10 Antimony 25 25 25 Arsenic 10 10 10 Benzo(a)pyrene 25 25 25 Benzene 25 25 25 Boron 10 10 10 Bromate 25 25 25 Cadmium 10 10 10 Chloride 10 10 10 Chromium 10 10 10 Conductivity 10 10 10 Copper 10 10 10 Cyanide 10 10 10 Note 4 1,2-dichloroethane 25 25 10 Epichlorohydrin To be controlled by product specification Fluoride 10 10 10 Iron 10 10 10 Lead 10 10 10 Manganese 10 10 10 Mercury 20 10 20 Nickel 10 10 10 Nitrate 10 10 10 Nitrite 10 10 10 Oxidisability 25 25 10 Note 5 Pesticides 25 25 25 Note 6 Polycyclic aromatic 25 25 25 Note 7 hydrocarbons Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 112 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 122. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Parameters Trueness % of Precision % of Limit of Conditions Notes parametric parametric detection % of value value parametric value (Note 1) (Note 2) (Note 3) Selenium 10 10 10 Sodium 10 10 10 Sulphate 10 10 10 Tetrachloroethene 25 25 10 Note 8 Trichloroethene 25 25 10 Note 8 Trihalomethanes — 25 25 10 Note 7 Total Vinyl chloride To be controlled by product specification Note 1(1*): Trueness is the systematic error and is the difference between the mean value of the large number of repeated measurements and the true value. Note 2 (2*): Precision is the random error and is usually expressed as the standard deviation (within and between batches) of the spread of results about the mean. Acceptable precision is twice the relative standard deviation. Note 3: Limit of detection is either: - three times the relative within batch standard deviation of a natural sample containing a low concentration of the parameter, or - five times the relative within batch standard deviation of a blank sample. Note 4: The method should determine total cyanide in all forms. Note 5: Oxidation should be carried out for 10 minutes at 100 °C under acid conditions using permanganate. Note 6: The performance characteristics apply to each individual pesticide and will depend on the pesticide concerned. The limit of detection may not be achievable for all pesticides at present, but Member States should strive to achieve this standard. Note 7: The performance characteristics apply to the individual substances specified at 25 % of the parametric value in Annex I. Note 8: The performance characteristics apply to the individual substances specified at 50 % of the parametric value in Annex I. 2.2. For hydrogen ion concentration the specified performance characteristics are that the method of analysis used must be capable of measuring concentrations equal to the parametric value with a trueness of 0.2 pH units and a precision of 0.2 pH units. 3. PARAMETERS FOR WHICH NO METHOD OF ANALYSIS IS SPECIFIED Colour Odour Taste Total organic carbon Turbidity (Note 1) Note 1: For turbidity monitoring in treated surface water the specified performance characteristics are that the method of analysis used must, as a minimum, be capable of measuring concentrations equal to the parametric value with a trueness of 25 %, precision of 25 % and a 25 % limit of detection. (1*) These terms are further defined in ISO 5725. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 113 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 123. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix D – Drinking Water Regulations in UK The Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2000 (UK Parliament, 2000)38 PRESCRIBED CONCENTRATIONS AND VALUES TABLE A – MICROBIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS Part I: Directive requirements Item Parameters Concentration or Units of Point of compliance Value (maximum) Measurement 1. Enterococci 0 number/100ml Consumers’ taps 2. Escherichia coli 0 number/100ml Consumers’ taps (E. coli) Part II: National requirements Item Parameters Concentration or Units of Point of compliance Value (maximum) Measurement 1. Coliform bacteria 0 number/100ml Service reservoirs(*) and water treatment works 2. Escherichia coli 0 number/100ml Service reservoirs and (E. coli) water treatment works (*) Compliance required as to 95% of samples from each service reservoir (regulation 4(6)). TABLE B – CHEMICAL PARAMETERS Part I: Directive requirements Item Parameters Concentration or Units of Point of compliance Value (maximum) Measurement 1. Acrylamide 0.10 µg/l (i) 2. Antimony 5.0 µgSb/l Consumers’ taps 3. Arsenic 10 µgAs/l Consumers’ taps 4. Benzene 1.0 µg/l Consumers’ taps 5. Benzo(a)pyrene 0.010 µg/l Consumers’ taps 6. Boron 1.0 mgB/l Consumers’ taps 7. Bromate 10 µgBrO3/l Consumers’ taps 8. Cadmium 5.0 µgCd/l Consumers’ taps 9. Chromium 50 µgCr/l Consumers’ taps 10. Copper(ii) 2.0 mgCu/l Consumers’ taps 11. Cyanide 50 µgCN/l Consumers’ taps 12. 1, 2 dichloroethane 3.0 µg/l Consumers’ taps 13. Epichlorohydrin 0.10 µg/l (i) 14. Fluoride 1.5 mgF/l Consumers’ taps 15. Lead(ii) (a) 25, from 25th µgPb/l Consumers’ taps December 2003 until immediately before 25th December 2013 (b) 10, on and after 25th December 2013 16. Mercury 1.0 µgHg/l Consumers’ taps 17. Nickel(ii) 20 µgNi/l Consumers’ taps 18. Nitrate(iii) 50 mgNO3/l Consumers’ taps Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 114 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 124. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities 19. Nitrite(iii) 0.50 mgNO2/l Consumers’ taps 0.10 Treatment works 20. Pesticides(iv)(v) 0.030 µg/l Consumers’ taps Aldrin _ Dieldrin _ Heptachlor _ Heptachlor epoxide _ other pesticides 0.10 µg/l Consumers’ taps 21. Pesticides: Total(vi) 0.50 µg/l Consumers’ taps 22. Polycyclic aromatic 0.10 µg/l Consumers’ taps hydrocarbon(vii) 23. Selenium 10 µgSe/l Consumers’ taps 24. Tetrachloroethene and 10 µg/l Consumers’ taps Trichloroethene(viii) 25. Trihalomethanes: 100 µg/l Consumers’ taps Total(ix) 26. Vinyl chloride 0.50 µg/l (i) (i) The parametric value refers to the residual monomer concentration in the water as calculated according to specifications of the maximum release from the corresponding polymer in contact with the water. This is controlled by product specification. (ii) See also regulation 6(6). (iii) See also regulation 4(2)(d). (iv) See the definition of “pesticides and related products” in regulation 2. (v) The parametric value applies to each individual pesticide. (vi) “Pesticides: Total” means the sum of the concentrations of the individual pesticides detected and quantified in the monitoring procedure. (vii) The specified compounds are benzo(b)fluoranthene; benzo(k)fluoranthene; benzo(ghi)perylene & indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. The parametric value applies to the sum of the concentrations of the individual compounds detected and quantified in the monitoring process. (viii) The parametric value applies to the sum of the concentrations of the individual compounds detected and quantified in the monitoring process. (ix) The specified compounds are chloroform; bromoform; dibromochloromethane; and bromodichloromethane. The parametric value applies to the sum of the concentrations of the individual compounds detected and quantified in the monitoring process. Part II: National requirements Item Parameters Concentration or Value Units of Point of (maximum) Measurement compliance 1. Aluminium 200 µgAl/l Consumers’ taps 2. Colour 20 mg/l Pt/Co Consumers’ taps 3. Hydrogen ion 9.5 pH value Consumers’ taps 6.5 (minimum) pH value 4. Iron 200 µgFe/l Consumers’ taps 5. Manganese 50 µgMn/l Consumers’ taps 6. Odour Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal Consumers’ taps change 7. Sodium 200 mgNa/l Consumers’ taps 8. Taste Acceptable to consumers and no abnormal Consumers’ taps change 9. Tetrachloromethane 3 µg/l Consumers’ taps 10. Turbidity 4 NTU Consumers’ taps Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 115 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 125. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities INDICATOR PARAMETERS Item Parameters Specification Units of Point of Concentration or Value Measurement monitoring (maximum unless otherwise stated) or State 1. Ammonium 0.50 mgNH4/l Consumers’ taps 2. Chloride (i) 250 mgCl/l Supply point (*) 3. Clostridium perfringens 0 Number/100ml (*) Supply point (including spores) 4. Coliform bacteria 0 Number/100ml Consumers’ taps 5. Colony counts No abnormal change Number/1ml at Consumers’ taps, 22°C service reservoirs Number/1ml at and treatment 37°C works 6. Conductivity (i) 2500 µS/cm at 20°C Supply point (*) 6A. Hydrogen ion 9.5 pH value Consumers’ taps 6.5 (minimum) pH value 7. Sulphate (i) 250 mgSO4/l Supply point (*) 8. Total indicative dose (for 0.10 mSv/ year Supply point (*) (ii) radioactivity) 9. Total organic carbon No abnormal change mgC/l Supply point (*) (TOC) 10. Tritium (for 100 Bq/l Supply point (*) radioactivity) 11. Turbidity 1 NTU Treatment works (i) The water should not be aggressive. (ii) Excluding tritium, potassium – 40, radon and radon decay products. (*) May be monitored from samples of water leaving treatment works or other supply point, as no significant change during distribution. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 116 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 126. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities MONITORING TABLE 1- PARAMETERS AND CIRCUMSTANCES FOR CHECK MONITORING (1) (2) (3) Item Parameter Circumstances 1. Aluminium When used as flocculant or where the water originates from, or is influenced by, surface waters 2. Ammonium 3. Clostridium perfringens Where the water originates from, or is influenced by, surface (including spores) waters 4. Coliform bacteria 4A. Colony counts 5. Colour 6. Conductivity 7. Escherichia coli (E. coli) 8. Hydrogen ion 9. Iron When used as flocculant or where the water originates from, or is influenced by, surface waters 10. Manganese Where the water originates from, or is influenced by, surface waters 11. Nitrate When chloramination is practised 12. Nitrite When chloramination is practised 13. Odour 14. Taste 15. Turbidity TABLE 2- ANNUAL SAMPLING FREQUENCIES: WATER SUPPLY ZONES (1) (2) (3) (4) Substances and parameters subject to Estimated Reduced Standard check monitoring population of water supply zone E. coli Coliform bacteria Residual disinfectant < 100 4 Aluminium ≥ 100 12 per 5,000 (i) Ammonium population Clostridium Perfringens (including (*) spores) Colony counts Colour (*) Conductivity Hydrogen ion <100 1 2 Iron 100–4,999 2 4 Manganese 5,000–9,999 6 12 (ii) 10,000–29,999 12 24 Nitrate 30,000–49,999 18 36 (ii) Nitrite 50,000–79,999 26 52 Odour 80,000–100,000 38 76 Taste Turbidity Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 117 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 127. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities (1) (2) (3) (4) Substances and parameters subject to Estimated Reduced Standard Audit monitoring population of water supply zone Aluminium Antimony Arsenic (*) Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene (*) Boron (iii) Bromate Cadmium Chromium Clostridium Perfringens (including spores) Copper (*) Cyanide (*) 1,2 dichloroethane Enterococci (*) Fluoride Iron Lead Manganese <100 1 (*) Mercury 100–4,999 4 Nickel 5,000–100,000 8 (ii) Nitrate (ii) Nitrite (*) Pesticides and related products Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Selenium Sodium Trichloroethene/ (*) Tetrachloroethene (*) Tetrachloromethane Trihalomethanes (*) Chloride (*) Sulphate (*) Total organic carbon (*) Tritium (*)(iv) Gross alpha (*)(iv) Gross beta (*) Sampling for these parameters may be within water supply zones or at supply points as specified in Table 3, subject to notes (ii) and (iii) below. (i) Where the population is not an exact multiple of 5,000, the population figure should be rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5,000. (ii) Check monitoring in water supply zones is required only where chloramination is practised. In other circumstances audit monitoring is required. (iii) Audit monitoring in water supply zones is required only where sodium hypochlorite is added after water has left the treatment works. In other circumstances, audit monitoring is required at supply points. (iv) To monitor for total indicative dose (for radioactivity). Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 118 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 128. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities TABLE 3 – ANNUAL SAMPLING FREQUENCIES: TREATMENT WORKS OR SUPPLY POINTS(*) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Item Substances and parameters Volume of water Reduced Standard supplied m3/d 1. E. coli 2. Coliform bacteria <20 4 3. Colony counts 20–1,999 12 52 4. (ii) 2,000–5,999 52 104 Nitrite 6,000–11,999 104 208 5. Residual disinfectant ≥12,000 104 365 6. Turbidity Subject to check monitoring 7. Clostridium perfringens (i) <20 2 20–999 2 4 8. Conductivity 1,000–1,999 6 12 2,000–5,999 12 24 6,000–9,999 18 36 10,000–15,999 26 52 16,000–32,999 52 104 33,000–49,999 78 156 50,000–67,999 104 208 68,000–84,999 130 260 85,000–101,999 156 312 102,000–119,999 183 365 120,000–241,999 365 730 242,000–484,999 730 1,460 485,000–728,999 1,095 2,190 Subject to audit monitoring 9. Benzene 10. Boron 11. Bromate (iii) 11A. Clostridium Perfringens (including spores) 12. Cyanide 13. 1,2 dichloroethane 14. Fluoride <20 1 15. Mercury 20–999 4 16. Nitrite (iia) 1,000–49,999 8 17. Pesticides and related products 50,000–89,999 12 18. Trichloroethene 90,000–299,999 24 Tetrachloroethene 300,000–649,999 36 19. Tetrachloromethane ≥650,000 48 20. Chloride 21. Sulphate 22. Total organic carbon 23. Tritium 24. Gross alpha (iv) 25. Gross beta (iv) (*) Sampling is at treatment works for the substances and parameters shown in column (1) of the Table as items 1 to 6 and at supply points for the other substances and parameters, except nitrite subject to notes (ii) and (iia) below. (i) Check monitoring is required only in respect of surface waters (see regulation 6(2) and Table 1 in Schedule 3). (ii) Sampling at treatment works when chloramination is practised. (iia) Sampling at treatment works when chloramination is not practised. (iii) Audit monitoring at supply points is required only where sodium hypochlorite is not added after water has left the treatment works. In other circumstances, audit monitoring is required in water supply zones. (iv) To monitor for total indicative dose (for radioactivity). Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 119 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 129. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGY TABLE A1 PARAMETERS FOR WHICH, SUBJECT TO REGULATION 16(7), METHODS OF ANALYSIS ARE PRESCRIBED (1) (2) Parameter Method Clostridium perfringens Membrane filtration followed by anaerobic incubation of the (including spores) membrane on m-CP agar* at 44 & 1°C for 21 & 3 hours. Count opaque yellow colonies that turn pink or red after exposure to ammonium hydroxide vapours for 20 to 30 seconds. Coliform bacteria ISO 9308-1 Colony count 22°C- PrEN ISO 6222 enumeration of culturable microorganisms Colony count 37°C- prEN ISO 6222 enumeration of culturable microorganisms Enterococci ISO 7899-2 Escherichia coli (E. coli) ISO 9308-1 *The composition of m-CP agar is: Basal medium Tryptose 30.0g Yeast extract 20.0g Sucrose 5.0g L-cysteine hydrochloride 1.0g MgSO4·7H2O 0.1g Bromocresol purple 40.0mg Agar 15.0g Water 1,000.0ml Dissolve the ingredients of the basal medium; adjust pH to 7.6 and autoclave at 121°C for 15 minutes. Allow the medium to cool and add: D-cycloserine 400.0mg Polymyxine-B sulphate 25.0mg Indoxyl- µ –D-glucoside 60.0mg to be dissolved in 8ml sterile water before addition 20.0ml Filter-sterilised 0.5% phenolphthalein 2.0ml diphosphate solution Filter-sterilised 4.5% FeCl3·6H2O TABLE A2 PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO WHICH METHODS OF ANALYSIS MUST SATISFY PRESCRIBED CHARACTERISTICS (1) (2) (3) (4) Parameters Trueness % of Precision % of Limit of detection % of prescribed prescribed prescribed concentration or value concentration or value concentration or value or specification or specification or specification Aluminium 10 10 10 Ammonium 10 10 10 Antimony 25 25 25 Arsenic 10 10 10 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 120 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 130. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities (1) (2) (3) (4) Parameters Trueness % of Precision % of Limit of detection % of prescribed prescribed prescribed concentration or value concentration or value concentration or value or specification or specification or specification Benzene 25 25 25 Benzo(a)pyrene 25 25 25 Boron 10 10 10 Bromate 25 25 25 Cadmium 10 10 10 Chloride 10 10 10 Chromium 10 10 10 Colour 10 10 10 Conductivity 10 10 10 Copper 10 10 10 Cyanide (i) 10 10 10 1,2-dichloroethane 25 25 10 Fluoride 10 10 10 Iron 10 10 10 Lead 10 10 10 Manganese 10 10 10 Mercury 20 10 20 Nickel 10 10 10 Nitrate 10 10 10 Nitrite 10 10 10 Pesticides and 25 25 25 (ii) related products Polycyclic aromatic 25 25 25 (iii) hydrocarbons Selenium 10 10 10 Sodium 10 10 10 Sulphate 10 10 10 Tetrachloroethene (i 25 25 10 v) Tetrachloromethan 20 20 20 e Trichloroethene (iv) 25 25 10 Trihalomethanes: 25 25 10 (iii) Total Turbidity (v) 10 10 10 Turbidity (vi) 25 25 25 (i) The method of analysis should determine total cyanide in all forms. (ii) The performance characteristics apply to each individual pesticide and will depend on the pesticide concerned. (iii) The performance characteristics apply to the individual substances specified at 25% of the parametric value in Part I of Table B in Schedule 1. (iv) The performance characteristics apply to the individual substances specified at 50% of the parametric value in Part I of Table B in Schedule 1. (v) The performance characteristics apply to the prescribed value of 4 NTU. (vi) The performance characteristics apply to the specification of 1 NTU for water leaving treatment works. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 121 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 131. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Appendix E – The Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008 (Singapore Government & NEA, 2008)102 DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Part I - Microbial parameters: 1. Escherichia coli (or alternatively, shall not be detectable in any 100 Thermotolerant coliform bacteria) millilitre sample Part II - Physico-chemical parameters: 1. Colour shall not exceed 15 True Colour Units 2. Turbidity shall not exceed 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units 3. pH 6.5-9.5 Part III - Radiological parameters: 1. Gross Alpha activity shall not exceed 0.5 Becquerel/litre 2. Gross Beta activity shall not exceed 1 Becquerel/litre 3. Radon 222 concentration shall not exceed 100 Becquerel/litre Part IV - Chemical parameters: Maximum prescribed quantity (milligrams/litre) Acrylamide 0.0005 Alachlor 0.02 Aldicarb Sulfoxide and Aldicarb Sulfone 0.01 combined Aldrin and Dieldrin 0.00003 Antimony 0.02 Arsenic 0.01 Atrazine 0.002 Barium 0.7 Benzene 0.01 Benzo[a]pyrene 0.0007 Boron 0.5 Bromate 0.01 Bromodichloromethane 0.06 Bromoform 0.1 Cadmium 0.003 Carbofuran 0.007 Carbon tetrachloride 0.004 Chlorate 0.7 Chlordane 0.0002 Chlorine1 5 Chlorite 0.7 Chloroform 0.3 Chlorotoluron 0.03 Chlorpyrifos 0.03 Chromium, in all forms as a total 0.05 Copper 2 Cyanazine 0.0006 Cyanide 0.07 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 122 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 132. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Maximum prescribed quantity (milligrams/litre) Cyanide in Cyanogen Chloride form as part of 0.07 total cyanogenic compounds 2,4-D(2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in free 0.03 acid form 2,4-DB [4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid] 0.09 DDT and metabolites 0.001 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 0.008 Dibromoacetonitrile 0.07 Dibromochloromethane 0.1 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane 0.001 1,2-Dibromoethane 0.0004 Dichloroacetate 0.05 Dichloroacetonitrile 0.02 Dichlorobenzene, 1,2- 1 Dichlorobenzene, 1,4- 0.3 Dichloroethane, 1,2- 0.03 Dichloroethene, 1,2 0.05 Dichloromethane 0.02 1,2-Dichloropropane(1,2-DCP) 0.04 1,3-Dichloropropene 0.02 Dichlorprop 0.1 Dimethoate 0.006 Dioxane, 1,4- 0.05 Edetic acid (EDTA-Ethylene Diamine 0.6 Tetraacetic Acid) in free acid form Endrin 0.0006 Epichlorohydrin 0.0004 Ethylbenzene 0.3 Fenoprop (2,4,5-TP; 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy 0.009 propionic acid) Fluoride 0.7 Hexachlorobutadiene(HCBD) 0.0006 Isoproturon 0.009 Lead 0.01 Lindane 0.002 Manganese 0.4 MCPA(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) 0.002 Mecoprop (MCPP; [2(2-methyl- 0.01 chlorophenoxy) propionic acid]) Mercury, in inorganic form 0.006 Methoxychlor 0.02 Metolachlor 0.01 Microcystin-LR, in free and cell bound forms 0.001 as a total Molinate 0.006 Molybdenum 0.07 Monochloramine 3 Monochloroacetate 0.02 Nickel 0.07 Nitrate(as NO3-) 50 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 123 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 133. The Potential for Adapting the UK Water Quality Regulatory Model for ASEAN Cities Maximum prescribed quantity (milligrams/litre) Nitrate plus nitrite combined The sum of the ratios of the concentrations of each to their maximum prescribed quantity should not exceed 1 Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) 0.2 Nitrite (as NO2-) 3 Pendimethalin 0.02 Pentachlorophenol(PCP) 0.009 Permethrin, where used as a larvicide for 0.3 public health purposes Pyriproxyfen 0.3 Selenium 0.01 Simazine 0.002 Styrene 0.02 2,4,5-T(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 0.009 Terbuthylazine(TBA) 0.007 Tetrachloroethene 0.04 Toluene 0.7 Trichloroacetate 0.2 Trichloroethene 0.02 Trichlorophenol, 2,4,6- 0.2 Trifluralin 0.02 Trihalomethanes The sum of the ratio of the concentration of each Trihalomethane2 to its respective maximum prescribed quantity should not exceed 1 Uranium (only chemical aspects of uranium 0.015 addressed) Vinyl chloride 0.0003 Xylenes 0.5 1 Where disinfection with chlorine is carried out, there should be a residual concentration of free chlorine of ≥0.5 mg/litre after at least 30 minutes contact time at pH<8.0 at the water treatment plant. 2 Refers to bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and chloroform. Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 124 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 134. References When indicated, the confidentiality agreement is observed. Copies of the confidential documents are kept by supervisor/course director.                                                                1 United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Millennium Declaration ARES/55/2, pp 1- 4, 18 Sep 2000. 2 Lenton R., Wright A.M. & Lewis K., UN Millennium project Task force on Water and Sanitation, Health, dignity & Development: what will it take?, pp xviii – xix, 2005 3 UN News centre, Press release - Ban Ki-moon urges greater efforts to tackle “silent crisis” of safe water for all, [online], 24 Oct 2007. [cited 27 Jun 08], available at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=24397&Cr=water&Cr1=# 4 World Health organisation, Health through safe drinking water and basic sanitation, [online], [cited 30 Jun 08], available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/mdg1/en/print.html 5 Prüss-Üstün A, Bos R, Gore F, Bartram J., Safer water, better health: costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health, World Health Organization, pp 7, Geneva, 2008. 6 Cairncross S. & Feachem R., Environmental health Engineering in the Tropics – An introductory text, 2nd edition, pp (1 – 9, 29 – 33), 1993 7 World Health Organisation, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality Third Edition First Addendum, Volume 1, pp (1-2, 8-9, 22 – 23, 72 – 75, 84 – 93, 486), 2006 8 Lloyd B.J, MSc Environmental Health module lecture notes – Sanitary indicator theory, University of Surrey, 2007 9 OECD & WHO, Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water – Improving Approaches and methods, 2003 10 Thompson T., Fawell J., Kunikane S., Jackson D., Appleyard S., Callan P., Bartram J. & Kingston P., Chemical safety of drinking-water: assessing priorities for risk management, WHO, pp 3, 2007 11 WHO SEARO, WHO Water drinking guidelines, [online] [cited 17 Jul 08] Available at http://www.searo.who.int/EN/Section314_4295.htm 12 Allan S.C., The microbiological performance and operational characteristics of an integrated OXFAM Physico-chemical water treatment system MSc dissertation, UniS, pp 19, 1997 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 125 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 135.                                                                                                                                                                                    13 Wikipedia, Water purification, [online] [cited 08 Aug 08], available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_purification 14 Koch Membrane, Microfiltration – filtration overview, [online], [cited 7 Aug 08], available at http://www.kochmembrane.com/sep_mf.html 15 Gray N.F., Water Technology – An introduction for environmental scientists and engineers, 2nd edition, pp 257 – 282, 2005 16 UNDP, Effective Water Governance – The key to Sustainable Water Management and Poverty Eradication, [online], [cited 15 Jun 08], available at http://www.undp.org/water/about_us.html 17 WHO, Constitution of the World Health Organisation, Basic Document, Forty-fifth edition, pp 1 – 18, Oct 2006 18 WHO, WHO – Governance, [online], [cited 14 Jul 08] , available at http://www.who.int/governance/en/index.html 19 Davidson A., Howard G., Stevens M., Callan P., Fewtrell L., Deere D. & Bartram J., Water Safety Plans – Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer, WHO, pp 3, 2005 20 WHO, WHO Guidelines for Drinking water quality, [online], [cited 20 Jul 08] , available at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/ 21 SIWW Pte Ltd, Singapore International Water Week - Co-located Events, [online], [cited 11 Jul 08] , available at http://www.siww.com.sg/aboutevent/colocatingevents.php 22 Godfrey S. and Howard G., Water safety Plans (WSP) for urban piped water supplies in developing countries, WEDC, Loughborough University, UK, pp 4, 2004 23 Drury D., Safeguarding Supplies from catchment to tap, ENDs report 391, pp 32-35, Aug 2007, available at http://www.endsreport.com/index.cfm?action=report.article_printable&articl eID=17664> 24 DWI, DWI – A brief guide to drinking water safety plans, pp 3, Oct 2005. 25 WHO, Water Safety Plans - Managing Drinking-Water Quality from Catchment to Consumer, 2005 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 126 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 136.                                                                                                                                                                                    26 WHO, Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality – Second Edition, Volume 3 – Surveillance and Control of community Supplies, pp 56, 1997 27 Hedeman-Robinson M., Enforcement of European Union Environment Law – Legal Issues & Challenges, pp 9, 2007. 28 European Community, European Community Environmental Legislation: Volume 7 – Water, pp iv-v, 1996 29 European Commission, EU at a glance – Key dates in the history of European integration, [online], [cited 17 Jul 08] , available at http://europa.eu/abc/12lessons/key_dates/index_en.htm 30 Kallis G. & Nijkamp P., Evolution of EU Water Policy: A critical assessment and a hopeful perspective, pp (2, 14 - 16), 1999. 31 European Council, Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption, pp 1 – 23, 3 Nov 98. 32 European Parliament, Consolidated version of the Treaty establishing the European Community, [online], [cited 17 Jul 08] , available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/treaties/ 33 CIA World Fact Book, United Kingdom, [online], [cited 19 Jul 08], , available at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/geos/uk.html 34 Water UK, Water facts: The Water Industry Today, [online], [cited 19 Jul 08], available at http://www.water.org.uk/home/resources-and- links/waterfacts/waterindustry 35 May A., An assessment of the impact of regulatory models for drinking water quality in UK, University of Surrey, pp (9, 20, 37 – 39, 45, , 114 – 123, 266 – 268, 284 – 285), 2007 36 Water UK, The UK Water Industry (Sep 2007), [online], [cited 19 Jul 08] , available at http://www.water.org.uk/home/our-member 37 Water UK, Water facts – our regulators, [online], [cited 31 May 08] , available at http://www.water.org.uk/home/resources-and- links/waterfacts/water-regulators 38 UK parliament, The Water Supply (Water Quality) regulations 2000, pp (7-8, 16 -21, 26 - 28,), 2000 Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 127 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
  • 137.                                                                                                                                                                                    39 DWI, Guidance on the Water Supply (Water Quality Regulations 2000 (England) and the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 2001 (Wales), pp 14, 2005 40 DWI, What is Regulations 31?, [online], [cited 02 Aug 08] , available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/31/WhatisReg31.shtm 41 UK Parliament, Water Act 2003, pp 74, 2003 42 UK Parliament, Water Industry Act 1991, pp (58 & 63), 1991 [cited 29 May 08] , available at http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1991/ 43 Colbourne J., Personal communication with Prof. Jenni Colbourne, Chief Inspector of Drinking Water for England & Wales, 5 Aug 08 44 UK Parliament, The Private Water Supplies Regulations 1991, , 1991, [cited 29 May 08], available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/regs/si2790/2790.htm 45 Ofwat, The development of the water industry in England & Wales, pp 54 -55, 2006, available at http://www.ofwat.gov.uk/aptrix/ofwat/publish.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/devel opment_of_water_industry270106.pdf/$FILE/development_of_water_indust ry270106.pdf 46 DWI, Information letter 03/2007 – New structure for the Drinking Inspectorate, [online], Annex A, 09 May 2007 [ cited 29 May 07], available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/regs/infolett/2007/info0307.shtm 47 Rouse M., DWI Code of Enforcement, [online], DWI, [cited 20 Jul 08], available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/consumer/faq/code4enforce.shtm 48 DWI, Information letter 6/2003- The Water Undertakers (Information) Direction 2003 - Format for provision of certain information, 2003, [cited 22 May 08] , available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/regs/infolett/2003/info0603revised.shtm 49 Taylor A., Personal communication with Mr Andy Taylor, DWI water quality data manager, 28 Apr 08 50 DWI, DWI Information Letter 02/2004, pp 1-2, 16 Jan 04 51 DWI, DWI Guidance on notification, pp(4, 7-8, 12-13), 18 Feb 08 52 DWI, Events and incidents affecting drinking water quality, [online], [cited 21 Jul 08] , available at http://www.dwi.gov.uk/consumer/incidents/incidentindex.shtm Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 128 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
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  • 139.                                                                                                                                                                                    67 National Pesticide Information Centre, NPIC OSU Extension Pesticide Properties database – Metaldehyde, [online] [cited 5 Jul 08] , available at http://npic.orst.edu/ppdmove.htm 68 Rumsby P., Presentation on Emerging Contaminants, pp 17, National Centre for Environmental Toxicology, WRc plc, 2007 69 WRC plc, WRC new research projects 2008, [online] [cited 13 Aug 08] , available at http://www.wrcplc.co.uk/default.aspx?item=833 70 DWI, Drinking Water 2007 – Western Region (A report by the Chief inspector of Drinking Water, Drinking Water Inspectorate), pp 30, Jun 2008 71 DWI, Drinking Water 2007 – Incidents in 2007, pp 68, Jun 2008 72 DWI, Drinking Water 2007 – Thames Region (A report by the Chief inspector of Drinking Water, Drinking Water Inspectorate), pp 38, Jun 2008 73 Allen J., Personal communication with Ms Allen J., DWI Inspector, 19 Jun 08 74 Bristol Water plc, Water Quality in 2007, pp (4, 14), May 2008 75 PSD, Pesticide Law, [online] [cited 15 Aug 08] , available at http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/approvals.asp?id=869 76 PSD, PSD database on approved products, [online] [cited 08 Jul 08], available at https://secure.pesticides.gov.uk/pestreg/ProdList.asp 77 PSD, Revocation of authorized uses as a result of EC Maximum Residual Levels (MRLs) coming into force under EC Regulations 396/2005, [online], 24 Jul 08 [cited 4 Aug 08], available at http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/foor_safety.asp?id=2492 78 Water Company, Confidential report, confidentiality agreement observed, report copies kept by the course director, 2008 79 Water Company, Personal communication 1, confidentiality agreement observed, correspondence copies kept by the course director, 2008 80 Government agency, Personal communication 2, confidentiality agreement observed, correspondence copies kept by the course director, 2008 81 ASEAN Secretariat, Association of South East Nations – overviews, [online], [cited 17 Jul 08], available at http://www.aseansec.org/147.htm Christopher Chua   MSc in Water Regulation & Management ‐ 130 ‐  Dissertation 2008    
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