History: Middle Ages

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History: Middle Ages

  1. 1. Middle Ages (Gothic Era)<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Religion<br />*-Middle Ages Religion - The Rise of the Christian Religion in the Roman EraChristianity was seen as a threat to the Roman Empire as Christians refused to worship the Roman gods or the Emperor.. Emperor Constantine of the Roman Empire legalised Christianity and Constantine the Great proclaimed himself as an 'Emperor of the Christian people.<br />The lives of the medieval people of the Middle Ages were dominated by the church. From birth to death, whether you were a peasant, a serf, a noble a lord or a King - life was dominated by the church<br />Politics<br />What was the Cause for the Crusades? The reason for the crusades was a war between Christians and Moslems which centered around the city of Jerusalem. The City of Jerusalem held a Holy significance to the Christian religion by Pilgrims. In 1065 Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and 3000 Christians were massacred starting a chain of events which contributed to the cause of the crusades.<br />What were the Objectives of the Crusades? The Objectives of  the crusades was at first to release the Holy Land, in particular Jerusalem, from the Saracens, but in time was extended to seizing Spain from the Moors, the Slavs and Pagans from eastern Europe, and the islands of the Mediterranean.<br />
  4. 4.
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  6. 6. Politics/social class<br />Religious KnightsThe crusades saw the emergence of religious knights including the Knights Templar, the Teutonic knights and the Hospitallers. The members of the orders of Religious knights were both monks and knights; that is, to the monastic vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience they added a fourth vow, which bound them to protect pilgrims and fight the infidels.<br />Teutonic KnightsThe Teutonic Knights were a military-religious order of knights that restricted membership to Germans. Teutonic Knights were members of the order of the Teutonic Knights of the Hospital of the Blessed Virgin.<br />Knights HospitallerThe Knights Hospitaller were Knights of the Order of Saint John the Hospitaller who were also known by such names as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta. The Hospitallers grew out of a brotherhood for the care of sick pilgrims in a hospital at Jerusalem following the First Crusade in 1100 AD.<br />
  7. 7. Templar KnightsThe Middle Ages saw the emergence of a military order called the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon. Their name was to become the Templar Knights, or the Knights Templar.<br />Middle Ages Feudalism - The Pyramid of PowerThe pyramid of power which was the Feudal system ran to a strict 'pecking' order - during the Medieval period of the Middle Ages everyone knew their place. The order of rank and precedence in the Medieval Feudal System was as follows:<br />The KingNoblesKnights ServantsPeasants <br /><ul><li>was possible for everyone to move higher up the ranks of the pyramid of power
  8. 8. Squires and Pages wanted to become knights.
  9. 9. Middle Ages Knight could become wealthy
  10. 10. His wealth could pay for a castle.
  11. 11. If his importance in the land increased it became possible for him to join the nobility.
  12. 12. The most powerful nobles aspired to be King - and the Medieval history of the Middle Ages under the feudalism pyramid describes such coups</li></li></ul><li>Gothic Jewellery and fashion<br />After Romanesque jewelry fell from fashion a new style emerged. Although parallels with the architectural style are minimal the style has been named Gothic. The architectural style already rose in the 12th century but the change in jewelry style lasted until the late 13th century. New techniques and an increased supply of precious stones, made possible by the strengthening of contacts with the East by the traders of Venice and Genova after the damage done by the crusades had faded away, together with the up-rise of larger cities in Europe caused a new fashion to emerge.<br />The transition from Romanesque to Gothic fashion was occurred gradually. In the 1300's luxury in the form of delicate and exotic clothing entered the French court. The wearing of jewelry was a way of expressing ones rank in the social hierarchy. This, together with the increased availability of gemstones caused a series of laws to be called to life which restricted the use of jewelry. In Aragon such laws occurred as early as 1234 followed by a French ordinance in 1283 and the English King Edward III in 1363. The laws forbade commoners to wear certain types of gem set jewelry and in some cases certain levels of wealth were mentioned which allowed one to wear golden objects adorned with precious stones. The increased supply of gemstones called for more regulation. A law from 1331 forbids the use of paste as a gemstone imitation in Paris and a law from 1355 prohibits the use of oriental pearls next to river pearls. Another one puts a punishment on placing tinted foils behind amethysts or rubies.<br />In London the craft of goldsmith was officially recognized in 1327. Jewelry shops appear to have been selling small ready made articles and do larger work on commission. The largest jewelry producing centres of the High middle Ages were Paris, which was famous for its jewelry throughout the Middle Ages, Venice, Bruges, Cologne and Nuremburg. Jewelry styles were very much alike and it is often impossible to tell were a piece originated. Venice and Genova were by far the most important providers of precious materials, sourced by the cities' traders from all over the East.<br />Architectural motifs used in this mid 14th century slasp-reliquary<br />
  13. 13. Gothic jewelry was more pointed than the rounded forms of Romanesque jewelry. In the 14th century we see little influence from the architectural style in jewelry but by the 15th century its influence increases. Clarity of pattern and line was preferred over the heavy, dense detailing from the past. The result was a style which was more elegant. Stones were set against a plain surface or flat decoration such as enamel. Gold remained the most prestigious metal. <br />Around 1290 AD basse-taille enamel proved to be a logical sequence to the ancient technique of champlevé enamel. Some 70 years later the more complicated technique of email en ronmdebosse , was invented which allowed colorful enamels to be used in three dimensional work. The earliest record of pliqueà jour comes from the 13th century as well.<br />From around 1375 the designs took on naturalistic characteristics and the outline of jewels were softened, something that was achieved by decorating the edge of an object with pearls on prongs. The most valued pearls were imported from the Persian Gulf in those days. The pearls were usually already drilled when they arrived in Europe, something that has led to the belief among the inhabitants of Europe that they occurred this way in nature. <br />Basse-tallie enamel on silver, second half of the 14thcentuary<br />
  14. 14. Over the Gothic period gemstones started to play an increasingly important role in jewelry. Gem cutting techniques developed by Indian and Persian lapidaries were introduced into Europe by the Venetians. Diamonds benefited most from this innovation, until then only natural octahedrons in the case of diamonds and cabochons in the case of colored stones had been used in jewelry. In the 14th century point cut and table cut diamonds claimed their role in jewelry designs. A shift in those designs can be observed, jewelry started to be made around the brilliance of the gemstone, it became the center point of jewelry.<br />The art of gem-cutting and the greater availability of gems provided change but was a slow and gradual event, traditions proved to be deep rooted. Bruges, situated in modern day Belgium, became the cutting centre of Europe after the Burgundian court moved to the Netherlands in the mid 15th century. Emeralds, rubies, sapphires and spinels were the most precious stones. As mentioned in the introduction laws against the use of imitation stones were put in place but legal imitations did exist. For children's jewelry and funeral purposes imitation stones were used legally.<br />In the 13th century the classic dress of the European consisted of a high-necked, long-sleeved under dress covered by a short sleeved over tunic. These garments were worn by both sexes and left little room for jewelry except for belts and brooches which formed the larger part of jewelry of the early Gothic period.<br />The most common brooches were ring brooches, often inscribed with religious texts or expressions of love. One ring brooch of the 13th century, set with rubies and sapphires and decorated with pointillé motifs has the words 'IO SUI ICI EN LIU DAMI : AMO' engraved into the back of the brooch. Meaning: 'I am here in place of the friend I love'. Another 13th century ring brooch, a simpler one has just an inscription as decoration 'IEO : SUI : FERMAIL : PUR : GAP : DER : SEIN - and - KE : NU : SVILEIN : NIMETTE : MEIN' which can be translated: 'I am a brooch to guard the breast that no rascal may put his hand thereon'. From these inscriptions we derive that they were often presented as gifts between lovers.<br />Cameos hadn't lost their popularity since the ancient times and antique ones were highly prized in the Gothic period as well. <br />They were set in Gothic style brooches: against clear backgrounds rather than heavily decorated ones. In the 14th century brooches started to be more and more lavishly jeweled resulting in more complex jewellery but the designs remained elegant. In the late Gothic period (1375 - 1500) enamel, rather than gemstones, was used more intensively. Naturalistic details in the form of ladies, animals and pairs of lovers became popular.<br />As said above the belt and the brooch were the two most common jewelry items. Belts could be of leather decorated with gold plaques, buckles and belt ends. In the Gothic period belt mounts often depicted an architectural motif, decorative initial letters or heraldic devices. At the end of the period saint depictions and religious quotations became popular as well.<br />
  15. 15. Apart from belts and brooches there were other jewelry items such as the ring. Rings were worn on all fingers and sometimes several per finger. They were decorated with (engraved) gems set in collets or held by claws or were just plain gold bands with or without engraving. Signet rings were used to seal and sign documents and rings were part of the wedding ceremony as well. The same ring was used for betrothal and wedding.<br />A second jewelry piece used in a wedding ceremony was the crown. Circlets and chaplets as well as grander crowns called coronals had come into fashion with the royalty at the beginning of theRomanesque period but in the Gothic period they were worn by knights, squires and their ladies alike. Marrying with a crown on your head became so common that churches would have a few in stock so that those who couldn't afford one could rent them. The Romanesque crowns had been decorated golden rings and the Gothic addition to the design lay in the characteristic pinnacles called fleurons.<br />By the 1450's the high necked dress made room for a new fashionable dress with a low neck. This triggered the return of the pendant. Other jewelry that was worn around the neck were the typical collars worn by nobles.<br />
  16. 16. The overview of Middle Ages Jewellery is as follows:<br />
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  18. 18. Gothic cabochon broach<br />For a Victorian Gothic style, use accessories with cabochon rings and with cameos over lace, a tie, a jacket or blouse etc<br />
  19. 19. French sterling silver and rose gold bangle decorated with four classic Gothic Revival symbols;   a winged griffin,  a serpent, a lizard and a snake. <br />Victorian Gothic design was closely modeled after the great architecture of medieval Europe.   It was at its height from 1855 to 1885.   Victorian jewelry in the Gothic Revival style is uncommon and highly sought after.<br />Bangle has 3 French sterling silver marks (eagle’s head) on the tongue as well as the stamp “depose” in the design which meant that this was made in France for export.<br />
  20. 20. Influences from past into jewellery pieces today<br />Gothic Victorian Vampire Jewelry Necklace - Gothic Rose Cameo PendantThis pendant features a delicate blue cameo rose mounted on an antiqued setting. An ornate bail holds the setting in place on the chain which is included<br />The Goth Pendant, designed by Arman, comes together with a beautiful green tourmaline stone in the center of the medallion. It is surrounded by gold flower petals and diamonds set in ebony on a 22kt gold chain. It is unique and eye catching; since the stone is said to bring lasting friendships and love<br />
  21. 21. The gothic style today<br />
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  23. 23. Gothic Architecture<br />
  24. 24. Materials<br />
  25. 25. Gothic Arch ( Ogival Arch )<br />
  26. 26. ` Rib Vaulting<br />
  27. 27. Flying Buttress<br />
  28. 28. History time-line of gothic jewellery:<br />
  29. 29.  4000 BC4000 BC - The Egyptians used malachite as early as 4000 BC for amulets, jewelry and cosmetics (powdered eye shadow.) - During the Middle Ages, malachite was worn for protecitonfrom sorcery and black magic. Energy: Magnetic Element: Earth and Water Planet/Sign: Venus ...    3500 BC3500 BC - Jewelry made of gold goes back to Mesopotamia and Egypt as early as 3500 BCDuringthe Middle Ages, many men dreamed of a legendary land called El Dorado, meaning the gilded. The Spanish conquerors looked for gold In the lands of the Aztecs in Mexico and of...    3000 BC3000 BC - Evidence of soldering has been found as early as 4000 to 3000 BC in ancient Urand Egypt, in which copper- gold alloys and tin-lead alloys were used for the material. From the ancient period through the Middle Ages solder was used extensively in making jewelry...  <br />
  30. 30. 2500 BC2500 BC - History of earrings dates back to 2500 BC. In those days, earrings were worn only by the nobility. In the middle ages, this type of jewelry had taken a backseat as more importance was given to very elaborate hairstyles and neck pieces. They did make a comeback ...   1400 BC1400 BC - Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1400 BC. Middle Agescontinued to develop jewellery. ... About used jewelry tips:Ring shanks wear thin through time. Beautiful: thrifty yard sale finds 2484475264 8dec86c75e Nice Used Jewelry photos.   100 AD100 AD - The Romans thought moonstone was formed out of moonlight and began wearing it in jewellery around 100 AD Europeans of the Middle Ages thought that by looking into a moonstone, one would fall into a deep sleep that would tell the future. <br />
  31. 31.  700 AD700 AD - C European jewelry during the Middle Ages, has limited from AD 700, the use ofjewelry were almost exclusively license fees and the members of the royal court.<br /> 1200<br /> 1200 - Gothic Jewelry is a style particularly associated with the medieval culture, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period circa 1200 AD. With Sterling Silver's beauty and durability offering you the best value in sterling silver gothic ...<br />  1830<br /> 1830 - The Romantic period began around the year 1830, and women during this time were obsessed with chivalry and all things medieval. Gothic influence is clear in Romantic jewelry, which was sometimes sculpted to resemble knights on horseback or ladies in medieval dress... <br /> <br /> 1855<br /> Jun 12, 1855 - Applv to the WATE'RBUltY JEWELRY CO. jell Gd ______ Watcrbury, Conn. SECOND HAND -We otter for safe cheap the following: a good high-colored Three Fly Carpet,... M will buy a new and beautiful Gothic / Clock, aud warranted to keep good lime, at jo II S. colors; TarHon's and . ... <br />
  32. 32.  <br />  1878<br /> Dec 10, 1878 - Clocks — Paris-made Marble Clocks, from £2 ss ; Large-size Gothic Clock, striking and alarm, 22s 6d ; Cottage, 7s 6d ; ditto, strike, 12s 6d ; Lever Clocks, from 10s 6d. A good assortment of English and Coloni made Jewellery, suitable for Ohristma presents. Watches and Clocks cleaned ...  18811881 - Visitors to the Milan Exhibition, in 1881, were constantly expressing their astonishment, as they passed from aisle to aisle of the great palace in which were grouped the products of Italian industry and art. It was evident that the country had resumed its old ...    1894<br /> Mar 28, 1894 - Jewellery repaired or made to any design. Old Gold and Silver made up into new and fashionable articles. Orders or work can be left with any of the ... VALUE IN NEW DRESS GOODS, Just opened ex Gothic. i | FOR SPECIAL VALUE j IN j BLANKETS , SHEETINGS, QUILTS, ; Ju«t opened ex Gothic. ... <br /> <br /> <br />  1895<br /> Apr 28, 1895 - ... ... containing sixty-one pieces of old rose out diamond jewelry, from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, pieced of aquamarine Jewelry and a ... With swords of the same period are shown carved woodwork and furniture of the Gothic and Renaissanceperiod, consisting of panels, ...  <br />
  33. 33.  1898<br /> Feb 17, 1898 - Wellington, Have the pleasure of introducing many choice lines of JEWELLERYAND SILVER-PLATE, Now Landing, ex ss Gothic. And in a few days a further large shipment now due by the ss Waikato. These were personally selected by our Mr. AJ Littlejohn while in London recently, and should be ... <br /> <br /> <br />  1988<br /> 1988 - Started by Stark in 1988, Chrome Hearts is known for handmade jewelry, leather clothing and accessories, sunglasses and wood furniture with gothic motifs, long beforegothic motifs were everywhere. It's a favorite with Lenny Kravitz, Cher and the Osbournes.<br />  1994<br /> Nov 1, 1994 - "And there was a period in the Victorian era - not the frilly bits - but when ( Dante Gabriel) Rossetti and (Edward) Burne-Jones were ... the classy "Sanctuary" mail-order catalog of home furnishings, accessories, jewelry and clothing, all with a lush, VictorianGothic Revival tone. ... <br /> 1998Sep 26, 1998 - A walker crossing a freshly-ploughed field in central Austria has stumbled on the largest collection of medieval jewellery ever discovered in Europe. ... The museum ofUpper Austria said the find would throw fresh light on trade between Europe and Asia in themiddle ages.  <br />
  34. 34.   2004Feb 14, 2004 - It's been called a 'Hallmark Holiday' * a day set aside for buying cards, candies,jewelry and flowers. ... By the Middle Ages, Valentine was one of the most popular saints in England and France. Some believe that Valentine's Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate ... <br /> 2006<br /> Oct 13, 2006 - After graduating from Harvard University in philosophy and art history, Rosenthal moved to Paris, where he hoped to make a living in the ... The design, which conjures up the image of trilobate Gothic arches, had apparently been inspired by the windows of 14th-century palazzi that ... <br />

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